Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How do we turn PTFE powder into a paste we can dilute in a solvent

We want to create a binder we can use in our filter elements that is PTFE based, so we need to somehow create a paste, we can thin down with a solvent that will still hold the PTFE in suspension, long ...
3
votes
2answers
770 views

Why is partial pressure used as a metric for oxygen in blood?

I know haemoglobin basically acts as an oxygen buffer. But when we talk about non-bound oxygen in blood (or water), we're referring to the amount of O2 in solution (aqueous state). From a biochemistry ...
3
votes
1answer
202 views

pH of a redox reaction between nickel(IV) oxide and silver

For the following reaction: $$\ce{NiO2(s) + 4 H+(aq) + 2 Ag(s) -> Ni^2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2Ag+(aq)}$$ $$ E^\circ = 2.48\ \mathrm V$$ Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of the solution if $E = 2.23\ \...
3
votes
1answer
50 views

vertically growing icicle

I made some "super" soap bubbles with my kids using the following ingredients: liquid dish soap tap water corn syrup We left the solution out over night last night here in Maine and the temperature ...
3
votes
1answer
751 views

What happens when a semipermeable membrane allows only one solute to pass through?

I'm essentially a medical student where we deal a lot with osmosis. But when we are taught, it is done generally with only a single solute in consideration. What if two different solutes are used on ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

How to calculate the osmotic pressure of a sucrose solution?

The boiling point of an aqueous solution containing sucrose, $\ce{C12H22O11}$, is $101.45~^\circ\mathrm{C}$. Calculate the osmotic pressure of this solution at $35~^\circ\mathrm{C}$, at which the ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Molecular weight determination from freezing point depression

Which is the better solvent for molar mass determinations by freezing point depression, benzene or cyclohexane? Which is the better method for molar mass determination, freezing point depression or ...
3
votes
1answer
23k views

Can you find the mass of solvent with mass of solute, volume of solution, and solution density?

If you have, for example, $\pu{10 g}$ of a solute dissolved into $\pu{100 ml}$ of a solution, and the solution density is $\pu{1.5 g ml^-1}$, can you just multiply $100\ \mathrm{ml} \times 1.5\ \...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Why is the maximal percent concentration of acids similar to their molar mass

Why is the usual percent concentration of a concentrated acid's solution similar to its molar mass? For example: ...
3
votes
1answer
156 views

metal salt solutions g/l means hydrate or anhydrous

I want to redo an experiment. They've used Nickel chloride: 40 g/L Nickel chloride can be bought in two forms: anhydrous ($\ce{NiCl2}$) and hydrate ($\ce{NiCl2....
3
votes
1answer
781 views

Properties of azeotropes

Consider two liquids with vapour pressures in pure form being ${P^o}_A$ and ${P^o}_B$. ${P^o}_B >{P^o}_A$ which implies liquid B is more volatile. If the liquids formed an ideal solution, then a ...
3
votes
1answer
986 views

Why any non polar compounds dissolve in nonpolar substance like Benzene what is the reason behind it? [duplicate]

In case of ionic solvent the ionic solute dissolve in it because due to polar nature of water it break the bond between the ions through hydration energy and the ionic solvent dissolve in it. So I ...
3
votes
1answer
312 views

How to determine fire hazard of heating ethylene glycol to dissolve borax and boric acid

I am looking to replicate instructions provided in the last paragrph of this article that requires dissolving borax (Sodium Tetraborate decahydrate ($\ce{Na2B4O7·10H2O}$)) and boric acid in ethylene ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Finding out pKa of acid from molar conductivity

I'm reading about the electrical properties of solution where there is a problem like that: The molar conductivity of $0.0250\ \mathrm M$ $\ce{HCOOH(aq)}$ is $4.61\ \mathrm{mS\ m^2\ mol^{-1}}$. ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Electrode Potential at Equilibrium

At each electrode-electrolyte interface there is a tendency of metal ions from the solution to deposit on the metal electrode trying to make it positively charged. At the same time, metal atoms of the ...
3
votes
1answer
583 views

What does solubility limit mean in practical terms?

I am not really a chemist guy so please bear with me. Glycerol monolaurate has an upper limit of solubility in water of 20 μg/mL, which is enough for my experiment. Does this mean that no matter how ...
3
votes
1answer
822 views

Supersaturation and Crystallization

I had a fairly simple question regarding supersaturation and crystallization. When a supersaturated solution is crystallized, is all of the solute crystallized or just the excess solute (such that the ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Weak base titrated with a strong acid

If you have a weak base XOH titrated with a strong monotonic acid, where do you start with that? Would you first have the base react with water and break up and determine how much of it does? Or just ...
3
votes
2answers
4k views

What chemical will dissolve the plastic coating on circuit boards

I'm trying to reclaim the metals on circuit boards and the vast majority is underneath the plastic coating. It is a brittle plastic that chips off in small flakes when etched but that process will ...
3
votes
2answers
791 views

How can I calculate the energy of a solution by knowing all of it's elements?

How can I calculate the energy of a solution by knowing all of it's elements? For example: If I have 2 liters of salting water $\mathbf{NaCl_{(aq)}+H_2O_{(l)}}$ contains 1.5 g of salt, how can I ...
3
votes
0answers
35 views

Discussion about Warren-Cowely Parameter

The Warren-Cowely Parameter (WCP) for short range solution order is defined as: $$\mathrm{WCP}_{ij} = 1 - \frac{Z_{ij}}{x_j \cdot Z_i}$$ where $Z_{ij}$ is the partial Coordination Number (CN) of ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

Phantom Material: why formaldehyde doesn't rise my jelly melting point?

Just to be clear, I'm not a chemical but only a electronic engineer which want create a "phantom material" to reproduce the electrical characteristic of epidermis for the analysis of electrodes ...
3
votes
0answers
640 views

Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
3
votes
0answers
423 views

What solution is not in equilibrium?

An example of a solution not in equilibrium (A) Chemical ph indicator (B) Acid/base buffer (C) Anhydrous solution (D) hypotonic solution (E) Supersaturated solution I eliminated A and ...
3
votes
0answers
784 views

how was freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration described?

Molarity is arguably the most intuitive descriptor for the "number of particles". But freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration is commonly described in textbooks as a function of ...
3
votes
0answers
135 views

Why are critical micelle concentrations so large?

Dissolving a non-polar molecule in water incurs a free energy cost of about $10 kJ/(mol \cdot nm^2)$ (source: http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=101826) The entropy gained from ...
3
votes
0answers
209 views

Do extreme homeopathic dilutions still retain quantities of the starting materials?

This Indian Institute of Technology Bombay press release quotes some research papers which claims to prove that homeopathic remedies do retain original substances even when diluted. The paper ...
3
votes
0answers
503 views

What would happen if I mix salt and sugar in a cup of water? [duplicate]

If I mix water in a cup with sugar at some stage the solution will become saturated and no more sugar will dissolve into the water. If I now add salt to the solution will the salt dissolve into the ...
3
votes
0answers
158 views

How to prevent Tin ions from precipitating as Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides

Alright, so Tin ions in most of it's salts have the propensity to form Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides and then precipitating out of aqueous solutions. What can I throw in the solutions to prevent this? Using ...
3
votes
2answers
101 views

How can one reclaim isotopic cadmium from a solution of acid, i.e. H2SO4 or HCl etc.?

I have dissolved isotopic cadmium-114 with $\ce{H2SO4}$ and or $\ce{HCl}$. Now that I have the cadmium-114 in solution, precipitating out $\ce{CdSO4}$ and or $\ce{CdCl2}$, how can I reduce these ...
2
votes
3answers
284 views

Something about the idea of Molarity is confusing me

Okay, so molarity is defined as moles of solute per liter of solution. It is used to describe the concentration. So in the lab, when I see a bottle labeled something like $\mathrm{3.5~M}~\ce{H2SO4}$, ...
2
votes
3answers
311 views

If Beer's Law appears to apply to a high concentration (>0.01M) of a solute, is it valid to use for concentration calculation?

Internet consensus seems to define "high concentration" for Beer's Law as >0.01M. If one has a solution at higher concentrations than that, but the absorbance vs. concentration is still linear, is it ...
2
votes
2answers
337 views

Why doesn't the solute settle out of a solution, such as brine or sugar water? [closed]

If I have a solution of salt or sugar dissolved in water, the solute will never settle out or "fall to the bottom", no matter low long I wait. Why is that? Since salt and sugar (in their pure, solid ...
2
votes
2answers
165 views

How can I balance this reaction using the algebraic method?

How can I balance this reaction using the algebraic method? $$\ce{K4Fe(CN)6 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 + H2SO4 -> KHSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 + MnSO4 + HNO3 + CO2 + H2O}$$ My solution: $$\ce{a K4Fe(CN)6 + b KMnO4 + ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

What does all chromatography have in common?

We're learning about chromatography in class, and I'm confused about all the different types (e.g. those that separate liquid-liquid solutions vs. those that separate liquid-solid solutions vs. those ...
2
votes
1answer
10k views

What elements and/or substances without water are liquid at room temperature? [closed]

I was thinking about liquids, and I started to wonder theses related questions: 1) Besides mercury, what elements are naturally liquid at room temperature? 2) What naturally found family of ...
2
votes
1answer
12k views

Physical state of hydronium

I am doing my chemistry homework and I am supposed to write the products when strong acids react with water, but I am unsure of the physical state for hydronium ions. Should it be liquid (l) or ...
2
votes
2answers
95 views

how to display diffusion to a young audience?

I need to display some science topic pertaining to the atomic bombs, or atomic history in some way to children of approximately middle school level. So I've decided that something interesting to cover ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

How to add a color to vapors?

I want to add a color to vapors, like the vapor that comes out of glycerine when heated. Is there a chemical compound I can put into glycerine that makes the vapor colorful? Or is there a chemical ...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

The percentage of ingredients in a glass of tea [closed]

When a pot, pitcher, glass, etc of tea is brewed, how do I find the exact concentrations of tea and water in the end result. I realize it depends on the amount tea and water used when brewing. Is it ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

How to check purity of mercury metal

Mercury is a very good solvent for many metals. We have mercury metal available, how do we check for its purity? Is there some kind of test available to verify its purity? And, more helpfully, which ...
2
votes
2answers
12k views

What made my solution cloudy?

I may know, but I would like an expert opinion and a possible solution? I had an ethanol product from molasses, brown sugar and yeast which was clear. I then added (and feel all information is ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Explain volume contraction in mixtures of alcohol and water

Could someone explain why volume contraction occurs when you mix an alcohol such as ethanol with water in relation hydrogen bonding and the dipole-dipole forces?
2
votes
1answer
5k views

What does K3Fe(CN)6 become?

What does the salt $\ce{K3Fe(CN)6}$ change to when it is dissolved in water? I mean, I think its going to ionize, but in what way? Is there a way to know this? I tried to search the web but wasn't ...
2
votes
2answers
7k views

Given the concentration and density of a sample, calculate moles of bleach?

Given the concentration of bleach ($6\%\,\mathrm{m/m}$), density of bleach ($1.07\,\mathrm{g\,mL^{-1}}$), and molar mass of bleach ($74.44\,\mathrm{g\,mol^{-1}}$) how many moles of bleach are in a $4....
2
votes
1answer
191 views

Water in the ultrasonication bath

Why something jelly forms in the water if it is kept in in a ultrasonication bath for long periods? When water is exposed to ultrasonication for say a month, some jelly substances form in the ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

Significance of shapes of Conical flask and Kjeldahl flask

What is the practical significance of the shapes of conical flask and Kjeldahl flask?
2
votes
1answer
546 views

How to prepare a Gaussian input file for a binary solvent?

The UV absorption energy spectrum of a molecule has been recorded experimentally using binary solvent (DMSO:Water=9:1 v/v). I am trying to calculate the absorption energy of the same molecule using ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Why doesn't a buffer solution change ph(Appreciably?)

Consider a buffer solution containing weak acid $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and its salt $\ce{CH3COONa}$: \begin{align} \ce{CH3COOH &<=> CH3COO- + H+} \tag{1}\\ \ce{CH3COONa &-> CH3COO- + Na+} \...
2
votes
2answers
593 views

Super-saturated solutions

If a solution is super-saturated is it possible to add a substance to it without allowing it to crystallise? Does a change in temperature have to happen and reduce it's saturation if I want to add ...

1
3 4
5
6 7
16