Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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Solubility in carbon tetrachloride

Which of these substances is more soluble in $\ce{CCl4}$? $\ce{CH3F}$ $\ce{I2}$ $\ce{Na2SO4}$ $\ce{HCl}$ How do I even solve this kind of exercise? My guess is that $\ce{CCl4}$ is ...
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How to crystallize a solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalaninemethylesterhydrochloride without heating it?

I have an aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalaninemethylesterhydrochloride and I need to crystallise it as a salt. I'm afraid of increasing the temperature or the concentration of acid due to the ...
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1answer
199 views

What are appropriate techniques to ensure homogeneous solidification of an agar-based aqueous solution?

I am making a T1 weighted phantom for an MRI project. I'm trying to see if I can calculate how much a persons head heats up during an MRI scan. It consists of distilled boiling water, $\pu{7 g/L}$ ...
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Is lithium bicarbonate an aqueous solution of lithium carbonate?

This question is related to: Are Lithium bicarbonate and​ Magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water? What type of chemical reaction is this? How can bromine water be called a solution? In the ...
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Can a precipitate dissolve upon addition of a diluted acid?

Is it true that precipitates dissolve upon addition of diluted acids? If a precipitates is dissolve , does it disappear from solution , or any thing else happened out there? I am just curious ...
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1answer
383 views

Can acid mine drainage form acid rain?

Can acid mine drainage form acid rain? Since normal acid rain is formed via combustion of fossil fuels, the sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are all in the gas phase, whereas in acid mines the ...
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1answer
2k views

Why does the Born equation give the Gibbs free energy of solvation rather than enthalpy of solvation?

The Born equation gives the difference in energy required to charge a particle in a vacuum and in solution which results in the work required to transfer an ion from a vacuum into solution. It is ...
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1answer
5k views

Why do chloroform and benzene exhibit negative deviation from Raoult's law?

Chloroform is a polar molecule, and benzene is nonpolar. Shouldn't the chloroform-chloroform and benzene-benzene intermolecular forces be stronger than chloroform-benzene interactions (like dissolves ...
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1answer
11k views

How would using different salts in a salt bridge effect the voltage generated by a voltaic cell?

If I use a range of different nitrate solutions (e.g. calcium nitrate, iron nitrate) for the salt bridge in a voltaic cell, what effect would it have on the flow of ions in the voltaic cells? Will ...
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1answer
688 views

Detailed kinetic explanation for vapor pressure reduction by dissolved solute?

The following problem was asked in JEE Mains 2020 (Sept 2, Shift 1), An open beaker of water in equilibrium with water vapor is in a sealed container. When a few grams of glucose are added to the ...
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Calculating the density of a saturated salt solution

Is there a way to calculate the density of a saturated salt solution from the solubility limits or does it have to be experimentally determined? First instinct, is to add the mass of the salt to ...
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Why do some solid chemicals dissolve better in colder water?

I just discovered that some solid chemicals, such as $\ce{Na2SO4}$, dissolve better in cold water than hot water from here and would like to know if there is any particular reason as to why. Is it ...
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why do we obtain a sigmoid curve in vapour pressure versus temperature graph

i have recently got a question in an assignment, which was somewhat like this what would be the shape of curve obtained in a graph between vapour pressure & temperature of a binary solution in ...
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Byproducts of the neutralisation of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide

Given a 1 M concentration of $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$ here are the pHs: pH of $\ce{HCl}$: 1 pH of $\ce{NaOH}$: 13–14 and of course water has a pH of 7. Here is a reaction that is most likely to ...
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444 views

If volatility depends on intermolecular forces, then why in Raoult's law, two substances have different volatility?

I have a doubt, Ideal solutions are solutions where intermolecular forces between solute-solute and solvent-solvent are nearly equal to solute-solvent. Since intermolecular forces between A-A = B-B, ...
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1answer
557 views

Can a solid and liquid be miscible?

To be specific, what I mean is: is the following situation possible? At given temperature T, there are two substances, X and Y, such that pure X is a solid, pure Y is a liquid, and X and Y mix to form ...
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1answer
577 views

Is there a paper glue that is NOT dissolved by acetone?

Short version of the question: I need a spray-on glue that will stick paper to wood that isn't dissolved by acetone. Long version: I am trying to glue paper on wood. It's a big sheet of paper and I ...
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1answer
4k views

Dissolving Tylenol Science Experiment - why is it fastest in distilled water?

My son has a science experiment for class to dissolve Tylenol (325mg acetaminophen) in 3 different solutions (125 mL volume each): Distilled water Vinegar (1 part white vinegar to 4 parts water) Salt ...
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1answer
2k views

Is the density of the solution significantly different from the density of the solvent?

I am working on a mathematical model for the dissolution of coffee in water. I need to know some precise details about the effects of dissolution on the density of the mixture of the substances (that ...
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1answer
318 views

The partition coefficient for a chemical species across a membrane

What factors influence the partition factors across a membrane for a chemical species? Wikipedia defines the partition coefficient as: In the physical sciences, a partition-coefficient (P) or ...
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76 views

Dissolving to Create a Solution with Ethanol

If at 95% Ethanol can dissolve chemical X at 1mg/1mL then theoretically if you have 500mg of chemical X you can dissolve it in 500mL of $\ce{EtOH}$ to get 1mg/mL correct? My question is, if you have ...
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347 views

Standard solution and extracted solution : same concentration?

Summary : I am currently testing how a certain type of foam adsorbs HAP, PCB and OCP, and to this end I am depositing some on the foam, then extracting it. To know how much was extracted, I need to ...
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162 views

How to estimate HCN content in a volatile mixture?

How can you accurately qualitatively and quantitatively determine the HCN in a volatile product from water?
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269 views

Why droplets of water and ethyl alcohol solution freeze weirdly? [closed]

I'm doing a project where I freeze water drops and solutions with water and ethyl alcohol. It's a phenomena where drops create a conical shape at the end of their freezing. But with ethyl drops, with ...
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Reference request for the number of solvents around a solute [closed]

I want to know if there is a way to find number of solvent molecules that are directly embracing a solute molecule (something like a reference or table that shows waters of hydration). Particularly I ...
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How are compounds within a complicated mixture detected?

I was reading an article about an independent pharmaceutical watchdog group called Valisure which recently released a report stating that they found Benzene, a toxic substance, in many bottles of ...
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Deviation from Raoult's law because of adhesive and cohesive forces

A solution made of two or more compounds have adhesive and cohesive forces. Cohesive forces are the attractive forces between the same molecules. Adhesive forces are the attractive forces between ...
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271 views

Is it possible for an acid and base to react to form an even stronger base or acid?

Is there a combination of an acid and a base that when mixed results in a solution that is more basic or more acidic than the initial base or acid, respectively? If so, do such combinations have a ...
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What is an equivalent?

I want to know what is an equivalent and how is it different from equivalent mass. How to calculate and why is it used in chemistry for knowing concentration?
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Finding sulfate contamination in crystallized silver nitrate

What is the best way to check for a small amount of sulfate contamination (if any) in silver nitrate? Usually, I would use dilute barium chloride to precipitate out the resulting insoluble white ...
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3answers
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Is sodium acetate strong or a weak electrolyte?

Since it is formed of a strong base and a weak acid it should be a strong electrolyte but a chemistry teacher said that it is a weak electrolyte.....
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Does rate of Evaporation change with surface area?

Two vessels of the same volume, in the same location and open to the atmosphere. One is of a small diameter, the other is of a larger diameter. The question is will the vessel with the larger surface ...
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Why do colligative properties depend only on number of solute particles?

Colligative properties depend solely on the number of even though the interactive forces are different for different solute-solvent pairs. So why is the dependence only on the number of solute?
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Why does ethanol and water mixture show positive deviation from Raoult's Law?

So, my teacher said, "For a solution to show positive deviation from Raoult's Law, it must have a compound which is lacking hydrogen bond and a compound which has hydrogen bond." This is because the ...
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CuCl2 dissolved in water

We dissolve $10\ \mathrm{g}$ of $\ce{CuCl2}$ in $0.1\ \mathrm{L}$ of water. Given that: $M(\ce{Cl})=35.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ $M(\ce{Cu})=63.5\ \mathrm{g/mol}$ How can one calculate the molar ...
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Can Ice Packs Freeze Water at 21 °C?

I receive $120~\mathrm{mL}$ bags of medicine in sterile water. The medicine is refrigerated and then packed with a significant amount of ice packs in an insulated bag. Generally three times the volume ...
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600 views

Dynamic equilibrium in unsaturated solutions

One standard definition of equilibrium in beginner chemistry is that for a reversible reaction, (dynamic) equilibrium has been achieved when the rate of the forward and backward reactions are equal. ...
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2answers
888 views

How to determine if two calibration curves are parallel, within 5%

I have complex matrices and I need to make sure the matrix does not affect the measurement of my analyte. To do that, I need to prepare samples of my analyte in a solvent and of the matrix reinforced ...
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3answers
155 views

Finding equilibrium concentrations in solution from initial reagent concentrations and equilibrium constant

We have the following reaction: $$\ce{A + B<=>2C +D}$$ The initial concentration of $\ce{A}$ and $\ce{B}$ are $\pu{1M}$ each. $K_c$ is $\pu{1.0E8}$. Find the equilibrium concentration of $\ce{A}$...
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173 views

Polyprotic acids and bases

I just have a question on how you handle polyprotic bases. Question: Show how oxalate ion can be a polyprotic base My answer: My question is whether we stop doing the reaction until the oxalate ion ...
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Why are solutions electrically neutral?

I keep reading that solutions are electrically neutral, but I've never read an explanation. I've read after the fact justifications, such as one problem which asked me to calculate the force of ...
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487 views

Would ionic compounds dissolve in methanol?

Question: Determine whether liquid hexane ($\ce{C6H14}$) or liquid methanol ($\ce{CH3OH}$) is the more appropriate solvent for the substances grease ($\ce{C20H42}$) and potassium iodide ($\ce{KI}$)....
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592 views

Any other Colligative properties?

Are there any other colligative properties other than lowering of vapor pressure, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression? I was wondering whether surface tension of ...
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107 views

If some particles of liquid in a solution convert to vapour then why can't some liquid particles convert to solid?

I was reading about the vaporisation of liquid when I came across the following statement. The average energy of the particles in a liquid is governed by the temperature. The higher the ...
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275 views

How to make a CCl3F Fluorine NMR standard?

I am running some fluorine NMR and would like to make a bulk solution of $\ce{CCl3F}$ in $\ce{CDCl3}$ to aid in assessing the amount of fluorinated product present by having my NMR solvent act as a ...
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1answer
15k views

Is there a way to dissolve glue?

Background: I have a journal from my childhood. I applied glue (uhu brand. this one) to the papers almost 10 years ago. Q: Is there a way to dissolve the glue and make the pages readable?
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400 views

Why does the conductivity of a LiOH solution decrease when boric acid is added?

If I start with pure water and add $\ce{LiOH}$ the conductivity of solution increases. However, if I then dissolve boric acid in the same solution the conductivity falls. I would have thought adding ...
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689 views

Colligative properties and sizes of particles

Why do colligative properties only depend on the number of particles and not the size? *My argument being that since the root cause of these properties is the occurrence of solute particles on the ...
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1answer
2k views

How to calculate the amount of substance of sodium that are in 10 mL of 30% sodium chloride?

How much of sodium is there in 10 mL of 30% sodium chloride? $30\%$ of $\ce{10 ml}$ is $\pu{3 g}$ $\ce{NaCl}$. There is $\pu{3000 mg}$ of $\ce{NaCl}$ and would that be divided by the molecular weight ...
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130 views

How soluble is uranium in molten iron?

As I know, uranium and iron simply aren't mixable, which means there are no U-Fe alloys. The Google says, uranium is insoluble in molten iron. But, if something is "insoluble", it actually means only ...

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