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Questions tagged [stability]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a thermodynamic property in reference to a standard, stating that one state is lower in energy than another. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the stability (or instability) of a certain chemical species, molecular entity and/or electronic structure. It must not be applied to questions about the reactivity of particular chemical species.

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10
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1answer
176 views

Why are palladium and platinum carbonyls unstable at room temperature?

By palladium and platinum carbonyls, I mean the mononuclear, homoleptic, charge-neutral, binary carbonyl complexes of the form $\ce{M(CO)_n}$ and not any heteroleptic complexes like $\ce{Pd(CO)(PPh3)3}...
-1
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0answers
36 views

Why is enol content more in 1,2-cyclopentanedione? [closed]

I am miserably confused on why would this compound exist in enol form, as I don’t see any driving force like aromaticity, extended conjugation or active methylene like conditions over here.
-3
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0answers
39 views

Stability of oxohalogen species

Why the higher oxides of a halogen are more stable than the lower ones? I know that the stability order of oxides of chlorine is $$\ce{HClO4} > \ce{HClO3} > \ce{HClO2} > \ce{HClO}$$ But I ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Is the reaction of anhydrous aluminium(III) chloride and anhydrous ethanol reversible?

I'm planning an experiment that I'll do in silico in the near future, and one of the steps involves the extraction of the $\ce{AlCl3 · C2H5OH}$ adduct without any water in it. Can the ethanol be ...
6
votes
1answer
77 views

Are all stable Xenes (graphene-like 2D honeycomb sheets) buckled?

background: Per this abstract Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with ...
5
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0answers
43 views

What is tetrasulfur like? Why is there so little experimental information about it?

Phys.org's How sulfur helped make Earth habitable before the rise of oxygen says Mapping the bonds and vibrational modes of molecules containing sulfur isotopes is helping to shed light on the ...
3
votes
2answers
297 views

What's the reason for the instability of ethylene dione?

Ethylene dione, with a chemical formula $\ce{C2O2}$ and an IUPAC name of ethene-1,2-dione, is an oxocarbon. The Wikipedia page says: The existence of $\ce{OCCO}$ was first suggested in 1913. ...
2
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0answers
23 views

Stability order of chelate complexes of nickel and iron

Which stability order is correct? $\ce{[Ni(en)2]^2+} > \ce{[Ni(dmg)2]}$ $\ce{[Fe(edta)]^2-} > \ce{[Fe(en)3]^3+}$ In the first case I think the stability depends upon the strength ...
1
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1answer
68 views

What is the stability order of the carbocation and carboanion?

So I came up with examples as below: 1 2 Now I am confused about the +I and -I effect in these structures since to my knowledge it can only be applied when there is a substituent (I might be wrong)...
1
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0answers
42 views

Classic/killer/easy application for the deuterium kinetic isotope effect?

I'm a physicist. While visiting someone's o-chem class I learned about the existence of the deuterium kinetic isotope effect. This seems like an extremely sweet example of zero-point energy, and I ...
0
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0answers
47 views

Stability of alkenes

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by counting the hyper-conjugative structures available to each alkene. Based on this concept only, order is: I > ...
0
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0answers
34 views

What is the order of stability of the cyclobutyl and cyclopropyl carbocations?

I know about the exceptional stability of Cyclopropylmethyl carbocation. In some books it is given that cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl carbocations are highly unstable due to their high strain. That ...
2
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0answers
65 views

Why do alkyl substituents stabilize alkenes?

My textbook states that because $sp^2-sp^3$ bonds are stronger than $sp^3-sp^3$ bonds, alkenes are more stable than alkanes. The rule given is that bonds with more $s$ character are stronger. However,...
2
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1answer
625 views

Reaction of aqueous sodium carbonate with aluminum foil

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is known to react with aluminum foil in an exothermic, hydrogen-gas releasing reaction like $$\ce{2NaOH(aq) + 2Al(s) + 2H2O(\ell) → 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)}$$ However, on ...
3
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2answers
6k views

Long-term storage of Ascorbic Acid mixed with Sodium Bicarbonate

Every day I mix two parts of ascorbic acid powder with 1 part of sodium bicarbonate powder and place the resulting powder into an airtight container. I have noticed that if the resulting powder is ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

Cupric and cuprous copper [duplicate]

Copper has two chlorides: $\ce{CuCl2}$ and $\ce{CuCl}.$ Copper reacts directly with chlorine to form a copper(II) chloride. Why doesn't it form copper(I) chloride? Is it because $\ce{CuCl2}$ is more ...
5
votes
1answer
181 views

Which of the two structures is more stable?

Which of the two structures is more stable? As far as I know, alkenes with a greater number of hyperconjugating structures are more stable. Hyperconjugation has a greater stabilizing effect ...
1
vote
2answers
252 views

Why exactly is a fluoride anion a stronger base than iodine anion? [closed]

First off, I've learnt that stronger acids produce weaker conjugate bases (through Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory). Then I looked at the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values of $\ce{HF}$, $\ce{HCl}$, $\...
14
votes
2answers
7k views

Why is sulfur hexafluoride more stable than selenium or tellurium hexafluoride?

I was just reading about p Block elements from two different books. Both books say that $\ce{SF6}$ is extremely stable in 16th group due to steric reasons but my question is why is it more stable than ...
0
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0answers
140 views

How does cross-conjugation destabilizes a molecule?

Wikipedia article on ortho effect suggests that o-toulic acid is more acidic than benzoic acid. This fact is rationalized by suggesting that steric effect causes COOH group to "twist" out of the plane ...
3
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1answer
102 views

Does hyperconjugation into sigma-star explain methylamine's increased basicity relative to ammonia?

The inductive effect with the polarisation of the C-N bond obviously plays a role in stabilising the positive charge of the conjugate acid. But given the similar electronegativities for C and H, CH3 ...
-1
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2answers
715 views

Do ferrous sulfite and aluminum sulfite exist?

Source: Concise Chemistry-ICSE (Class X)SELINA PUBLISHERS Pg 207 In this book, it is mentioned that ferrous sulfite and aluminum sulfite does not exist. I even tried searching these on Google but ...
8
votes
1answer
618 views

What is the reason for the exceptional stability of tricyclopropyl-cyclopropenyl carbocation?

The stability order of the following is: A. III > II > I > IV B. II > III > I > IV C. I > III > IV > II D. I > III > II > IV Answer: I came across a question where we had to ...
0
votes
1answer
508 views

Half/fully filled orbital stability

Beryllium the configuration is [He] 2s2 i.e fully filled but still quite reactive Also in neon [He]2p4 , neither half filled nor fully filled, still quite stable compound (As it forms compound with ...
37
votes
5answers
110k views

Difference between thermodynamic and kinetic stability

What is the difference between thermodynamic and kinetic stability? I'd like a basic explanation, but not too simple. For example, methane does not burn until lit -- why?
1
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0answers
54 views

Maximum lifetime of plastic on earth

[EDITED] If humans disappeared today, and aliens visited in the future, for how long would plastic or other "obviously" non-natural polymers be detectable on the planet, using known or plausible ...
8
votes
3answers
7k views

Which is most stable conformation of optically inactive butane-2,3-diol?

The most stable conformation of optically inactive butane-2,3-diol is: (A)  (B)  (C)  (D) I chose C as the correct answer but, in the answer key it is given to be B. C is the ...
14
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2answers
3k views

Why are aromatic compounds so stable?

I've never actually been told deeper reasons for this. In organic chemistry classes (1 and 2) we're usually told that aromatic compounds are very stable whereas anti-aromatic ones are not, and also, ...
1
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0answers
43 views

Does 2,2-dimethylpropan-1-ol give a positive Lucas test?

I learnt that the Lucas test involves the formation of a carbocation and it gives a positive test based on the stability of the carbocation formed, and hence primary alcohols do not show turbidity (...
21
votes
1answer
11k views

Stability Comparison between the Tropylium and Tricyclopropylcarbinyl Carbocation

Why is the Tropylium carbocation less stable than the tricyclopropylcarbinyl carbocation? The tricyclopropylcarbinyl carbocation undergoes a sigma-tropic rearrangement whereas tropylium is highly ...
1
vote
3answers
265 views

Shouldn't it take more energy to break CO2 compared to CO? [closed]

I read in a book that bond dissociation energy of carbon monoxide $(\ce{CO})$ is $\pu{749 kJ/mol}$ and carbon dioxide $(\ce{CO2})$ is $\pu{532 kJ/mol}.$ Shouldn't it take twice as much energy to break ...
-1
votes
1answer
42 views

Things to consider to determine stability of a compound to another? [duplicate]

Some Compounds with higher bond dissociation energy seem to be more reactive towards certain compounds then ones with lower bond dissociation energy , so what are the things you need to factor in to ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

How to find the strongest base using stability arguments

Answers: The most acidic is D and the most basic is A. So first off I compared A with B: I'm kinda confused on this. I looked at the base NH one and saw that when it was protonated it lost its ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Ring expansion from a given cyclic carbocation

How will the cyclobutane ring behave in the case of cyclobutylmethylium (cyclobutylmethyl cation)? I initially thought there would be ring expansion to a five membered ring so that there may be less ...
3
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0answers
30 views

On the stability of methyl mercury

Question: Given that $\ce{Zn, Hg}$ are in the same group, how to explain that $\ce{Hg(CH3)}$ is stable but $\ce{Zn(CH3)}$ is unstable and $\ce{Hg(CH3)Cl}$ is stable? $\ce{Hg(CH3)}$ seems to have an ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Molecular Orbital Hybridization vs Delocalization for positive charge stabilization

While studying Molecular Orbital Theory, I ran into a comparison of basicity between pyridine and piperidine. The latter was concluded to be more basic because of the sp3 hybridization of the ...
3
votes
0answers
103 views

Which is more stable: isobutylene or cis-2‐butene?

How do you compare which is more stable without using the heat of hydrogenation or combustion or any other numeric factual value: $\ce{(CH3)2-C=CH2}$ or $\ce{CH3-CH=CH-CH3}$ (cis)?
4
votes
1answer
12k views

How to determine number of alpha hydrogens in a cyclic compound?

How do we determine the number of alpha hydrogens in a compound? Where should we start the naming from? For example, bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-7-ene and bicyclo[4.2.0]oct-3-ene: Compare the stabilities of ...
6
votes
1answer
5k views

What is meant by 'stability'?

I'm currently learning about substitution and elimination reactions and to do so I need to learn about bases and nucleophiles. Apparently a good base is an unstable species. What does stability ...
0
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1answer
68 views

Relevance of strain energy, total energy and stability of molecule?

Would anybody please highlight the difference between total strain energy of a molecule, total energy of a molecule and what we can infer about the stability of the molecule using the total strain ...
1
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3answers
66 views

Reason Behind Decrease In Potential Energy [closed]

Atoms combine to gain stability. They gain stability when they lose energy. In my book, it's given that the potential energy of the system is reduced during chemical combination. But I am eager to ...
2
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0answers
46 views

Stability of the alkenyl and phenyl cations

One reason often cited for why alkenyl and phenyl halides do not undergo nucleophilic substitution by the $\ce {S_N1}$ mechanism is that the formation of the alkenyl and phenyl cations involve a ...
21
votes
2answers
494 views

Why are lithides not known?

In the last few decades, many alkalides - anions of alkali metals - have been synthesised. The most famous is undoubtedly that of sodium: $\ce{[Na(\text{2.2.2-cryptand})]+Na-}$, but the alkalides $\ce{...
1
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0answers
70 views

Stability of Cycloalkyl Carbocations

What is the order of stability of the cycloalkyl carbocations? I think the stability should increase as we move from cyclopropyl carbocation to cyclohexyl carbocation, since the angle strain is ...
20
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5answers
7k views

Is the t-butyl carbocation more stable than the benzyl carbocation?

Various authors have different views regarding stability order of the benzyl and t-butyl carbocations. $$\ce{PhCH2+ ; (CH3)3C+}$$ In my opinion, resonance effect dominates, so the benzylic ...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Why is isobutane more thermodynamically stable than n-butane?

I would like to understand the term stability in organic chemistry. We know empirically that isobutane (2-methylpropane) is more stable than n-butane. For example, their heats of formation (taken from ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Ring Expamsion And Final Structure

[If you don't like to read the question just look at the 3 pictures the first one has the carbocation which have to be stabilised by ring expansions the other 2 are my predicted structure so please ...
1
vote
1answer
469 views

Carbanion Stability [closed]

I was wondering that whether a Cross-Conjugated or a Extended-Conjugated carbanion is stable I have sort of memorise that a Cross-Conjugated one is more stable For example, Which of the Carbanion is ...
2
votes
2answers
401 views

Which of the following carbanion is most stable?

The carbanion which is most stable is The answer is 1. But why won't the answer be 2 because it shows resonance, whereas 1 only shows I effect and resonance effect is more dominant?
1
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0answers
39 views

Which of these chlorides is more reactive? [duplicate]

We do learn that for $\mathrm{S_N1}$ reaction the rates are tertiary > secondary > primary > methyl. The reasons mentioned are usually inductive and hyper-conjugative effect. But which of the ...