Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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954 views

Electrode Potential at Equilibrium

At each electrode-electrolyte interface there is a tendency of metal ions from the solution to deposit on the metal electrode trying to make it positively charged. At the same time, metal atoms of the ...
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1answer
518 views

What does solubility limit mean in practical terms?

I am not really a chemist guy so please bear with me. Glycerol monolaurate has an upper limit of solubility in water of 20 μg/mL, which is enough for my experiment. Does this mean that no matter how ...
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1answer
800 views

Supersaturation and Crystallization

I had a fairly simple question regarding supersaturation and crystallization. When a supersaturated solution is crystallized, is all of the solute crystallized or just the excess solute (such that the ...
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1answer
1k views

Weak base titrated with a strong acid

If you have a weak base XOH titrated with a strong monotonic acid, where do you start with that? Would you first have the base react with water and break up and determine how much of it does? Or just ...
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2answers
4k views

What chemical will dissolve the plastic coating on circuit boards

I'm trying to reclaim the metals on circuit boards and the vast majority is underneath the plastic coating. It is a brittle plastic that chips off in small flakes when etched but that process will ...
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2answers
3k views

why do we obtain a sigmoid curve in vapour pressure versus temperature graph

i have recently got a question in an assignment, which was somewhat like this what would be the shape of curve obtained in a graph between vapour pressure & temperature of a binary solution in ...
3
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2answers
610 views

How can I calculate the energy of a solution by knowing all of it's elements?

How can I calculate the energy of a solution by knowing all of it's elements? For example: If I have 2 liters of salting water $\mathbf{NaCl_{(aq)}+H_2O_{(l)}}$ contains 1.5 g of salt, how can I ...
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0answers
53 views

Phantom Material: why formaldehyde doesn't rise my jelly melting point?

Just to be clear, I'm not a chemical but only a electronic engineer which want create a "phantom material" to reproduce the electrical characteristic of epidermis for the analysis of electrodes ...
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20 views

Is there a concise notation for a solution of one substance in another?

I'm aware of phase notation of $\ce{(aq)}$ for aqueous solutions. Is there something similar for solutions of chemical X dissolved in chemical Y?
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488 views

Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
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355 views

What solution is not in equilibrium?

An example of a solution not in equilibrium (A) Chemical ph indicator (B) Acid/base buffer (C) Anhydrous solution (D) hypotonic solution (E) Supersaturated solution I eliminated A and ...
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747 views

how was freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration described?

Molarity is arguably the most intuitive descriptor for the "number of particles". But freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration is commonly described in textbooks as a function of ...
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134 views

Why are critical micelle concentrations so large?

Dissolving a non-polar molecule in water incurs a free energy cost of about $10 kJ/(mol \cdot nm^2)$ (source: http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=101826) The entropy gained from ...
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142 views

What would happen if I mix salt and sugar in a cup of water? [duplicate]

If I mix water in a cup with sugar at some stage the solution will become saturated and no more sugar will dissolve into the water. If I now add salt to the solution will the salt dissolve into the ...
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150 views

How to prevent Tin ions from precipitating as Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides

Alright, so Tin ions in most of it's salts have the propensity to form Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides and then precipitating out of aqueous solutions. What can I throw in the solutions to prevent this? Using ...
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3answers
246 views

Something about the idea of Molarity is confusing me

Okay, so molarity is defined as moles of solute per liter of solution. It is used to describe the concentration. So in the lab, when I see a bottle labeled something like $\mathrm{3.5~M}~\ce{H2SO4}$, ...
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273 views

If Beer's Law appears to apply to a high concentration (>0.01M) of a solute, is it valid to use for concentration calculation?

Internet consensus seems to define "high concentration" for Beer's Law as >0.01M. If one has a solution at higher concentrations than that, but the absorbance vs. concentration is still linear, is it ...
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2answers
117 views

Why doesn't the solute settle out of a solution, such as brine or sugar water? [closed]

If I have a solution of salt or sugar dissolved in water, the solute will never settle out or "fall to the bottom", no matter low long I wait. Why is that? Since salt and sugar (in their pure, solid ...
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2answers
135 views

How can I balance this reaction using the algebraic method?

How can I balance this reaction using the algebraic method? $$\ce{K4Fe(CN)6 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 + H2SO4 -> KHSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O}$$ My solution: $$\ce{a K4Fe(CN)6 + b KMnO4 + ...
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2answers
3k views

What does all chromatography have in common?

We're learning about chromatography in class, and I'm confused about all the different types (e.g. those that separate liquid-liquid solutions vs. those that separate liquid-solid solutions vs. those ...
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1answer
9k views

What elements and/or substances without water are liquid at room temperature? [closed]

I was thinking about liquids, and I started to wonder theses related questions: 1) Besides mercury, what elements are naturally liquid at room temperature? 2) What naturally found family of ...
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1answer
11k views

Physical state of hydronium

I am doing my chemistry homework and I am supposed to write the products when strong acids react with water, but I am unsure of the physical state for hydronium ions. Should it be liquid (l) or ...
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90 views

how to display diffusion to a young audience?

I need to display some science topic pertaining to the atomic bombs, or atomic history in some way to children of approximately middle school level. So I've decided that something interesting to cover ...
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1answer
46 views

How to add a color to vapors?

I want to add a color to vapors, like the vapor that comes out of glycerine when heated. Is there a chemical compound I can put into glycerine that makes the vapor colorful? Or is there a chemical ...
2
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1answer
116 views

The percentage of ingredients in a glass of tea [closed]

When a pot, pitcher, glass, etc of tea is brewed, how do I find the exact concentrations of tea and water in the end result. I realize it depends on the amount tea and water used when brewing. Is it ...
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1answer
3k views

How to check purity of mercury metal

Mercury is a very good solvent for many metals. We have mercury metal available, how do we check for its purity? Is there some kind of test available to verify its purity? And, more helpfully, which ...
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10k views

What made my solution cloudy?

I may know, but I would like an expert opinion and a possible solution? I had an ethanol product from molasses, brown sugar and yeast which was clear. I then added (and feel all information is ...
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2answers
97 views

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? [closed]

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? If yes, how do we find the new temperature and pressure of this point?
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3answers
1k views

Why do colligative properties depend only on number of solute particles?

Colligative properties depend solely on the number of even though the interactive forces are different for different solute-solvent pairs. So why is the dependence only on the number of solute?
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1answer
3k views

Explain volume contraction in mixtures of alcohol and water

Could someone explain why volume contraction occurs when you mix an alcohol such as ethanol with water in relation hydrogen bonding and the dipole-dipole forces?
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1answer
4k views

What does K3Fe(CN)6 become?

What does the salt $\ce{K3Fe(CN)6}$ change to when it is dissolved in water? I mean, I think its going to ionize, but in what way? Is there a way to know this? I tried to search the web but wasn't ...
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2answers
7k views

Given the concentration and density of a sample, calculate moles of bleach?

Given the concentration of bleach ($6\%\,\mathrm{m/m}$), density of bleach ($1.07\,\mathrm{g\,mL^{-1}}$), and molar mass of bleach ($74.44\,\mathrm{g\,mol^{-1}}$) how many moles of bleach are in a $4....
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1answer
163 views

Water in the ultrasonication bath

Why something jelly forms in the water if it is kept in in a ultrasonication bath for long periods? When water is exposed to ultrasonication for say a month, some jelly substances form in the ...
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1answer
212 views

How to prepare a Gaussian input file for a binary solvent?

The UV absorption energy spectrum of a molecule has been recorded experimentally using binary solvent (DMSO:Water=9:1 v/v). I am trying to calculate the absorption energy of the same molecule using ...
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2answers
2k views

Why doesn't a buffer solution change ph(Appreciably?)

Consider a buffer solution containing weak acid $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and its salt $\ce{CH3COONa}$: \begin{align} \ce{CH3COOH &<=> CH3COO- + H+} \tag{1}\\ \ce{CH3COONa &-> CH3COO- + Na+} \...
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2answers
519 views

Super-saturated solutions

If a solution is super-saturated is it possible to add a substance to it without allowing it to crystallise? Does a change in temperature have to happen and reduce it's saturation if I want to add ...
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2answers
2k views

Can dissolving be a chemical change?

My textbook says that $\ce{SO2}$ dissolving in water produces sulfurous acid, but that seems to be a chemical change. But $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolving in water is not a chemical change. Please explain.
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1answer
1k views

Acidic and alkaline salt solutions: why do some salt form acid/bases while others don't

I have a question regarding salts and their solutions. How come some salts, like sodium carbonate and ammonium chloride, produce acids/bases when dissolved in water? Moreover, how can you predict ...
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1answer
884 views

Why do some salt ions in solution conduct electricity better than others?

My experiment involves a potentiometric titration, and I have used $\ce{AgNO3}$ as a titrant and KCl/KI/deionised water only as an analyte. In the image below of my data, the potential difference as ...
2
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1answer
104 views

Order of molecular mass of solvent; given boiling point [closed]

Given three solvents X, Y, Z. Order of boiling point of pure solvent X < Y < Z and same order of molal elevation constant ($K_\mathrm{b}$). Find the order of molecular mass. So I got this ...
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2answers
302 views

Does removing solution affect a supersaturated solution

Given a mixture of: a saturated solution of a solute in a solvent together with excess of the solute compound as crystalline material. If one were to change the bulk composition of the mixture by ...
2
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1answer
12k views

Why is M1*V1 = M2*V2 only used for diluting solutions?

Why is $M_1V_1 = M_2V_2$ only used for diluting solutions? Why can it not be used to figure out how many moles to add to make a solution more dilute?
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1answer
85 views

Conductance of the mixture of two solutions with given resistance values [duplicate]

If $R_1$ and $R_2$ are the resistances of two solutions of equal volume what is the conductance of the mixture in the same conductivity cell? In general, I grasped neither the approach, nor the ...
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1answer
44 views

Neutralisation Reaction Confusion

What will happen when $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ reacts with $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{NaOH}$? Will $\pu{1 mol}$ each of $\ce{NaHSO4}$ and water be formed? Or will $\pu{0.5 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ will ...
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1answer
168 views

How to determine the proton concentration in the following solution in mol/L? [closed]

A $\pu{0.8L}$ solution contains $\pu{0.60 g }\ce{ NaOH}$ in water. Then the above question follows. It's been a long time that I made some chemistry exercises. Now I'm stuck with a couple of ...
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1answer
265 views

USNCO Question - Determining solute using spectrophotometer

Below is a question from the 2017 USNCO: The concentration of which approximately 0.01M solution could be most accurately determined by a visible spectrophotometer (or colorimeter)? (A) $\ce{Mn(NO3)...
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1answer
1k views

How many moles of sodium are there in 10mls of 30% sodium chloride?

How many moles of sodium are there in 10mls of 30% sodium chloride? 30% of 10mls is 3g NaCL. There is 3000mg of NaCl and would that be divided by the molecular weight of NaCl or of just Na? I ...
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1answer
169 views

History of octanol-water partition coefficient

We are aware that one of the basic information about a material is the logP value it has. The logP is worked out from the partitioning between the octanol and the water phases. Does anyone know who ...
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1answer
3k views

Is there a certain amount of titrant that is ideal?

For an AP chem lab dealing with determining the amount of citric acid in orange juice by titrating with NaOH, one of the discussion questions goes like this: Choose an amount of beverage to be ...
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1answer
1k views

How to find the mass of a solute given a mass fraction? [closed]

How many grams of $\ce{CuSO4 * 5 H2O}$ are needed to prepare a $20\%$ (w/w%) solution of $\ce{CuSO4}$?