Questions tagged [stability]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a thermodynamic property in reference to a standard, stating that one state is lower in energy than another. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the stability (or instability) of a certain chemical species, molecular entity and/or electronic structure. It must not be applied to questions about the reactivity of particular chemical species.

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Cyanamide mesomeric contributors

Which form of the cyanamide ion is more stable? As per the resonance rules, I find both of them equally stable as number of bonds is the same, more electronegative atom has negative charge and so on. ...
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Properties of metallic hydrogen

Given the possibility that metallic hydrogen may have recently been produced, and the massive media bloviation that followed, I am curious about some of the "properties" that I heard from multiple ...
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Which carbocation is more stable?

Which one of Tropylium cation (cycloheptatrienyl carbocation) and Cyclopropylmethyl carbocation is more stable? Several references present opposing views on this topic, hence the confusion. Reasons ...
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lowest energy conformation of butan-2,4-diol

Do the OH groups want to be furthest apart? or the CH3 groups? I'm trying to determine the lowest energy conformation - and I don't know which group has the bigger steric effect?
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Why is a C–D bond stronger than a C–H bond?

I have heard that the carbon–deuterium bond is stronger than the carbon–hydrogen bond. What are the possible reasons for it? Is this also the reason that C–H bonds participate more in hyperconjugation ...
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Is reduction potential and stability related?

Suppose the half reactions: $$\begin{split}\ce{Na^+ + e^- &-> Na} ~~~~~~~~~~~~&\text{ $E^o = -2.71$}\\ \ce{Cu^{2+} + 2 e^- &-> Cu} &\text{ $E^o = +0.34$}\end{split}$$...
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Relative stabilities of tropylium and cyclopropenyl carbocations

How can the stabilities of the tropylium and cyclopropenyl carbocations be compared? Both are aromatic according to Hückel's rule. I think that to compare the stabilities, we must either count the ...
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Which enolate of butanone is more stable?

Consider butanone (A) and its two possible enolates B & C. Which of the two enolates will be more stable? B because of the more stable primary carbanion, or C because of more stable enolate (...
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why is tertiary carbocation more stable than primary allylic carbocation?

According to general organic chemistry the order of stability is as follows: aromaticity > resonance > hyperconjugation > inductive effect Since primary allylic carbocation shows resonance as well ...
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Why don't decomposition reactions form pure elements as products?

For example, if I had a reaction like this: $$ \ce{NaHCO3 -> Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2} $$ Why does it not break down all the way down to its elements? What makes it form such "intermediate" products, ...
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709 views

Why doesn't Sodium (Na) form duplet?

The atomic number of Na is 11 (2, 8, 1). Na loses an electron to achieve octet stability but why can't it just accept an electron to complete duplet stability?
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Decomposition of Gold Hydroxide

On heating will gold hydroxide $\ce{Au(OH)3}$ decompose to form pure gold or will a gold oxide (e.g. $\ce{Au2O3}$) be stable? Does anyone know the temperature of these reactions?
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If the ferric ion is more stable than the ferrous ion, then why is it readily reduced to the latter?

The standard reduction potential value for the Ferric ion: \begin{align} \ce{Fe^3+ + e- &<=> Fe^2+} & E^\circ &= 0.77 \end{align} The value is positive, hence it means that ferric ...
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Alkali metal carbonates, their thermal stability and solubility [duplicate]

From Li to Cs, thermal stability of carbonates increases. From Li to Cs, due to larger ion size, hydration enthalpy decreases. So, solubility should decrease from Li to Cs. But, experimentally, order ...
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Which molecule is more acidic: CHF3 or CHBr3?

I know that fluorine is more electronegative than bromine. However, because of the size of bromine, it is more stable with a negative charge. In the case of $\ce{HF}$ vs. $\ce{HBr}$, to me, $\ce{HBr}$ ...
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Are there any stable complexes where an (N-unsubstituted) imine is bound eta^2 to a (late) transition metal?

I've been looking for an example of a stable complex where a $\ce{C=N}$ is coordinated $\eta^2$ to a (late) transition metal, but could not find any. Do they exist at all? For $\ce{C=C}$ there are ...
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Stability by using charge/radius rule

I found a question Which is more stable among the following? (a) $\ce{CaCO3}$ (b) $\ce{MgCO3}$ Answer : (a) Explanation was given as: "$\ce{Mg^2+}$ has smaller radius than $\ce{Ca^2+}$ and thus $...
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Which factor drives the stability in chelated complexes? [duplicate]

Which factor drives the stability in chelated complexes? Stability, I guess, is supposed to be associated with a release of energy. Does something like this happen in chelated complexes?
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519 views

How to compare stability of following two alkenes [duplicate]

How to find which alkene is more stable ?. As same number of hydrogens are added across the double bond so I am not able to use the fact that more substituted alkene is more stable. I was initially ...
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Why and how carboxylate ion has greater stability than carboxylic acid?

I found it written in my textbook. I think it's a misprint, I can't think of any logic behind this statement. I've only learned that ion is less stable specie so carboxylate ion cannot be more stable ...
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Stability order of octahydrobiphenylenes

I am facing trouble in the following question What is the stability order of the following compounds? In my view cis is less stable than trans. So if prior groups are on the same side of the ...
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Why are radical intermediates are more stable on tertiary carbons?

Is this because there's more electron density? More carbons around means the tertiary carbon "has more electrons around it"?
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Why is isoindole unstable?

According to this paper, isoindole is unstable because the 1-carbon in the isoindolidine tautomer is very electron-deficient. I figured that the electron-deficiency of this carbon must be because it ...
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417 views

Stability of Nitromethane

Why is nitromethane not especially reactive? $\ce{NO2}$ is stable by itself, so why does it stay attached to $\ce{CH3}$?
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Atomic orbitals: how is bond strength related to stability, energy, bond length?

I have a lot of confusion regarding atomic orbitals and I don't know if what I am having in mind is even correct or not. The bond dissociation energy of H-H is greater than that of Cl-Cl and as far ...
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Stability of cyclic radicals

How do we arrange the following in increasing order of stability? The answer given is: $5<3<1<2<4$ (numbering according to their order in the image). My Approach: I can figure that in ...
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Why all objects do not melt and liquefy when heated suficiently?

Certain objects such as metals, glass, plastic, sugar etc. melt when heated above a certain temperature but other materials such as a piece of wood, paper, a piece of rock etc. do not. Why is that?
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388 views

Which is more stable chemically: DNA or peptide

Assuming enzyme-free environment, and the DNA and peptide are lyophillized, and then stored in vials under the same conditions (temperature and humidity). On average, which would be more chemically ...
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What makes heat resistant proteins heat resistant?

We were doing the chapter Biomolecules in class the other day, and a doubt popped up once we reached the section on proteins. We were taught that the stuff that keeps proteins together are: Ionic ...
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Explaining The Different Order of Stability for singlet and triplet carbenes

Consider the following singlet carbenes: $\ce{CH2}$ , $\ce{CF2}$, $\ce{CCl2}$ The order of stability expected considering back bonding is; $\ce{CH2}$ < $\ce{CCl2}$ < $\ce{CF2}$ However the ...
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Why is cyclopropane planar?

What would cyclopropane look like if it weren't planar? How and why does non-planar cyclopropane have higher torsional strain than planar cyclopropane? can you please show me visually via image that ...
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Thermal stability of interhalogen compounds

I am striving over the question that what would be the stability order of the following interhalogen compounds : $\ce{ClF3, BrF3}$ and $\ce{IF3}$. One probable answer I got is that stability of ...
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409 views

Could one synthesise unsubstituted “cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene”?

Is the cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene (non-aromatic benzene) possible to make or will it destabilize (or should I say stabilize?) into benzene? Cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene is alternative name of benzene better ...
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Why is the cis isomer of 1,3-dimethylcyclobutane more stable than the trans isomer?

I expect there to be more steric repulsions between the two methyl groups if they are on the same face as each other. Why is this not the case?
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950 views

Conversion of isonitrile (isocyanide) group into cyanide group?

In an isonitrile (isocyanide) group, the carbon atom has a negative charge (I know that this is due to the lone pair of electrons) instead of the nitrogen atom, but in my point of view, this seems a ...
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364 views

Is a sequence of two Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements possible?

We've just studied about the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement in carbocations. Our teacher told us that it occurs in order to stabilize the carbocation intermediate. Knowing the carbocation stability ...
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Why does octet bring stability? [duplicate]

After studying chemical bonding I am stuck at a question that is fundamental to my understanding of chemistry: What is it that makes 8 electrons in the valence shell stable? I googled it and got ...
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Conformation of Alkane - Which conformations of 2,3-dimethylbutane are more stable?

I am not sure what the proper arrangement of these conformations are from least to most stable. My thinking was this...(but I got the wrong answer). First, I thought that because 2 and 4 are in ...
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Why is benzenediazonium fluoroborate water insoluble and stable at room temperature?

Benzenediazonium fluoroborate is water insoluble and stable at room temperature. Why is this salt, water insoluble? Also I am told that benzenediazonium salts are stable only at low temperature(<5°...
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stability of complexes

Amongst the following the most stable complex is: A) $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$ B) $\ce{[Fe(NH3)6]^3+}$ C) $\ce{[Fe(C2O4)3]^3-}$ D) $\ce{[FeCl6]^3-}$ I know that the answer should be $\...
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sp2 hybridized carbon versus sp3 hybridized silicon

Carbon's most commonly found allotrope is graphite/soot/fullerene/carbon nanotubes which are all $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized forms of it, while silicon being its first periodic twin is mostly found in ...
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Reactivity and transport safety of substituted methyl benzoates

This was a practice question from an MCAT book whose answer I didn't really understand: The normal reactivity of methyl benzoate is affected by the presence of certain substituents. Which of the ...
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1answer
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What factors affect the chemical stability of a compound? [closed]

My question is essentially about the factors that make certain atoms in certain compounds leave the compound they are currently in in order to bond with another atom/compound. For example, I've been ...
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1answer
188 views

Can the molecule CH2(ONa)2 be stable?

While studying about Cannizzaro reaction, it came to my mind as a wild thought what if this HCH(ONa)(ONa) molecule could pop out in some step of this reaction (not giving much details about how I ...
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221 views

Liquids that keeps the lowest temperature for the longer time after being frozen

I am working on a personal project, however I know nothing about chemistry and I would like to ask you guys for a quick question. I need to use a liquid for my project, which after being put into a ...
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1answer
217 views

Which base pair is more stable, U:G or I:C?

As a result of damage (usually deamination), DNA will sometimes contain uracil and inosine bases. I am trying to determine which unnatural base pairing combo would be more stable: uracil paired with ...
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Why don't we see these lanthanide species?

For most lanthanide metals$^{[1]}$, the stable oxidation state is III. The general electronic structure$^{[2]}$ is $$\ce{[Xe] 4f^{0}^{-14} 5s^2 5p^6 5d^{0}^{-1} 6s^2}.$$ Elements that have the d-...
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264 views

Predominance of III oxidation state for lanthanides [closed]

For most lanthanide metals, the stable oxidation state is III [*]. The general electronic structure is $$\ce{[Xe] 4f^{0}^{-14} 5s^2 5p^6 5d^{0}^{-1} 6s^2}\ \ [**].$$ Elements that have the d-electron ...
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1answer
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Why is cyclopentadiene more stable than its aromatic counterpart cyclopentadienyl anion?

What will be the order of stability? The answer key says that the stability order is: cyclopentadiene > cyclopentadienyl anion > cyclopentadiene cation According the me it should be: ...
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1answer
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Predicting major product of a reaction with nitrous acid

$\hspace{4.5cm}$ For the above reaction I am asked to predict $\ce{X}$, the major product. Of the options given, I thought product (1) would be correct, seeing as how it has the most stable ...