Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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How to calculate the mass of water to add to copper(II) sulfate to form a 4% solution?

How many grams of water are required to make a $4.00\%$ solution with $15.0~\mathrm{g}$ of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate? I calculated the percent composition of water in a molecule of $\ce{CuSO4....
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Why do exothermic dissolution reactions occur?

I've always been taught that an exothermic dissolution means that the forming of solute-solvent bonds releases more energy than the energy consumed to break solute-solute bonds and solvent-solvent ...
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715 views

Mixing of powders to make stock solutions

For a solution such as: Luria-Bertani (LB) Broth: 10 g tryptone 5 g yeast extract 10 g of NaCl ($M = 58.44\ \mathrm{g/mol}$) q.s. to 1 l, pH to 7.2, autoclave. I would like to make a bulk amount ...
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Solvated solids

I have a very basic question concerning solvation. If a solid (solute) was dissolved in a liquid (solvent), is the solute still in the solid state? or does it convert into another state of matter when ...
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226 views

How does a shock, such as the snap of the disk in a reusable hand warmer, trigger the re-crystalization of a supersaturated solution?

Reusable handwarmers are made of something dissolved nearly to its saturation point in hot water (Sodium Acetate in the case of HotSnapz) at a high temperature, and then cooled to a temperature at ...
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229 views

What is the proper way to prepare a solution aiming to minimize errors?

I am a undergraduate student in chemistry, and my university is very weak in teaching solution preparation. I need to prepare a 10 mg / L methylene blue solution and now the way I do is, using an ...
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How can I calculate the molar conductivity of a solution with multiple solutes?

I'm running an experiment mixing 2 different solutions, $\pu{5 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ with $\pu{5 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{KCl}$. I am measuring the conductivity of the total solution in $\...
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Difference between freezing point and melting point

I do not understand why for mixtures freezing point is lower than melting point. Are not the two representing the same equilibrium between solid and liquid which we are approaching from two different ...
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399 views

Dilution terminology

For thing like 8× dilution, that would be like 1 ml of a solution and then 7 ml of something like water to dilute right? Would 50 ml solution and 50 ml water be a 2× dilution? I’m a bit unsure about ...
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Why can we not use water instead of blank control solution in enzyme catalysis with Peroxidase experiment?

I have to do a lab about enzyme catalysis with peroxidase in my chemistry class. We are to use the blank control solution in the experiment. My question is, why can we not use water instead? I did ...
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Does Raoult's law hold for immiscible liquids?

I know that Raoult's law holds true only for a non volatile solute in a volatile solvent mixture wherein the vapour pressure of the solution gets lowered due to the addition of solute. Now, first of ...
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How is the formula of mean activity coefficient derived?

The mean activity coefficient is defiend as follows: $$\gamma_\pm = (\gamma_+\gamma_-)^{1/2}.\tag{1}$$ If Debye-Hückel equation $$-\log\gamma_i = 0.5z_i^2\mu^{1/2}\tag{2}$$ is used, then the mean ...
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Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
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Why does coke foam up when I add it to (cold) black coffee (no sugar, no milk)? [closed]

Album of the different gifs detailing this situation: Album of coke-coffee related gifs I thought that the answer would be similar to the ice-cream float situation, but I don't see what in the coffee ...
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103 views

Solubility of oxygen in liquid hydrogen; is anything near 1:2 (molar ratio) possible?

In a question on another Stack Exchange site a proposal was forwarded to premix oxygen and hydrogen in the stoichiometric molar ratio of 1:2 to be used as rocket fuel, as opposed to the standard ...
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Reaction of iron(III) oxide with nitric acid [closed]

I'm currently working in a project in which I have to convert the iron oxides present in iron ore slime into ferric nitrate. Iron ore slime is which has the particle size of below $\pu{0.15 mm}$ is ...
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161 views

Phase description for a substance dissolved in a solvent other than water?

I'm trying to write an equation for which I have $\ce{CuI}$ dissolved in acetonitrile. Usually if you have a salt dissolved in water you can denote that using $\ce{(aq)}$, but is there a notation for ...
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118 views

Why the dilution of solvent doesn't affect the solid phase, in comparison to the liquid phase?

Dilution of the solvent adds new energy states to the liquid, but does not affect the solid phase. The above line appeared on the following page under the section "5: Colligative properties and ...
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Can fully-hydrogenated oils be mixed with unsaturated oils for use in food (margarines, etc)?

Would it be feasible to mix fully hydrogenated oils with unsaturated oils (eg. soybean oil) to create an edible fat with the consistency of margarine? If so, what is the motivation for ...
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113 views

Are hydroxides soluble in each other?

Let's say I have molten potassium hydroxide and then I add some Calcium hydroxide. I imagine, since there are hydroxide groups floating around, it would be energetically neutral for the calcium ions ...
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Is there any difference between isotonic and isosmotic solution?

Is there any difference between isotonic and isosmotic solution? Can we say isotonic solution do not show osmosis because they have same osmotic pressure?
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Why is Iron very rare in seawater compared to many other elements?

I don't know the associated technical words to research this question. There was high presence of Iron in the oceans in anoxic precambrian times, and today copper is 5 times more abundant in the ...
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The safety of homemade slime

Disclaimer: I am not a chemist, but I figured this may be the place to ask. So, recently, there has been a lot of news going around about the homemade slime burning a child's hands and I got curious ...
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Liquid that does not spoil for a mineral aquarium

I want to create a decoration - a mason jar "aquarium". I want to take a large mason jar, put some nice mineral specimens in it, fill the jar with liquid and seal it with lid. I believe I can't use ...
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How to determine the mole fraction of the liquid phase from a given mole fraction of the vapour phase for a benzene/toluene mixture?

A quantity of benzene, $\ce{C6H6}$, and toluene, $\ce{C6H5CH3}$, is placed in a $\pu{1 L}$ evacuated vessel at $\pu{25 ^\circ C}$. At equilibrium, a small volume of liquid is visible at the bottom of ...
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Kinetics of air evolving from water on heating

Is there a simple relationship describing the kinetics of air evolving from water on heating? For example, if I let water at room temperature and pressure saturate with air, it should have some ...
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300 views

Making a non-CN dissolved gold solution ideal for electroplating

I've had success electroplating $\ce{Ni}$ and $\ce{Cu}$, but interestingly never $\ce{Al}$. My focus here is on plating with $\ce{Au}$, specifically onto an $\ce{Ni}$ surface. In general from my own ...
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How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
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Is there an adhesive that is not dissolved by acetone?

I am trying to glue glass sheets together to make a sealed 13" x 13" x 13" box. Inside this box there would be acetone gas used to melt 3D printed parts to make them more durable. Acetone will remove ...
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Is there a concise notation for a solution of one substance in another? [closed]

I'm aware of phase notation of $\ce{(aq)}$ for aqueous solutions. Is there something similar for solutions of chemical X dissolved in chemical Y?
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Theory of volume contraction in solution

When a solid is dissolved into a liquid, or two solids are amalgamated, their mutual volume will contract. For example, a crystal of sugar having a volume of one cubic inch dissolved into 10 cubic ...
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266 views

Debye-Huckel theory with non-polar solvents

I want to calculate the activity coefficients of mixed solvent salt solutions. I am seeing very strange behavior when I try calculating the activity coefficient of salts in non-polar solvents using ...
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103 views

Synthesizing monodisperse PbS quantum dots

For a research project, I am trying to synthesize lead (II) sulfide quantum dots using the method of Li et al.. I am injecting sulfur dissolved in 1-octadecene into a mixture of $\ce{PbO}$, oleic ...
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163 views

How do xanthan gum and other hydrocolloids work?

Does anyone know what causes things like xanthan gum to make water into a slimy substance on the molecular level?
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92 views

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation?

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation? Let's say A and B makes a nonideal solution. The moleculat force between A and B means ...
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Why do ionic substances with higher lattice energies tend to be less soluble in water than substances with lower lattice energies?

I understand that that energy is required to overcome intermolecular forces holding solute particles together in the crystal, but I don't understand how this relates to lattice energies and respective ...
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What does (sol) in a chemical equation mean?

I'm reading Shrivers Inorganic Chemistry book and some of the equations have a (sol) state on them. I'm sure the book has already defined this but I cannot find where. Examples: \begin{align} \ce{[...
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When making a calibration curve, do we have to use the wavelength at maximum absorbance?

If you are making a calibration curve for $\ce{CuSO4}$ where you plot absorbance against concentration, does the wavelength have to be exactly at the maximum of the peak? Or can it be somewhere else ...
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Why would a solution of FeCl2 appear brown/yellow sort of like FeCl3?

If we prepare a solution of $\ce{FeCl2}$ by dissolving solid $\ce{FeCl2}$ powder in water, supposing the bottle of $\ce{FeCl2}$ was left open for sufficient time, is it possible for $\ce{FeCl2}$ to ...
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How to determine electrolyte concentration in solutions?

The original question is here We've been given the sports drink vs orange juice challenge. To find out which has more electrolytes. I could test for conductivity but that alone wouldn't tell me ...
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What does all chromatography have in common?

We're learning about chromatography in class, and I'm confused about all the different types (e.g. those that separate liquid-liquid solutions vs. those that separate liquid-solid solutions vs. those ...
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765 views

Is HDPE affected by long term exposure to methanol?

For at least several years I'be been storing various chloride solutions with methanol as a solute in Nalgene containers, which I believe are made from high density polyethylene (HDP). But recently ...
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A solution is cloudy at lower concentration and becomes clear at higher concentration. Why?

This might be just an "everyday life science" question. I am a university professor but not in Chemistry so please educate me. Today I was adding some floor cleaner formula to water as ...
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Under what circumstances would azeotrope exist in non ideal solutions? (when would the dew point curve and the bubble point curve meet?)

[solved. For anyone who's interested in this topic, please view MaxW's comment under his/her answer. A thousand thanks to Poutnik and MaxW.] I looked up several books on thermodynamics, and they all ...
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Solution to Raoult's Law for a volatile binary solution (no pun intended)

Raoult's Law In a closed container, $$P_A=P_A^\circ x_A$$ where $P_A$ is the pressure of compound in gaseous phase, and $x_A$ is the mole fraction of the liquid component A in the liquid mixture. If ...
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Adding ethanol to louche

I'm watching MIT chemistry by Donald Sadoway. In one of his lectures devoted to solutions and phase separation, he performs experiments with absinthe. First he mixes absinthe with 5 $\times$ water ...
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Interpretation of miscibility curves

I stumbled across miscibility curves in the section Solubility of Liquids in Liquids (Organic Chemistry, by Wallwork and Grant) today. I'm not sure if my problem is with the way the content was laid ...
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Explain volume contraction in mixtures of alcohol and water

Could someone explain why volume contraction occurs when you mix an alcohol such as ethanol with water in relation hydrogen bonding and the dipole-dipole forces?
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Does NaCl reduce the surface tension of water?

Does NaCl reduce the surface tension of water? And why? For example soap does it, and I was wondering if NaCl does the same.
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Mass of salt required to make a 1.2 g/ml solution

I would like to make an NaCl and water solution with a density of 1.2 g/ml. How would you calculate the grams of NaCl required to make a 1000 ml solution? I have used density of mixture = (mass NaCl +...

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