Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

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10
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0answers
97 views

Which potentials are suitable for molecular dynamics simulation of simple explicit solvents?

Which potentials (force fields) are suitable for adequately simulating (mixtures of) explicit solvents? Interesting rheological properties include viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity.
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How to make a CCl3F Fluorine NMR standard?

I am running some fluorine NMR and would like to make a bulk solution of $\ce{CCl3F}$ in $\ce{CDCl3}$ to aid in assessing the amount of fluorinated product present by having my NMR solvent act as a ...
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What classifies as a solvent/base in SN1, SN2, E1, and E2 reactions?

I need to clarify some terminology for an intro to organic chem class. We are studying substitution and elimination reactions and it has not been made clear what exactly these terms describe. For ...
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1answer
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How to extract thymol from oregano leaves?

This is my second graders in highschool project of science report. I try to a make natural hand sanitizer using thymol from oregano leaves as the antiseptic ingredient instead of alcohol. I want ...
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1answer
5k views

Solvents adequate for dissolving overheated polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified (PETG) residue?

I work in 3D printing. One of the materials we use is polyethylene terephthalate glycol-modified, or PETG. It is a pretty good material, both in strength and appearance. It is melted and pushed ...
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Why are aprotic solvents unable to solvate negative ions well?

Why are aprotic solvents unable to solvate negative ions well? I know that the reason is due to the absence of very positive hydrogen atoms, but then why are they able to solvate positive ions well? ...
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1answer
2k views

Does water freely absorb atmospheric CO2?

So, there has been a fairly groundbreaking new invention that can convert CO2 dissolved in water to Ethanol1. At face value, it's cheap, easy, and relatively energy-lightweight. All it requires is the ...
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1answer
13k views

What is the difference between hexanes and petroleum ether

I'm trying to use hexanes as the nonsolubilizing recrystallization solvent in a multisolvent recrystallization (benzene is the solubilizing solvent) that requires an oxygen free atmosphere and hexanes ...
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How are solvents chosen in organic reactions?

Just reading through organic chemistry book (Modern Projects in Organic Chemistry by Mohrig, et al.), and it seems like the choice of solvent is usually arbitrary. One of the experiments designed ...
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Can the directionality of an SN2 reaction depend on solvent polarity?

Because of the effects of solvation, halide ions have differing nucleophilicity in protic solvents vs aprotic solvents, iodide being the best nucleophile in protic solvents and fluoride being best in ...
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Why do NMR samples require a solvent?

I am running a proton NMR on a liquid organic product. I understand that we wouldn't want to use anything that contains hydrogen atoms as a solvent, but I'm not sure why we need a solvent at all.
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1answer
388 views

Solvents for tartrates / tannins that won't attack glass

At the bottom of my wine decanter (which due to its shape is fantastically hard to clean mechanically) a layer of reddish brown precipitate forms. I believe this is probably potassium bitartrate ...
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1answer
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What household compound will neutralize naphthalene-stained washer (for clothes)?

Please help me tag this post. Googling provided no answers except for vinegar, which did not work. I washed this blanket for the first time that was purchased off of ebay. There was a smell ...
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Storage of methane in mineral oil or other liquid hydrocarbons

Is it practical (or even possible) to store gaseous alkanes such as methane or ethane in liquid non-polar solvents, such as mineral oil or vegetable oil, and how much more (or less) methane can be ...
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1answer
7k views

Isopropyl alcohol to clean Nylon plastic

I have a hardwood wooden frame, possibly lacquered, containing some very dirty nylon plastic pieces, a bit like the teeth of a comb, where the frame goes along top and bottom. I know it's nylon ...
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1answer
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Why is chloroform kept in dark coloured bottles?

Why is chloroform ($\ce{CHCl3}$) kept in dark coloured bottles?
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Looking for a common solid which is very soluble in water, insoluble in a volatile solvent, and doesn't corrode ferrous metals

I'm looking for a way to make a shiny object 'matte', but temporarily. I'd like to be able to spray on a coating which is a uniform colour and wash it off easily, even from small 'nooks and crannies' ...
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Use of water in IR spectroscopy

I am familiar with the process of IR spectroscopy and the preparation of IR samples. However, I am curious as to why you cannot use hygroscopic or protic solvents for IR spectroscopy. Is it just ...
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0answers
602 views

Can toluene be used as a solvent for nucleophilic substitution?

This is a continuation to a previous question of mine regarding a change to a one-pot procedure for the preparation of Wellbutrin that I performed in college last semester. Could toluene have been ...
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1answer
476 views

How to prevent Ag2O from decomposing to Ag on Aluminum

I have silver oxide in an ink formulation. When I apply it (in small quantities) over aluminum and heat the resulting (to evaporate the solvent), the monovalent silver oxide seems to decompose to Ag. ...
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2answers
996 views

Measuring volume change from change in mass

I want to measure the expansion (by change in volume) of a material in liquid. However the shapes are so complex that I can only measure their mass. Is it possible to compute the volume of the ...
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1answer
2k views

How to prevent dripping when using a Pasteur pipette with solvents like diethyl ether?

I'm trying to use a Pasteur pipette for pipetting diethyl ether and regardless of the angle I hold the pipette at, the diethyl ether will automatically start dispensing itself (I am unsure of what ...
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What is the difference between concentration and effective concentration?

What exactly is effective concentration in simple terms? From what I can understand it is the 'real' concentration taking part in the reaction instead of the concentration of the solute. Also, if I am ...
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1answer
55 views

Polysytrene factories and hypothetical health concerns [closed]

Background/Research so far I'm actually not much of a chemist at all; but I'm doing research for a book I'm writing. The events of the story begin from a factory that produces/supplies jewel cases ...
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1answer
5k views

boric acid + isopropyl alcohol

I have found recommendations for making a soldering flux using boric acid mixed in with ethyl alcohol in 50/50 ration or 60/40 depending on the consistency desired. Some have recommended that methyl ...
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1answer
746 views

Can ethyl acetate isolate cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil?

I recently watched a video on extracting cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon using dichloromethane as a solvent. I would like to attempt the process. However, I would prefer not to use haloalkanes because ...
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1answer
488 views

Does glass adsorb methanol to an exceptional extent?

Does (borosilicate) glass adsorb methanol to an exceptional extent? We are doing vapor density measurements of organic solvents using a microbalance and a sealed glass sphere. Other polar molecules ...
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2answers
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How does LC50 translate to "real world" exposure for paint thinner?

Last year I started oil painting, which means (in part) that I use paint thinner for working with and/or cleaning brushes. I recently became concerned about my exposure to the vapor from the paint ...
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2answers
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Why even the most volatile solvents leave a residue after evaporating?

After a solvent evaporates off of a surface there's always some residue left in the form of a strain. Why it is the case even for highly volatile solvents such as acetone, toluene etc?
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1answer
191 views

Suggestions for solvents capable of efficiently performing alpha-bromination and nucleophilic substitutions

We performed the one-pot preparation of bupropion in class where the bromination of the carbon adjacent to the carbonyl group was performed using DCM as solvent, and upon completion the solvent was ...
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2answers
5k views

What is inhibiting polystyrene's ability to dissolve in traditional solvents like ethanol or acetone?

My friend and I have been struggling with this problem for a couple days. Because polystyrene has a similar structure to many plastics, we assumed that it would dissolve in acetone. However, after ...
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970 views

What would be a safe/good surfactant for ultrasonic cleaning vinyl records + distilled water and isopropyl alcohol

Title pretty much says it all besides the type of records I believe are pvc (60s - current, someone correct me if there may be other materials but I absolutely don't have any shellac records) and I ...
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1answer
513 views

How to treat pressure in computational chemistry?

I have a reaction where a gas at high pressure and a solution with all kinds of species is involved. How do I take pressure correctly into account to get reasonable values for $G$? Do I calculate ...
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254 views

Why does adding PBS to a lipid+propylene glycol solution cause the lipid to precipitate?

I am trying to create an aqueous phospholipid suspension using ~50 mg of 1,2-dibehenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DBPC), 13 mL of propylene glycol (PG), and 72 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)....
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1answer
1k views

Production of acetone from egg shells and vinegar

I learned from these wiki pages that acetone can be produced from calcium acetate, which can be produced by the reaction of eggshells and vinegar. However, I couldn't find the required temperature. ...
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1answer
304 views

Trifluoroacetic acid, Formic acid and dichloromethane

I am working in a small lab (in a small company) with very poor conditions, which I have to improve (for example: no sink , I have to wash the glassware in the bathroom). My organic chemistry is very ...
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1answer
1k views

Separate toluene from acetone and isopropyl alcohol

I found a cellulose thinner that is made of toluene 60-80%, acetone 10-20%, and 2-propanol 5-10%. As acetone and 2-propanol are water soluble, but toluene isn't, would it be possible to just add a lot ...
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Does dissolving a solute lowers the activation energy of a reaction of that solute?

I'm formulating a reason why the use of solvents in some reactants are preferred rather then mixing just the pure components together. My gut feeling tells me that it lowers the activation energy of ...
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1answer
2k views

What solvents work on aloe vera?

I'm looking for a solvent which can fully dissolve dried aloe vera gel. I assume the main problem is the constituent polysaccharides.
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Remove aceton from denatured alcohol

I have bought a bottle of denatured alcohol. On the web I've found these solutions typically contain the following: $85\%$ ethanol $10\%$ water $3\%$ methanol $1\%$ aceton $1\%$ pyridine I would ...
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313 views

Solvent for Norland Optical Adhesive

I'd like to know if there is any solvent that dissolves Norland Optical Adhesive 65 (and Rhodamine 6G), but does not dissolve PMMA that is used in e-beam lithography. I've tried acetone, methanol, ...
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1answer
3k views

Does adding mass to a liquid (not water) increase the volume

The Question sounds stupid but i have a legit problem I mixed 1000 mL coconut water and 225 g of agar-agar to make a coconut water [CW] agar. It gave me more than 1000 ml. the medium went beyond the ...
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168 views

What are the advantages of eutectic solvents over aqueous solutions for electroplating?

I'm trying to electrically strip lead contamination from aluminum. This answer suggests using a deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the conducting liquid for plating the lead onto a copper cathode. But ...
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1answer
4k views

exchanging H2O in buffer for D2O - pH vs pD?

I have TBS pH 7.4 buffer that I am exchanging all the water out for $\ce{D2O}$. How do I find out what the pD is after all the water is gone? I understand that pH meters don't work for deuterium, and ...
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1answer
387 views

Why did my deep eutectic solvent solidify?

I'm finally getting around to beginning to test this deep eutectic electrolyte. I mixed choline chloride with urea in a 1:2 mole ratio in a glass container. It formed a sludge. I sealed the ...
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0answers
51 views

Non-destructive solvents for cyan-salts

What dissolves cyan-salts (NaCN and KCN) without destroying them the way water does via hydrolysis? I have to make my own cyan-salts, so they're somewhat precious to me. Every time I have to ...
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1answer
2k views

How to dissolve the build-up from a paraffin based oil?

I have a CNC lathes that use "oil" for cutting fluid during the machining of mostly metal materials. Typically a heavy paraffinic based cutting oil (petroleum distillate) is used during machining. ...
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Why aren't people pouring ethanol my unskinned chicken to remove excessive fat?

I see a lot of people putting cooked chicken thighs on paper towels to absorb the excessive fat. This gave me an idea: if you don't care about taste, why can't we rinse cooked chicken with ethanol and ...
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1answer
433 views

Which chemical should I use to wash soot precipitate from cast iron?

The soot deposition is quite strong (almost like graphite) and my iron object has a complicated shape with many grooves. Which chemical would dissolve the carbon without oxidizing the iron?
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The amount of the DMF in the Sonogashira coupling - why it is of importance?

I was looking for some protocols for Sonogashira coupling and have found that in many papers the amount of the DMF used is exactly 2 ml per mole of the substrate. Is there any reason for that? ...

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