Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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74 views

If a conductivity meter is calibrated with aqueous standards, can it be used to measure the conductivity of an organic-based solvent system?

Trying to figure out if the calibration solutions for a conductivity probe/meter must be of a similar nature to the system which will be measured. I can only find aqueous calibration solutions online, ...
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104 views

Ink / formulation chemistry: What lab requirements

Little open information can be found on the requirements of the manufacture, development and testing of gel and printing inks. It seems that most ink manufacturers have their own specific lab ...
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292 views

How to derive the energy of solvation equation?

The work done as a ion is solvated is given by: $-z^2e^2/8\pi\epsilon r$ but since the top line can be written $Q^2$, for simplicity I will say the equation is $-Q^2/8\pi\epsilon r$. Is this derived ...
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19 views

Cleaning solution alternatives for acetate, nitrate, or polyester base motion picture film

I am in search of alternative film cleaning solutions which are safe for the film, me, and the environment. I have used several different professional film cleaning solutions in my many years of ...
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38 views

Why in positive deviation from Raoult's Law partial vapour pressure of a liquid component is greater than what is predicted by Raoult's Law?

When my teacher was teaching me positive deviation from Raoult's Law, he told me that in this case $P_{solution}>P_A^°χ_{A} + P_B^°χ_{B}$ He told that here the solute-solvent interactions are ...
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81 views

What determines solubility (or miscibility) in organic solvents?

I'm actually quite surprised that this isn't really mentioned anywhere on the internet (or I'm just bad at searching)! Solubility in water is known to be directly related by multiple factors, and for ...
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125 views

Solubility of gases in water in comparison to their liquefiability

My textbook of physical chemistry says ...The following factors affect the solubilities of gases in liquids: (i) Nature of the gas and solvent: Generally, the gases which can be easily liquefied are ...
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24 views

Flux a specific concentration of a tracer constituent of a gas

I need to flux 250 ppm of CO2 at 1000 ml/min. I have a gas system with a tank containing CO2 (CO2 at 5000 ppmvol, Oxygen 21%vol and Nitrogen the rest), connected with a mass flow controller (MFC1, ...
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1answer
125 views

Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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104 views

In what solvents does ionic association occur?

When a ionic compound like $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolves, it doesn't always full dissociate due to ionic pairing. This is measured by the van 't Hoff factor. Now, this is what I'm looking at for my chem ...
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155 views

Freezing point of solution of Water, Ethanol and Sugar (aka, Limoncello)

I'm looking for a diagram of the freezing point of a water solution depending on its content in sugar and ethanol. More colloquially, I want to know how to balance alcohol and sugar so that my ...
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31 views

What is vacuum-assisted ultrasonication?

This quote from a methods section of a paper: [samples were] ultrasonicated for approximately 30 min to ensure adequate dispersion of the components throughout the mixture. The solution was then ...
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37 views

Column Dispersive Mass Balance analytical / numerical solution

Is there any analytical solution for the most common expression of column mass balance: $\dfrac{\partial C}{\partial t} + \left(\dfrac{1+\varepsilon}{\varepsilon}\right)\dfrac{\partial q} {\partial t} ...
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31 views

Science of soap bubbles

On the web there are tons of different recipes for a solution to make soap bubbles. Most of them use only three ingredients: water dish soap glycerin But their ratios widely change among the sources....
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22 views

What is the precipitate of aqueous copper (II) and polysulfides?

So if you heat up a piece of sodium engulfed in a large excess of sulfur, what you would get (from what I've read) is sodium polysulfide $\ce{NaS_n}$. But how large can $n$ get? If you left sodium ...
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103 views

Why does changing the salt of the salt bridge effect the voltage produced in a galvanic cell?

My experiments results showed that the voltage decreases down $\pu{Group 1}$: $\ce{Cl-}$ salts in the salt bridge. All other variables were kept constant. $\ce{Zn}$ and $\ce{Cu}$ rods were used. ...
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29 views

Can Methylene Blue Detect Spoilage in Food?

Initially, there is already a product which is a sensor based on Methylene Blue, which can detect changes in oxygen levels in a packaging. However, as our thesis project, we decided to take on this ...
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148 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
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80 views

How to determine the solubility of a Metal Fluoride in liquid Gallium

How do I determine if a Metal Fluoride is soluble in liquid Gallium and under what conditions the Metal Fluoride will stay in solution in the liquid Gallium? I am involved in a project that is ...
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112 views

Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile one?

I am working on my scholarship exam practice assuming high school chemistry knowledge and struggling at how I can rationalize this question. Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile ...
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196 views

Over time what happens to soluble liquids with different densities

I have a case with two liquids: Water and another chemical which is miscible in water. The chemical has a density of 800 g/l so it's 20% less dense than water. Initially the chemical was mixed with ...
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69 views

Freezing point lowering for a mixture of many liquids

I have been taught that if I have a solute of molality $m$ mixed with a liquid, the freezing point in lowered by an amount $K_\mathrm{f}\cdot m$ where $K_\mathrm{f}$ is the molal freezing depression ...
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333 views

Does the mole fraction of a solution change with Vant Hoff factor?

I reason that as mole fraction is a measure of colligative properties, increase in the Vant Hoff factor ( and hence increase in the value of colligative properties) should also leave a mark on the ...
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75 views

Is awaruite to nickel sulfate possible?

Much time has passed since my basic chemistry and I am trying to determine if an awaruite mine proposed by FPX Nickel Corp ("FPX") might serve as feed-stock to nickel sulfate for battery production. ...
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143 views

How to make rheoscopic fluid using glycol stearate flakes

Rheoscopic fluid can be made by adding mica powder to water. I read that mica powder can settle and condense after sitting around for a long time. So I want to use glycol stearate flakes instead. ...
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281 views

Dependence of Osmotic Effects on Particle Size

van't Hof's equation for osmotic pressure is derived with the assumption, among others, that the particle size of the solute is comparable to the particles size of the solvent. It holds well so long ...
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39 views

Hypothetically, can sufficiently powerful centrifugation separate normally miscible chemicals of differing densities?

Centrifugation is used to separate phases in suspensions by density. I read that this is not possible with colloids and solutions, but the distinction between the three seems to be optical properties ...
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341 views

What's the density of a frozen ethanol or ethanol solutions?

How can we know what's the density of ice (water), but there's no data on how much is the density of frozen ethanol? (as far as I know)
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313 views

How does the molarity of a solution change on boiling off the solvent?

The dilution equation $$M_1V_2=M_2V_2$$ is an equation that can be used to calculate how adding water can impact the volume and molarity of a solution. So I was wondering if this equation would apply ...
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55 views

Can the solutions for the Briggs Rauscher experiment be made ahead of time and stored?

I will be performing the Briggs Rauscher Oscillating reaction as a part of an investigation into the effect of heat on the antioxidants. This will require 3 solutions to be mixed together, as shown ...
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77 views

Kinetics of A + 2 B -> C reaction

A reaction $\ce{A + 2 B -> C}$ is carried out in constant volume at $\pu{227 ^\circ C}$. the volume is $\pu{2 L}$. There is no $\ce{C}$ at the beginning. $[\ce{A}]_0 = \pu{0.035 mol L-1}$. $\ce{B}$ ...
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510 views

Is the crystallization process of aqueous solutions of substances such as lithium chloride endothermic?

$\ce{LiCl}$ has an enthalpy of solution of $\pu{-37.1 kJ/mol}$, so its dissolution process is exothermic. Does this mean that it's crystallization process is exothermic? I'm asking since I've looked ...
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135 views

How can it be determined that a liquid is saturated with a gas?

How can it be determined if a liquid is saturated with a gas? For example, if I am introducing carbon dioxide to water at 40 PSI at 35F in a sealed container, how would I know at what point the water ...
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29 views

Determining pH of immunoprecipitation buffer recipe

I'm following a protocol for extraction of proteins from yeast, and I came across this recipe for immunoprecipitation buffer: $\pu{50 mM}$ HEPES-$\ce{KOH}$, pH 6.8, $\pu{150 mM}$ $\ce{KOAc}$, $\pu{...
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101 views

SO3(2-) to Na2S2O5 ratio

Is there a way of calculating the amount of sodium metabisulfite from the sulfite content? I found online instructions for the test kit for sulfite that suggests multiplying by $2.37$ to obtain $\pu{...
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894 views

Predicting the vapor pressure of water ammonia solution

I am working on a project that involves the compressors for a vapor compression refrigeration cycle of R717 (ammonia) and came across something that has been boggling my mind a little bit for no good ...
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146 views

Adding fragrance oil to paraffin wax

I am trying to make a highly scented jar candle. I'm having trouble wicking the candle when I put in larger amounts of fragrance oil. It seems to be either too small and drowns or is too large and ...
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0answers
490 views

Methods to extract sucrose from tea after it's been stirred in?

Sugar is often labelled "white poison" now-a-days and a lot of negative health consequences happen due to increased sugar consumption. Keeping this in mind, if I were handed a cup of tea (with sugar ...
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32 views

Deliquescence database

I am looking for a database or printed document providing the RH0 (relative humidity above which deliquescence will occur) for inorganic salts. I've looked everywhere on the internet can find nothing.
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372 views

What is the pH of a solution that results of a mixture of two others with known pH?

Solution A has a pH of 1, soultion B has a pH of 6. If I mix the same volume V of each solution into one, what will be the pH of the resulting solution? I'm guessing here as no more information has ...
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112 views

How to calculate the gas-liquid interaction for dissolved HNO3 in water with air?

Thanks for reading this and (maybe) helping me in advance! I have to face the following problem: I have got $\ce{HNO3}$ dissolved in water (roughly $\pu{50\%}$) and I want to know how much $\ce{HNO3}...
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155 views

Osmotic pressure and Raoult's law co-relation?

Consider two compartments A and B joined. A contains pure water. B contains brine (dilute). Consider the Vant Hoff factor ($i$). Obviously pressure over B is less than over A. We also know that the ...
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69 views

Is it possible to supercool hydrated salts like magnesium nitrate hexahydrate supercool just like for sodium acetate trihydrate?

Recently I stumbled upon the phenomenon of supercooling. I know that you can do this with water as well as with some phase change materials, like sodium acetate trihydrate (from the wintersport ...
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1k views

Find the standard Gibbs' free energy of formation at 298.15 K for O2 gas dissolved in the saturated aqueous solution?

The solubility of $O_2(g)$ in water at $25^o \text{C}$ and $\text{1 bar}$ pressure of $O_2(g)$ above the solution is $0.00126$ $mol$ $O_2(g)/kg$ $water$. Find $\Delta_fG_{298.15}^o(O_2(g),sln)$. I ...
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800 views

What's the van 't Hoff factor of dilute aqueous ferrous sulphate solution?

Is it more than one or less than one? Here is what I think: since it is a dilute and aqueous solution, so $\ce{FeSO4}$ will be hydrated and new formula will be $\ce{FeSO4*7H2O}$. Thus, the ...
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193 views

How do ion–dipole bonds manage to break apart an ionic lattice?

I was reading this answer and its reasoning behind the dissolution of NaCl seems to lie in entropic favorability. However, as it states, many, if not most, dissolution reactions are favored by ...
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130 views

What is the physics/chemistry behind gold dissolution in water/seawater?

Global ocean contains some amount of dissolved gold (around 0.05-0.005 ppb). Is it ions of gold? Is it just suspended atomic gold (like water vapor in gases - just suspended molecules)? Can pure ...
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52 views

Precipitation occurred when adding vanilla extract to oak extract. What caused this?

Sorry if this is a very obscure question, but I don't know where to ask it. 120ml of oak extract, made by soaking oak chips in ethanol, was added to a flask. At this point, the solution was very dark ...
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25 views

Does the dispertion medium affects Quantum Dots fluorescence efficiency?

I would like to use CdTe Quantum Dots to make a fluorescent coating on a transparent support. There's a link to the material here: http://www.plasmachem.com/shop/en/62--cdte-quantum-dots-powder-...
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302 views

What is the difference between standard chemical potential (μ standard) and the “pure” chemical potential (μ*)?

I am studying solutions for my thermodynamics course and I am a little confused about the chemical potential of a solute. I found the following from Atkins: For a solute $\ce B$,obeying Henry's Law ...