Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

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9
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2answers
5k views

Mixing solvents, or how does paint thinner work?

I would like to understand how a mixture of solvents works together. For example, there are two solvents combined, and each one alone can dissolve some material, but one acts faster. How do they ...
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3answers
9k views

Why do we use ethanol in SN2 reaction?

Solomons and Fryhle has an example in which they have showed a very simple substitution reaction. The question was to synthesize methyl iodide. What they have done is taken methyl chloride and ...
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1answer
541 views

Solvents in substitution reactions

My book says that to favour a reaction by SN1 mechanism we need to use a polar protic solvent and a polar aprotic solvent in a reaction by SN2. * My Prior Knowledge:* There are two types of polar ...
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1answer
1k views

Molecular weight determination from freezing point depression

Which is the better solvent for molar mass determinations by freezing point depression, benzene or cyclohexane? Which is the better method for molar mass determination, freezing point depression or ...
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0answers
163 views

Make pure phthalocyanines from phthalocyanine dyes

We need a pure copper phthalocyanine for our experiments. Of course, we can buy it from Sigma Aldrich, but this means we'll have to wait a while. In local area we can buy only dyes which are about 98% ...
2
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1answer
152 views

Etching a Screen Protector Film

I have to etch a pattern on a plastic film similar to the ones used to protect phone screens. I want a very thin etch, one that is only visible on close inspection. How can I get that done?
2
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1answer
7k views

Washing a solvent?

Why would you wash a solvent with $\ce{NaOH}$ solution? Does $\ce{NaOH}$ solution help water and solvent separate like $\ce{NaCl}$ solution does (salting out)? Would you wash with hot or cold $\ce{...
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3answers
819 views

Can Liquid CO₂ dissolve plastic

I know that subcritical and supercritical $\ce{CO2}$ are excellent solvents. I've seen some examples of plastics being damaged by the $\ce{CO2}$ being impregnated into the plastic at very high ...
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1answer
2k views

What Can Dissolve Polypyrrole?

I am looking for a solvent for polypyrrole. I read M-cresol and chloroform can be used, but I am not entirely sure.
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1answer
892 views

How to remove epoxy on clothes?

How to remove epoxy on clothes in the perspective of chemistry? More precisely in my case, how to remove the hardener of epoxy, which consists of two components: hardener and resin. The clothes is ...
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1answer
453 views

What are solvolytic displacement reactions?

High school student here, I recently purchased a book titled: "Solvolytic Displacement Reactions" by Andrew Streitwieser published in the early 1960's. I found it at a book store and it looks like one ...
3
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1answer
96 views

Which solvent is good for using SU-8 particle in Optical tweezers?

I'm studying Optical tweezers. I've used Polystyrene for samples. Nowadays, I've got SU-8 pillar. I wanna use that for sample, but its density is heavier than water. I can't use that. So I wanna know ...
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0answers
235 views

How paper-tag survive in the dry-cleaning process?

This prevent the clothes from being ruined by ink on the paper tag. To put the garments attached with this paper through the whole process of dry-cleaning, I have the questions listed below paper ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Order of molecular mass of solvent; given boiling point [closed]

Given three solvents X, Y, Z. Order of boiling point of pure solvent X < Y < Z and same order of molal elevation constant ($K_\mathrm{b}$). Find the order of molecular mass. So I got this ...
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1answer
11k views

What is the difference between IPA and Ethanol in terms of solubility?

I have read an article online that says that ethanol could be used in a solvent extraction of two solids, but it also says that isopropyl alcohol could also be used, but must be used in higher ...
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0answers
173 views

Solvent interaction with thermal paper [closed]

If you place a piece of paper created by a laser printer, e.g. fax paper or some receipts, on top of a piece of normal paper you have drawn on with a Bic Marking 2300 permanent marker, the image ...
2
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1answer
852 views

how to use di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (diBOc) as a solvent?

how should we use di-tert-butyl dicarbonate(diBOc) as solvent? In reference, diBOc was in the form of a liquid but when I checked the bottle it was in solid state. diBOc should be stored at 8-10 ℃. ...
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5answers
14k views

Why is water “the universal” solvent?

This is an old question that our textbook tried to answer but worsened the situation. Many things are soluble in water. So many, that studying solutions will always require studying aqueous ones. It ...
2
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1answer
145 views

Why is hydrogen bonding more significant than any other interaction between dipoles?

Solvents can be categorized as polar and protic. I understand that to be protic there had to be a significantly polar bond involving a hydrogen atom. However, how is the a hydrogen bond different in ...
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2answers
18k views

How to predict the solubility of an organic compound in different kinds of solvents? [duplicate]

How is it possible to know whether a particular solvent will dissolve in a particular kind of solvent, i.e. organic, polar, protic...? Are there any indicators to look for in molecules or elements ...
2
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1answer
906 views

Substitute solvent for diethyl ether?

I want to run a reaction that needs diethyl ether as anti solvent in the last step (comes from articles). But I can't use it due to its harmful effects on the body. Is there any other solvent? My ...
3
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1answer
2k views

How can a waterproofing material be “water-based”?

I've been trying to determine how a particular waterproofing material, which claims to be "water based", can still be hydrophobic. First of all, the product in question is EPRO ECOLINE-R, which also ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Which chemicals could be used to dissolve Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT), but not dissolve brass?

This is for a recycling project, I am looking to recover brass pins from electronic connectors made of glass reinforced Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT). The objective is to find a chemical which ...
3
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1answer
887 views

What is the difference between Dielectric and Capacitive Polarizable Continuum Model?

I have good background knowledge on Quantum Chemistry calculations but my knowledge on Solvation Models is not that amazing. Many times I read a paper that uses TD-DFT, they also assign some solvent ...
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2answers
3k views

Role of Alcohols(EtOH,MeOH) in nitro reduction used for Metal(Sn,Fe)

I'm trying to reduce an aryl nitro group. I understand that these reactions are radical reactions by the metal, but I don't understand why alcohols are used as the solvent. Are they used as a source ...
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3answers
1k views

Why would a polar protic solvent favor the addition of HBr to an alkene?

I understand that a polar solvent will help dissociate the $\ce{HBr}$ into ions. But why a protic solvent? Why would we want a solvent that would encage the $\ce{Br}$ and $\ce{H}$ ions? Why is the ...
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1answer
24k views

Salt concentration and electrical permittivity of water

We know that the electric flux density $D$ can be related to electric field intensity $E$ as $$D = \epsilon(\omega) E$$ where $$\epsilon(\omega) = \epsilon_0 \epsilon_r(\omega)$$ and $\epsilon_0$ ...
3
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1answer
188 views

Approach to model solvent in a lattice: e.g. H2O in NaCl

If a lattice contains a solvent, lets say $\ce{NaCl}$ and water of crystallisation, what is the condition for a solvent molecule to change it's location? From my current point of view I assume that ...
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2answers
860 views

How hazardous are peroxide-able ethers if stored properly?

This question is directed towards laboratory scientists and technicians who actually deal with ethers that can develop peroxides upon concentration (e.g. diethyl ether, THF, dioxane). I am already ...
3
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1answer
531 views

What is an effective fabric-friendly solvent for aluminium chlorohydrate?

I have recently found out that the white/yellowish "sweat" stains one occasionally finds on t-shirts might be aluminium chlorohydrate polymers. While talk about aluminium and antiperspirants is all ...
2
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2answers
11k views

Field Effect and it's effect on basicity on amines

What is the order of basicity between $\ce{Me2NH}$, $\ce{Me3N}$, $\ce{MeNH2}$ in a protic solvent. It has something to do with field effect which I could not understand and could not find anywhere. ...
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1answer
183 views

Is there a good sol gel method for carbon nanotube thin film deposition?

I was searching for a sol gel method for deposition of carbon nanotube thin films and there aren't too many articles on that. Does anybody know the reason? Is it because Carbon nanotubes are ...
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1answer
2k views

CuI, CuSCN Solubility in Ammonia Solution

I am trying to dissolve copper(I) iodide and copper(I) thiocyanate in ammonia. I am quite sure that they both dissolve in liquid ammonia, and are insoluble in ethanol. If I were to purchase a 2.0M ...
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2answers
2k views

Solvent for copper(I) iodide, copper(I) thiocyanate, silver iodide for HTM deposition; safety for methylammonium lead iodide

I'm a student working in a high school laboratory that is looking to pursue research into perovskite cells for next year, but I have some solubility and safety questions. What would be a good solvent ...
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3answers
810 views

Best way to clean a gold-plated yoyo bearing?

I have a gold-plated yoyo bearing which needs cleaning. Most people clean regular non-gold-plated bearings with mineral spirits (naphtha), lighter fluid (hexane/heptane), and acetone, but these gold ...
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1answer
69 views

Searching for a solvate that changes its solvation property

I'm looking for a solvate that changes its solvation property when being dried. One example of such a material is gypsum: at temperatures up to 250°C it becomes γ-anhydrite which will slowly hydrate ...
2
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2answers
817 views

Concentration, how to determine grams of NaCl needed

Disclaimer: It has been a very long time since I have done any chemistry. My friend posted this question on social media, I've copy+pasted it here: Exactly $16.0~\mathrm{ml}$ of a solution A is ...
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1answer
2k views

How could alcohol be made into a powder?

In the news recently is 'Palcohol', powdered alcohol, that you add to water or existing liquids to make it alcohol. Presumably this would dissolve and break apart into alcohol and {some other compound}...
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2answers
336 views

Does removing solution affect a supersaturated solution

Given a mixture of: a saturated solution of a solute in a solvent together with excess of the solute compound as crystalline material. If one were to change the bulk composition of the mixture by ...
2
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3answers
5k views

Dry ice and acetone

In my organic chemistry class there are several reactions that I’ve been told are generally conducted at $\pu{−78^\circ C}$, which is apparently also the temperature of dry ice in acetone. This is ...
4
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1answer
4k views

Ester as a solvent

I am curious as to why ester is used often as a solvent in organic chemistry? How is it different that just using water, which is also polar? I'm sorry if this is a basic question, I'm just a student.
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1answer
138 views

Are there any significant industrial processes that use liquid ammonia as a solvent?

There are some interesting laboratory reactions that use liquid ammonia as a solvent (for example, the Birch Reduction where an alkali metal is dissolved in liquid ammonia). There have also been some ...
4
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1answer
13k views

How to store chloroform?

I'm going to be aliquoting out ethanol-stabilized chloroform into smaller containers. It's presently in a large bottle sealed with a rubber(y) sheet so I can only draw it out with a needle. My ...
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1answer
24k views

How to calculate molality, molarity and mole fraction given density (g/mole)?

Calculate the molality, molarity and mole fraction of a $\ce{CuSO4}$ in a 17% m/m aqueous solution (density of the solution is 1.367 g/mole) I did .17 * 1.367 to find grams of $\ce{CuSO4}$ and .83 * ...
5
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1answer
375 views

Absolute limits on solubility of immiscible solutes?

I know that for a particular, immiscible solute, there is a limit on how much of it can be dissolved in a solvent at a given temperature. However, I was wondering if there is only so much "total ...
4
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1answer
202 views

Solvated solids

I have a very basic question concerning solvation. If a solid (solute) was dissolved in a liquid (solvent), is the solute still in the solid state? or does it convert into another state of matter when ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Rotary Evaporator Cleaning

I am using a rotary evaporator ('rotovap') in my lab mainly with dichloromethane as a solvent. Usually between experiments I clean the receiving and boiling flasks with a brush using soap and water ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Solvation effect on cyclohexane

I ran molecular dynamics simulation with a molecule of methylcyclohexane soaked into a water box. On the other hand I ran Monte Carlo with the molecule alone (no soaking). I performed this for the ...
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7answers
8k views

Solving carbon black

I want to remove a layer of 2 mm thick carbon black on a copper bowl on the outside from hanging over wood and coal fire. I have tried different solvents, but the carbon seems to be very resistive. ...
4
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1answer
3k views

Why does the extent of racemisation in an SN1 reaction depend on the solvent used?

Why is it that the extent of racemisation is greater in an $S_N 1$ reaction caried out using a polar protic solvent but the racemisation is not as extensive if an aprotic solvent is used although the ...

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