We’re rewarding the question askers & reputations are being recalculated! Read more.

Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2
votes
0answers
203 views

Heat and Sugar Syrup Consistency

I make my own sugar syrups and have been observing how heating the syrup to different degrees results in syrups of radically different consistencies, I wonder why. Heating up syrups (4:3 Sugar:Water) ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

How can it be determined that a liquid is saturated with a gas?

How can it be determined if a liquid is saturated with a gas? For example, if I am introducing carbon dioxide to water at 40 PSI at 35F in a sealed container, how would I know at what point the water ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Determining pH of immunoprecipitation buffer recipe

I'm following a protocol for extraction of proteins from yeast, and I came across this recipe for immunoprecipitation buffer: $\pu{50 mM}$ HEPES-$\ce{KOH}$, pH 6.8, $\pu{150 mM}$ $\ce{KOAc}$, $\pu{...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

Symantics of parts per (million, billion, etc)

I have always thought that parts per million meant that in a solution of one million particles, one of those particles is the particle that you are looking for its concentration in ppm. However ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation?

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation? Let's say A and B makes a nonideal solution. The moleculat force between A and B means ...
3
votes
0answers
362 views

What solution is not in equilibrium?

An example of a solution not in equilibrium (A) Chemical ph indicator (B) Acid/base buffer (C) Anhydrous solution (D) hypotonic solution (E) Supersaturated solution I eliminated A and ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Why doesn't a buffer solution change ph(Appreciably?)

Consider a buffer solution containing weak acid $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and its salt $\ce{CH3COONa}$: \begin{align} \ce{CH3COOH &<=> CH3COO- + H+} \tag{1}\\ \ce{CH3COONa &-> CH3COO- + Na+} \...
3
votes
1answer
269 views

How to determine fire hazard of heating ethylene glycol to dissolve borax and boric acid

I am looking to replicate instructions provided in the last paragrph of this article that requires dissolving borax (Sodium Tetraborate decahydrate ($\ce{Na2B4O7·10H2O}$)) and boric acid in ethylene ...
1
vote
0answers
87 views

SO3(2-) to Na2S2O5 ratio

Is there a way of calculating the amount of sodium metabisulfite from the sulfite content? I found online instructions for the test kit for sulfite that suggests multiplying by $2.37$ to obtain $\pu{...
23
votes
1answer
895 views

How to think of solvated electrons?

This excellent answer explains at length what's happening in this fascinating video entitled Liquid Electrons - Periodic Table of Videos. In the screenshot below, the metallic-looking solvated ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

How to interpret the shape in this representation of an electride?

This excellent answer describes the appearance of solvated electrons in ammonia as first a blue, and then metallic color. It is produced by dissolving sodium in ammonia at low temperature. According ...
-2
votes
1answer
47 views

Peroxide without hydrogen [closed]

How come we always see hydrogen peroxide and never peroxide by itself. Is there such a thing as peroxide ? Does this exist in nature? Why is hydrogen always associated with it? Please note: First ...
8
votes
2answers
811 views

How can we tell the particle size of solutes in solutions?

This is a general question in regard to solutes dissolving into solvents. I am interested in the reality of the particle size of the solute during dissolution. For example, take $\ce{NaCl}$ and ...
-1
votes
1answer
83 views

Calcium-containing acidic solution

I want to prepare an acidic solution containing Ca ions. I thought about dissolving calcium sulphate, acetate or phosphate in $\pu{2 M}$ $\ce{H2SO4}$ or $\ce{H3PO4}$ solutions, but it seems that $\ce{...
1
vote
1answer
9k views

Solubility of Aluminium Hydroxide in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

Aluminium hydroxide is not soluble in water at all, however I was doing some reading and read that it does in fact dissolve in a solution of sodium hydroxide. This just seemed a bit strange to me, so ...
1
vote
1answer
34k views

What is the relation between molarity and molality? [closed]

Is the following equation correct: $$m = \frac{1000 \times M}{M \times M_b - 1000 \times d},$$ where $M$ - molarity, $m$ - molality, $d$ -density of solution, $M_b$ - molar mass of solute?
4
votes
1answer
567 views

How can I calculate the molar conductivity of a solution with multiple solutes?

I'm running an experiment mixing 2 different solutions, $\pu{5 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ with $\pu{5 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{KCl}$. I am measuring the conductivity of the total solution in $\...
-2
votes
1answer
908 views

Does Ksp depend on the solvent?

E.g. would the solubility and Ksp of $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$ be the same in water as it would be in HCl? Doesn't solubility depend on the polarity of the solute and solvent, so wouldn't different amounts of a ...
4
votes
1answer
275 views

Why does the conductivity of a LiOH solution decrease when boric acid is added?

If I start with pure water and add $\ce{LiOH}$ the conductivity of solution increases. However, if I then dissolve boric acid in the same solution the conductivity falls. I would have thought adding ...
4
votes
1answer
7k views

Reaction of iron(III) oxide with nitric acid [closed]

I'm currently working in a project in which I have to convert the iron oxides present in iron ore slime into ferric nitrate. Iron ore slime is which has the particle size of below $\pu{0.15 mm}$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
662 views

Solution to Raoult's Law for a volatile binary solution (no pun intended)

Raoult's Law In a closed container, $$P_A=P_A^\circ x_A$$ where $P_A$ is the pressure of compound in gaseous phase, and $x_A$ is the mole fraction of the liquid component A in the liquid mixture. If ...
1
vote
0answers
603 views

Predicting the vapor pressure of water ammonia solution

I am working on a project that involves the compressors for a vapor compression refrigeration cycle of R717 (ammonia) and came across something that has been boggling my mind a little bit for no good ...
0
votes
2answers
6k views

Calculating concentration of H+ Ions using Ka Value [closed]

I have this homework question that I am a bit stuck on for an answer. If anyone could help that would be great. Question: For a $\pu{0.2M}$ $\ce{HNO2}$ solution ($\pu{K_a= 4.5 \times 10^{-4}}$) ...
1
vote
2answers
5k views

Why would a solution of FeCl2 appear brown/yellow sort of like FeCl3?

If we prepare a solution of $\ce{FeCl2}$ by dissolving solid $\ce{FeCl2}$ powder in water, supposing the bottle of $\ce{FeCl2}$ was left open for sufficient time, is it possible for $\ce{FeCl2}$ to ...
1
vote
1answer
903 views

Will water allow salts to be dissolved in methanol (that are otherwise poorly soluble)?

If we make a mixture of water, methanol and a salt like $\ce{FeCl2}$, $\ce{NaCl}$ etc, will the ability of water and methanol to mix allow $\ce{FeCl2}$ and $\ce{NaCl}$ to be a part of this mixture and ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Can I pour a solution into another vessel with no air bubbles?

I have been trying to create a method to create a homogeneous agar solution. What are appropriate techniques to ensure homogeneous solidification of an agar-based aqueous solution? The new solution ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Baking soda + oil solubility

I have a question regarding the solubility of baking soda (bicarb soda) in oil. I am pretty sure that it has poor solubility, but I have a chemistry dilemma and cannot seem to solve it. I make all-...
1
vote
0answers
128 views

Adding fragrance oil to paraffin wax

I am trying to make a highly scented jar candle. I'm having trouble wicking the candle when I put in larger amounts of fragrance oil. It seems to be either too small and drowns or is too large and ...
1
vote
1answer
433 views

Acid-Base buffer question

Calculate the change in pH of a buffer made by combining $\pu{500 ml}$ of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{CH_3CH_2COOH}$ and $\pu{500 ml}$ of $\ce{CH_3CH_2COONa}$, when $0.04$ moles of $\ce{NaOH}$ is added to the ...
4
votes
2answers
226 views

Finding sulfate contamination in crystallized silver nitrate

What is the best way to check for a small amount of sulfate contamination (if any) in silver nitrate? Usually, I would use dilute barium chloride to precipitate out the resulting insoluble white ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How to add a color to vapors?

I want to add a color to vapors, like the vapor that comes out of glycerine when heated. Is there a chemical compound I can put into glycerine that makes the vapor colorful? Or is there a chemical ...
1
vote
0answers
348 views

Methods to extract sucrose from tea after it's been stirred in?

Sugar is often labelled "white poison" now-a-days and a lot of negative health consequences happen due to increased sugar consumption. Keeping this in mind, if I were handed a cup of tea (with sugar ...
-3
votes
1answer
1k views

How can I convert weight percentage of calcium chloride hexahydrate to calcium chloride dihydrate? [closed]

I have a chemical formula with $27\%$ $\ce{CaCl2.6H2O}$ and $43\%$ water with the balance of $30\%$ being other chemicals. I want to convert the $\ce{CaCl2.6H2O}$ and water percentage to $\ce{CaCl2....
21
votes
1answer
1k views

Is it possible for a compound to be soluble in a mixture of solvents but not the individual solvents?

Some weeks ago one of my friend needed to use turpentine. As a good but ignorant chemist on that point I did some research about it. I found (at the beginning) in the French wikipedia page of ...
5
votes
1answer
135 views

What are appropriate techniques to ensure homogeneous solidification of an agar-based aqueous solution?

I am making a T1 weighted phantom for an MRI project. I'm trying to see if I can calculate how much a persons head heats up during an MRI scan. It consists of distilled boiling water, $\pu{7 g/L}$ ...
1
vote
0answers
370 views

How do you neutralize pH of a solution by not knowing concentration [closed]

If I had a pH 10 in a 100ml solution of water and 93% sodium hydroxide how much mg/l of 93% sulfuric acid would we need to use to reach a pH of 4. From my dated college chem books and a lot of google ...
7
votes
2answers
221 views

How do phase transfer catalysts bring anions to organic phase?

Many anions are quite stable in the aqueous phase, but not so much in organic solvents where its necessary to perform some reaction (usually nucleophilic substitutions). I have heard that crown ethers ...
3
votes
1answer
10k views

Why does ethanol and water mixture show positive deviation from Raoult's Law?

So, my teacher said, "For a solution to show positive deviation from Raoult's Law, it must have a compound which is lacking hydrogen bond and a compound which has hydrogen bond." This is because the ...
2
votes
0answers
402 views

Homemade copper etching solution

I'm trying to make an etching solution for copper (PCB) with easy to access materials. I'm using hydrochloric acid (9%), peroxide (common "oxygene" that contains many more ingredients), table vinegar, ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Deliquescence database

I am looking for a database or printed document providing the RH0 (relative humidity above which deliquescence will occur) for inorganic salts. I've looked everywhere on the internet can find nothing.
3
votes
1answer
116 views

Adding ethanol to louche

I'm watching MIT chemistry by Donald Sadoway. In one of his lectures devoted to solutions and phase separation, he performs experiments with absinthe. First he mixes absinthe with 5 $\times$ water ...
-1
votes
1answer
912 views

Calculating Boiling Point of solution

I wish to calculate the boiling point of the following solution. (w/w) 78.8% Glycerol, 11.6% Propylene Glycol, 8.3% Water, 1.2% Nicotine (molar fraction) 0.5790 Glycerol, 0.1037 Propylene Glycol, ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

Is lithium bicarbonate an aqueous solution of lithium carbonate?

This question is related to: Are Lithium bicarbonate and​ Magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water? What type of chemical reaction is this? How can bromine water be called a solution? In the ...
-1
votes
2answers
638 views

Is it possible to prepare a solution of hydrogen sulfate in a lab? What is the procedure to do so?

I don't want a buffer solution with it, I want to know if its possible to have a solution with only $\ce{HSO4^{-}}$ ions in it.
0
votes
0answers
475 views

Water vapor equilibrium calculations

The question had two parts. The first part said: Calculate the amount of water required to saturate a vessel of volume 82 L at 300 K given that the vapor pressure of water is 38 torr at 300 K. The ...
0
votes
1answer
527 views

How to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed and enthalpy of solution?

I am trying to figure out how to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed to reduce the temperature of solution from $\pu{23 ^\circ C}$ (measured room temperature at start) to $\pu{3 ^\circ C}$, ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Proof of Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium

Here is how my textbook proves that dissolution of solid in liquid is dynamic in nature. It considers the example of a saturated solution of sugar. It says that, Though the solution is in ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Making artificial sweat

I'm currently working on a chemistry investigation wherein I need to dilute a compound with artificial sweat. I have looked at various forums, including this, which gave answers, but is very outdated. ...
1
vote
0answers
349 views

What is the pH of a solution that results of a mixture of two others with known pH?

Solution A has a pH of 1, soultion B has a pH of 6. If I mix the same volume V of each solution into one, what will be the pH of the resulting solution? I'm guessing here as no more information has ...
2
votes
2answers
533 views

Super-saturated solutions

If a solution is super-saturated is it possible to add a substance to it without allowing it to crystallise? Does a change in temperature have to happen and reduce it's saturation if I want to add ...