Questions tagged [synthesis]

Synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain the desired product. Applies to long and complex natural product syntheses as much as to short one or two-step syntheses. This also covers synthetic problem sets and retrosynthetic analyses.

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A non-life process making glucose from carbon dioxide and water using electricity or light?

update (Sept. 2018): Here is a bit of news that someone might be inclined to cite in a "No, not yet, but..." answer. NASA has announced a CO2 conversion challenge! Get out of your element! ...
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768 views

Can I make Ferrofluid without evaporating Ammonium?

I want to make ferrofluid, which is ferromagnetic particles suspended in a carrier fluid. Three methods I have seen involve using magnetic ink (for MICR codes), cassette tapes, or ferric chloride as ...
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Have IH₃ and IH₅ already been synthesized?

I've seen a paper by Sikalov [1] that says that $\ce{IH3}$ and $\ce{IH5}$ should be observable. Has anyone actually tried to synthesize such molecules? References Sikalov, A. A. Hypervalent Halogen ...
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901 views

Effect of Zn dust reduction of phenolic -OH group on other groups

We use distillation with zinc dust to remove -OH group from phenol. $$\ce{Ph-OH + Zn \rightarrow Ph-H + ZnO }$$ What I want to know is that whether this reaction has any effect on other groups ...
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1answer
99 views

Will the sulfur-iodine cycle and Haber Method work at lower pressures and temperatures?

I have a year-long research project next year in my senior year of high school, in which we have to make some product or prototype to solve some issue. My interest was in the Liquid Fluoride ...
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192 views

How can I solve this synthesis?

I have this task to do: My solution: Is that possible? Can you please help me with the steps 2 and 3? This is what I did, but my teacher told me I should make the diketone (compound no. 5) from ...
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52 views

Cyclic polyynes

Cyclic polyynes have been proposed as theoretical compounds to illustrate the “particle on a ring” model discussed in many quantum chemistry courses. I've looked it up on Wikipedia but there it's not ...
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981 views

Why PI3 is not used in HVZ reaction?

With the help of HVZ reaction, we can get alpha-chloro or alpha-bromo carboxylic acid. But can we make alpha-iodocarboxylic acid with the help of HVZ reaction? I could not find any reference of HVZ ...
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198 views

Accurate textbook about synthesis of (organophosphorus) chemical warfare agents

Lately I've been interested in the chemistry of nerve agents due to reading Patrick's Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry in which they were only briefly discussed. I bought the Handbook of Toxicology ...
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128 views

Seeking titanium compound, melting point <1600 °C, decomposes to TiO

The title says it all. I’m new to glass making, and I need a titanium compound that will render me $\ce{TiO}$ through decomposition, and has a melting point under 1600 °C. Hopefully I can get one ...
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550 views

How did the first amino acids appear on Earth?

Is there proof or a theory that shows that the first amino acid syntheses on Earth were influenced by a change in heat, gravity, radiation, or something similar?
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Where can I obtain research material on the synthesis of polypyrrole?

I'm studying Chemistry at A-level and a large part of the course is a researcher paper that takes most of the year. Conductive polymers interest me. I'm struggling to find any surfeited researcher on ...
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117 views

Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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49 views

Shi Epoxidation Issues - Any help would be appreciated

As part of my PhD project, I'm currently looking into running a Shi Epoxidation reaction. The first step is to reproduce the current literature on this reaction by using trans-stilbene as my substrate....
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108 views

Reagents for synthesis of ethyl 2-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-yl)acetate from naphthalen-1(4H)-one

The following conversion can be performed in a few steps. Show key intermediates and reagents (detailed mechanisms are not required). So I've been looking at this for a while and I can't seem ...
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235 views

Substitution of a cyclic diether by a halogen

I’m in an organic synthesis class and I have to draw a mechanism for the reaction in the picture. At first I thought it was just forming a free radical but I haven’t been able to find any way to do ...
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122 views

Benzyl (3,4-difluorophenyl)carbamate reaction with epoxide in basic conditions

I attempted this mechanism, however I am uncertain if I am correct.
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270 views

Synthesis from cyclic ketone to alcohol

How can I make the product in the picture below from cyclohexanone? I did Stork enamine synthesis, but it results in terminal primary alcohol. I need secondary alcohol with one more carbon atom at end....
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98 views

How does a cyclization occur with a carboxylic acid and (CF3CO)2O?

The product of the reaction below is unsaturated, bicyclic ketone, but I'm confused as to how (CF3CO)2O reacts with it to cause the cyclization. There is no base involved so I don't know how the ...
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40 views

Bioinformatics tools for predicting synthetic reaction for identified drugs?

We are aware of many bioinformatics open source tools like AUTODOCK, Smina for drug discovery through structure based virtual screening. I was wondering if there are validated bioinformatics tools ...
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202 views

Reaction of alkenes with AlCl3/HCl

I stumbled upon an interesting organic chemistry problem: Previously I thought $\ce{AlCl3}$ would only be used with benzene in acylation and alkylation, but apparently it can also be used in ...
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What is the largest one step radical cyclization ever achieved?

When I was an undergrad, roughly around 2005, I took a grad level class that covered various topics in advanced organic synthesis. I don't remember much clearly from the class, but one thing that I ...
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41 views

Molar ratios not leading to complete reaction in Schweizer's reagent production

In my home lab, I've reacted $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$ with aqueous ammonia to produce Schweizer's reagent. However, I'm surprised by the amount of ammonia required to react with this amount of $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$. ...
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Synthetic approach for precursor 1,1'-(bromomethylene)bis(1H-pyrazole) in ligand synthesis

Relevance During my Bachelor's project I focused on the synthesis of iron(II) complexes comprising a tetrapodal pentadentate ligand from the ligand family $\text{PY5R}_2\ (\text{R = H, Me, OH, OMe})$....
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498 views

Synthesis of anthranilic acid

Yesterday, I performed the synthesis of anthranilic acid (also known as, 2-aminobenzoic acid. I was instructed to use the common route that is also featured on the Wikipedia page for this compound. ...
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47 views

PLGA - poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Synthesis

Does anyone have experience with the synthesis of PLGA? PLGA is synthesized by means of ring-opening co-polymerization of two different monomers, the cyclic dimers (1,4-dioxane-2,5-diones) of ...
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289 views

Reaction between Salicylaldehyde and 2-Benzoylpyridine

In a paper by Sheng et al (10.1016/j.dyepig.2018.07.036) the authors synthesize the compound MZC as shown in the scheme below. I'm looking for information about what the reaction mechanism is that ...
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1answer
386 views

Why is ethanol distilled off before adding water in the first step of a malonic synthesis?

I am doing a malonic synthesis shown below, and I wonder why I should distill ethanol off before adding water in the first step of the reaction (First I add absolute ethanol and solid sodium).
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137 views

N,N-Dimethyl-2-(indol-3-yl)glyoxylamide from indole

I would like to know how to obtain the following molecule, whose technical name should be something like N,N-dimethylindol-3-ylglyoxylamide (let's call it DMIG for short) One of the constraints being ...
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149 views

Role of Lewis acid in synthesis of adamantane from bicyclic species

What is the role of $\ce{AlCl3}$ in the following synthesis of adamantane? I'm guessing it functions as a Lewis acid, but I am unsure how the mechanism of the second step works, as there is no region ...
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112 views

Regioselectivity in the aldolcondensation towards (Z)-Jasmon

In the synthesis of (Z)-Jasmone via aldol-condensation as shown below, how can the observed regioselectivity be explained? After all, it is also possible to form the side product shown below. I ...
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Has Crabtree's photochemically-activated mercury-catalysed hydrocarbon activation process ever been used commercially?

In the 1980s, while searching for new hydrocarbon activation catalysts, Crabtree's research group accidentally found that mercury vapour activated photochemically could perform some interesting and ...
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523 views

Why is my Cu2O Cuprous Oxide Not Red

A thin film sample of polycrystalline Copper(I) Oxide (Cuprous Oxide, $\ce{Cu2O}$) on quartz looks reddish in the center but bluish/grayish at the sides where the film is thicker. The same thin film ...
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107 views

Selectivity of olefin cross-metathesis reaction

I'm looking at the reaction shown below which uses a ruthenium catalyst: I am confused because the ruthenium catalyst which is used in the reaction should be Z selective due to the features on the ...
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31 views

Predicting a route to use chloride as a reducing agent for titanium dioxide under UV

In my lab we are deadlocked on a seemingly simple problem. We would like to find some reaction where $\ce{Cl-}$ can be used as a reducing agent on $\ce{TiO2}$ in a UV photosynthesis. We ideally want ...
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49 views

Graph of compounds/reactions used on the industrial scale

I'm looking for a machine-readable database describing industrially useful reactions in terms of inputs, outputs, and (possibly) catalyzers etc. for a large portion of, or (much more preferable) the ...
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1k views

What are the specific disadvantages of using a bio-catalyst (called Lipolase) in the synthesis of the drug pregabalin?

I am studying the synthesis of a drug pregabalin, for which both chemical and bio-catalysts are used. Using a biocatalyst is way better than chemical route, as explained here. In fact, The invention ...
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1answer
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How does the position of hydroxyl group in a nucleotide monomer affect the dehydration synthesis of nucleotides?

In dehydration synthesis of nucleotides, the hydrogen atom from the 3' carbon on the deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide reacts with the hydroxyl group on the phosphate group of another nucleotide to ...
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What is the order of adding chemicals in Hummers method for graphite oxide?

I am trying to make graphene oxide but failing miserably. The XRD peak is at 24 (2θ) instead of being near 10. Raman shows correct g and d peaks but are not very sharp. The colour of the end product ...
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128 views

Could you form quartz crystals by melting and cooling sand very slowly?

Since glass is amorphous quartz and when you slow the cooling of something enough it will crystallize, couldn’t you melt $\ce{SiO2}$ (sand) and then very slowly cool it to cause spontaneous nucleation ...
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Substitution / Elimination competition

I am trying the hypothetical synthesis below, but I didn't get the product I was expecting. Instead, the reaction formed mostly styrene, in >80% yield (elimination product of the bromide) The ...
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42 views

What takes place in this transformation of the 1,3-dicarbonyl?

I was just looking at a particular synthesis method on the Organic Chemistry Portal when I saw a particularly puzzling step, involving a 1,3-dicarbonyl compound. The step which I am puzzled by is ...
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638 views

Why might the yield of my synthesis of triphenylmethanol be so poor?

I performed the classic Grignard reagent formation leading into the preparation and purification of triphenylmethanol using phenylmagnesium bromide as my Grignard, and benzophenone as the reagent for ...
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Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution in ring with 4 Substituents

Does the chlorine still get substituted by OH in this case? I was also wondering, if it does get substituted, does anything happen between the ethanol substituent and the phenol -OH? I'm suspecting ...
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488 views

Why do we use the Schotten-Baumann synthesis method for the synthesis of amides?

Recently, I learnt about the Schotten-Baumann synthesis method. I know that this synthesis method was invented to overcome the problem of neutralising the acidic by-products of the amide synthesis ...
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425 views

Deprotection (debenzoylation) of glucose (sacharide) using NaOMe leads to hydrolysis glucose

I have a problem removing the benzoyl groups of my glucose moiety using sodium methylate (standard procedure). Indeed, the benzoyl groups are removed. However, a significant amount of glucose gets ...
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763 views

How do you remove residual Lawesson's reagent after thionation?

I am currently synthesizing a peptidomimetic bioisostere that replaces an oxygen with a sulfur. I use lawesson's reagent to achieve this, and althought the reaction works and despite running it ...
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131 views

How can copper(II) nitrate hexahydrate be synthesized in the laboratory as well as industrially?

I am researching the hexahydrate and found the same synthesis method being presented for both the anhydrous form and the trihydrate form. Chemistry of the Elements Second Edition, N. N. Greenwood ...
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342 views

What's the evidence that it is the nitronium cation (NO2+) acting as the attacking electrophile in mixed acid nitration of aromatic compounds (SeAr)

As per the title, I'm looking as to what is the evidence is that it is the $\ce{NO2+}$ cation acting as the attacking electrophile in an electrophillic aromatic substitution reaction involving the '...
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61 views

Could UV lasers be used to split CO2 and H2O?

I was wondering whether intense UV light, tuned to the correct wavelength, could be used to split carbon dioxide and water molecules as a first step towards synthesizing liquid fuels.