Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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61 views

Is awaruite to nickel sulfate possible?

Much time has passed since my basic chemistry and I am trying to determine if an awaruite mine proposed by FPX Nickel Corp ("FPX") might serve as feed-stock to nickel sulfate for battery production. ...
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84 views

How to make rheoscopic fluid using glycol stearate flakes

Rheoscopic fluid can be made by adding mica powder to water. I read that mica powder can settle and condense after sitting around for a long time. So I want to use glycol stearate flakes instead. ...
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255 views

Dependence of Osmotic Effects on Particle Size

van't Hof's equation for osmotic pressure is derived with the assumption, among others, that the particle size of the solute is comparable to the particles size of the solvent. It holds well so long ...
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33 views

Hypothetically, can sufficiently powerful centrifugation separate normally miscible chemicals of differing densities?

Centrifugation is used to separate phases in suspensions by density. I read that this is not possible with colloids and solutions, but the distinction between the three seems to be optical properties ...
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1answer
581 views

Equation to find specific gravity (or density) from a solution of sugar and water

Is there an equation or simple way to calculate the final density of a solution made from x grams of sugar and y liters of water? And would it work in reverse? if we have y liters of water at z ...
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209 views

What's the density of a frozen ethanol or ethanol solutions?

How can we know what's the density of ice (water), but there's no data on how much is the density of frozen ethanol? (as far as I know)
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210 views

How does the molarity of a solution change on boiling off the solvent?

The dilution equation $$M_1V_2=M_2V_2$$ is an equation that can be used to calculate how adding water can impact the volume and molarity of a solution. So I was wondering if this equation would apply ...
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48 views

Can the solutions for the Briggs Rauscher experiment be made ahead of time and stored?

I will be performing the Briggs Rauscher Oscillating reaction as a part of an investigation into the effect of heat on the antioxidants. This will require 3 solutions to be mixed together, as shown ...
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75 views

Kinetics of A + 2 B -> C reaction

A reaction $\ce{A + 2 B -> C}$ is carried out in constant volume at $\pu{227 ^\circ C}$. the volume is $\pu{2 L}$. There is no $\ce{C}$ at the beginning. $[\ce{A}]_0 = \pu{0.035 mol L-1}$. $\ce{B}$ ...
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435 views

Is the crystallization process of aqueous solutions of substances such as lithium chloride endothermic?

$\ce{LiCl}$ has an enthalpy of solution of $\pu{-37.1 kJ/mol}$, so its dissolution process is exothermic. Does this mean that it's crystallization process is exothermic? I'm asking since I've looked ...
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68 views

How can it be determined that a liquid is saturated with a gas?

How can it be determined if a liquid is saturated with a gas? For example, if I am introducing carbon dioxide to water at 40 PSI at 35F in a sealed container, how would I know at what point the water ...
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22 views

Determining pH of immunoprecipitation buffer recipe

I'm following a protocol for extraction of proteins from yeast, and I came across this recipe for immunoprecipitation buffer: $\pu{50 mM}$ HEPES-$\ce{KOH}$, pH 6.8, $\pu{150 mM}$ $\ce{KOAc}$, $\pu{...
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92 views

SO3(2-) to Na2S2O5 ratio

Is there a way of calculating the amount of sodium metabisulfite from the sulfite content? I found online instructions for the test kit for sulfite that suggests multiplying by $2.37$ to obtain $\pu{...
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103 views

How to interpret the shape in this representation of an electride?

This excellent answer describes the appearance of solvated electrons in ammonia as first a blue, and then metallic color. It is produced by dissolving sodium in ammonia at low temperature. According ...
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697 views

Predicting the vapor pressure of water ammonia solution

I am working on a project that involves the compressors for a vapor compression refrigeration cycle of R717 (ammonia) and came across something that has been boggling my mind a little bit for no good ...
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138 views

Adding fragrance oil to paraffin wax

I am trying to make a highly scented jar candle. I'm having trouble wicking the candle when I put in larger amounts of fragrance oil. It seems to be either too small and drowns or is too large and ...
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392 views

Methods to extract sucrose from tea after it's been stirred in?

Sugar is often labelled "white poison" now-a-days and a lot of negative health consequences happen due to increased sugar consumption. Keeping this in mind, if I were handed a cup of tea (with sugar ...
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27 views

Deliquescence database

I am looking for a database or printed document providing the RH0 (relative humidity above which deliquescence will occur) for inorganic salts. I've looked everywhere on the internet can find nothing.
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365 views

What is the pH of a solution that results of a mixture of two others with known pH?

Solution A has a pH of 1, soultion B has a pH of 6. If I mix the same volume V of each solution into one, what will be the pH of the resulting solution? I'm guessing here as no more information has ...
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111 views

How to calculate the gas-liquid interaction for dissolved HNO3 in water with air?

Thanks for reading this and (maybe) helping me in advance! I have to face the following problem: I have got $\ce{HNO3}$ dissolved in water (roughly $\pu{50\%}$) and I want to know how much $\ce{HNO3}...
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149 views

Osmotic pressure and Raoult's law co-relation?

Consider two compartments A and B joined. A contains pure water. B contains brine (dilute). Consider the Vant Hoff factor ($i$). Obviously pressure over B is less than over A. We also know that the ...
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63 views

Is it possible to supercool hydrated salts like magnesium nitrate hexahydrate supercool just like for sodium acetate trihydrate?

Recently I stumbled upon the phenomenon of supercooling. I know that you can do this with water as well as with some phase change materials, like sodium acetate trihydrate (from the wintersport ...
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971 views

Find the standard Gibbs' free energy of formation at 298.15 K for O2 gas dissolved in the saturated aqueous solution?

The solubility of $O_2(g)$ in water at $25^o \text{C}$ and $\text{1 bar}$ pressure of $O_2(g)$ above the solution is $0.00126$ $mol$ $O_2(g)/kg$ $water$. Find $\Delta_fG_{298.15}^o(O_2(g),sln)$. I ...
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566 views

Calculating the pH of buffer solution made of two salts of a polyprotic acid

When we are making a buffer solution by solutions of a weak acid and its salt like $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and $\ce{CH3COONa}$, or by a weak base and its salt like $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$, we can use the ...
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586 views

What's the van 't Hoff factor of dilute aqueous ferrous sulphate solution?

Is it more than one or less than one? Here is what I think: since it is a dilute and aqueous solution, so $\ce{FeSO4}$ will be hydrated and new formula will be $\ce{FeSO4*7H2O}$. Thus, the ...
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169 views

How do ion–dipole bonds manage to break apart an ionic lattice?

I was reading this answer and its reasoning behind the dissolution of NaCl seems to lie in entropic favorability. However, as it states, many, if not most, dissolution reactions are favored by ...
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129 views

What is the physics/chemistry behind gold dissolution in water/seawater?

Global ocean contains some amount of dissolved gold (around 0.05-0.005 ppb). Is it ions of gold? Is it just suspended atomic gold (like water vapor in gases - just suspended molecules)? Can pure ...
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45 views

Precipitation occurred when adding vanilla extract to oak extract. What caused this?

Sorry if this is a very obscure question, but I don't know where to ask it. 120ml of oak extract, made by soaking oak chips in ethanol, was added to a flask. At this point, the solution was very dark ...
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23 views

Does the dispertion medium affects Quantum Dots fluorescence efficiency?

I would like to use CdTe Quantum Dots to make a fluorescent coating on a transparent support. There's a link to the material here: http://www.plasmachem.com/shop/en/62--cdte-quantum-dots-powder-...
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293 views

What is the difference between standard chemical potential (μ standard) and the “pure” chemical potential (μ*)?

I am studying solutions for my thermodynamics course and I am a little confused about the chemical potential of a solute. I found the following from Atkins: For a solute $\ce B$,obeying Henry's Law ...
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370 views

Hydrogen Peroxide - Iron Nail Galvanic Cell?

I am planning to create a simple galvanic cell made up of common household materials. Suppose I have hydrogen peroxide (to serve as cathode), diluted in water, in one beaker, and I have a bunch of ...
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108 views

Why can't we find the density and molarity given the masses of solute/solvent and molar masses?

From 2013 ACS Local Exam: We have a $\ce{KNO3}$ solution prepared in water, and we know the masses of solute and solvent as well as the molar masses. I know that we can easily find molality, but how ...
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53 views

Does dissolving a solute lowers the activation energy of a reaction of that solute?

I'm formulating a reason why the use of solvents in some reactants are preferred rather then mixing just the pure components together. My gut feeling tells me that it lowers the activation energy of ...
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115 views

Recrystallization of salts with similar solubilites

If you had two solutions, for example, 100 ml each of 0.5 M $\ce{RbCl}$ and 0.5 M $\ce{NaBr}$, at 20 °C, where the salts have very similar solubility in water, and you mixed the solutions, and allowed ...
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158 views

What did I do wrong with my lotion bar that it was grainy at the bottom of the mold?

I want to create a with cocoa butter bar and coconut oil, that emulsifies quickly when rubbed in your hands. I made a tiny batch with a 6:1 ratio (6 tbsp CB and 1tbsp CO) and they have held together ...
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547 views

Is the freezing point of solution always lower?

If the freezing point of a solution always lower than that of the pure solvent or is it possible for it to end up being higher?
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193 views

Is there a method to separate ions from water other than by double displacement precipitation?

I'm working on a problem for school where we have to detect Fe3+, Ca2+, Cl-, and SO42- ions in water, and we have been given AgNO3, KSCN, BaCl2, and a HC2H3O2/Na2C2O4 mixture (all in solution) to do ...
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78 views

Dissolving sodium bicarbonate?

I would like to dissolve or equally blend sodium bicarbonate in liquid coconut oil. Is there a way this can safely be done at home?
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589 views

Effect of nitrobenzene on solution UV/Vis spectra

I am wondering if there is a difference in the maximum absorbed wavelength of light if nitrobenzene is added to an acidic or basic solution. I've figured that resonance plays a part in some ...
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108 views

Different ion effect

I need to have the highest concentration of (bi)carbonate ions in a water solution. Thus far, my only idea was to use Potassium Bicarbonate (safe and cheap) as it has the highest solubility but it ...
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398 views

Enthalpy of mixing in a regular solution

In a mixture of $A$ and $B$ where $A$ and $B$ are randomly mixed and the average coordination number is $z$. If there are $n_B$ molecules of $B$ in the mixture these will be in contact with a total of ...
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80 views

Why does the molar conductivity decrease with increasing charge density?

This is a question in a problem sheet I have been set. Is it do do with the following equation: $\Lambda=\Lambda_0-a\sqrt c$? Surely charge density is proportional to concentration so therefore molar ...
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36 views

Microorganism preventative solution safe for using on a roof and will last in the sun

Information is scarce in the roof cleaning industry and the big guys are making a killing selling chemicals that are harmful to the person using it and everything around the home. I would like to find ...
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1k views

Is there an example of an opaque solution which can be made transparent by adding another solute, such that no chemical reaction occurs?

I am further interested in knowing exactly what the requirements are for a liquid to be transparent.
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184 views

Kinetics of the conversion from metal oxide to metal hydroxide in water

How long can a metal oxide such as magnesium oxide remain in solution before being converted to the metal hydroxide?
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1answer
730 views

Why does solvent particles move towards solution when semi permeable membrane is added?

When a SPM is added in between solute and solution the water molecules move towards salt water even though the concentration is same both sides. Why does this happen? According to SPM's perspective, ...
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1answer
2k views

Find the volume of sea water

The concentration of all salts present in sea-water is 3.52 % (m/v). Calculate the volume of sea-water, which on evaporation will produce 5 kg of salt. My attempt: \begin{align} 5~\mathrm{kg} &= ...
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17 views

What is the lattice enthalpy of zinc chloride?

I am trying to find a literature value for the enthalpy of solution of zinc chloride to compare with my experimental value but I can't seem to find it. So I'm trying to use the formula: enthalpy of ...
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20 views

Silicon carbide coating

I want to create thin coating of silicon carbide on ceramic substrate. This is usually done using sol-gel method with silicon and carbon precursors mixed together, creating sol, applying it to surface ...
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16 views

Is Raoults Law valid if the solute is non volatile but have less vapour pressure than pure solvent?

We know that on adding a non-volatile solute to a pure solvent its vapour pressure increases because of the reluctance of solute to evaporate(i.e. strong intermolecular forces of attraction) Instead ...