Questions tagged [solvents]

A liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
27
votes
2answers
88k views

How do non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar solvents?

The case of polar solvents is clear to me - we get an attraction between opposite charges. However, how do non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar solvents? How could it be explained on a molecular ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

How do I predict the solubility of a compound in a mixture of water and an organic co-solvent?

I'm trying to predict the solubility of long alcohols (e.g. 1-octanol, 1-decanol or 1-dodecanol) in a mixture of water and an organic co-solvent such as DMSO, acetonitrile or ethyl acetate. For ...
6
votes
1answer
14k views

Electrical conductivity of organic solvents

Do organic solvents such as pure ethanol and pure methanol conduct electricity? why is this so? I have done some research and have not been able to find anything conclusive. I would think it would ...
28
votes
5answers
14k views

Why is water “the universal” solvent?

This is an old question that our textbook tried to answer but worsened the situation. Many things are soluble in water. So many, that studying solutions will always require studying aqueous ones. It ...
4
votes
1answer
178 views

Solvated solids

I have a very basic question concerning solvation. If a solid (solute) was dissolved in a liquid (solvent), is the solute still in the solid state? or does it convert into another state of matter when ...
2
votes
2answers
11k views

Field Effect and it's effect on basicity on amines

What is the order of basicity between $\ce{Me2NH}$, $\ce{Me3N}$, $\ce{MeNH2}$ in a protic solvent. It has something to do with field effect which I could not understand and could not find anywhere. ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

What dictates the lifetime of a solvated electron in a given solvent?

Solvated electrons have a long lifetime in ammonia solutions, but their counterparts in water (called hydrated electrons) have a much smaller lifetime, of the order of microseconds in very pure water. ...
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Why does water favour nucleophilic substitution over elimination?

The two broad ways a halogen can leave a haloalkane are nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions. I was told that elimination reactions (that form a double bond as a $H^+$ is also removed) ...
9
votes
3answers
7k views

Why do we use ethanol in SN2 reaction?

Solomons and Fryhle has an example in which they have showed a very simple substitution reaction. The question was to synthesize methyl iodide. What they have done is taken methyl chloride and ...
21
votes
1answer
1k views

Is it possible for a compound to be soluble in a mixture of solvents but not the individual solvents?

Some weeks ago one of my friend needed to use turpentine. As a good but ignorant chemist on that point I did some research about it. I found (at the beginning) in the French wikipedia page of ...
1
vote
1answer
419 views

Solvents in substitution reactions

My book says that to favour a reaction by SN1 mechanism we need to use a polar protic solvent and a polar aprotic solvent in a reaction by SN2. * My Prior Knowledge:* There are two types of polar ...
11
votes
1answer
770 views

Why do biphasic systems of fluorous and organic solvents form?

It's possible to select a perfluorinated hydrocarbon that is immiscible in another organic solvent, forming a distinct phase boundary. Such systems may become miscible at elevated temperature which is ...
9
votes
1answer
2k views

How could alcohol be made into a powder?

In the news recently is 'Palcohol', powdered alcohol, that you add to water or existing liquids to make it alcohol. Presumably this would dissolve and break apart into alcohol and {some other compound}...
6
votes
4answers
18k views

What is the difference between melting and dissolving?

What is the difference between melting and dissolving? I am looking some general features. The answer should be adaptable to the melting/dissolving of ice cube (water) in a class of pure alcohol (...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Why would a polar PROTIC solvent favor the addition of HBr to an alkene?

I understand that a polar solvent will help dissociate the $\ce{HBr}$ into ions. But why a protic solvent? Why would we want a solvent that would encage the $\ce{Br}$ and $\ce{H}$ ions? Why is the ...
3
votes
0answers
41 views

Acetic Acid type of solvent

I want to ask a question about polar/non-polar (a)protic solvents. The following information was given to me in the lecture hall today regarding solvents in organic chemistry. I recall the ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Why is hydrogen bonding more significant than any other interaction between dipoles?

Solvents can be categorized as polar and protic. I understand that to be protic there had to be a significantly polar bond involving a hydrogen atom. However, how is the a hydrogen bond different in ...
2
votes
1answer
370 views

How to perform solvent extraction of a solid

Suppose I have a solid compound from which I want to extract a target chemical I know is soluble in acetone. So I crush and mix the compound in acetone, dissolving the target and suspending the ...
1
vote
1answer
153 views

Suggestions for solvents capable of efficiently performing alpha-bromination and nucleophilic substitutions

We performed the one-pot preparation of bupropion in class where the bromination of the carbon adjacent to the carbonyl group was performed using DCM as solvent, and upon completion the solvent was ...
0
votes
1answer
23k views

How to calculate molality, molarity and mole fraction given density (g/mole)?

Calculate the molality, molarity and mole fraction of a $\ce{CuSO4}$ in a 17% m/m aqueous solution (density of the solution is 1.367 g/mole) I did .17 * 1.367 to find grams of $\ce{CuSO4}$ and .83 * ...