Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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5k views

Why does concentration of solutions of alkali metals in liquid ammonia change the magnetic properties?

In "NCERT Chemistry for Class XI - Volume II", in chapter "s-block elements", under the topic "Chemical Properties of alkali metals", it is given: (vi) Solutions in ...
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1answer
75 views

Home made dispersion/solution with detectable >0.1μm particles [closed]

Sorry for the possibly wrong terminology. I'm not a chemist and I'm not a native English speaker. Please edit the question as needed. Thank you. Is it possible to buy or prepare a dispersion with the ...
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148 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
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1answer
77 views

Separate less volatile component from distilling a mixture [closed]

Is it a strict rule that when we boil a mixture of two liquids, with one being less volatile than the other, the more volatile vapour has to form the greater portion of the total vapours? If it is so,...
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1answer
60 views

How does acetone help to make a liquid cleaner stronger? [closed]

Acetone, as a solvent, seems to behave somewhat different than other solvents. It seems to solve things other unpolar solvents do not. For example, I have two cleaner sprays from the same brand, and ...
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1answer
80 views

Boiling point elevation and liquid solutions

$\pu{1 L}$ of an aqueous solution of urea having density $\pu{1.06 g mL-1}$ is found to have elevation in boiling point $\Delta T_\mathrm{b} = \pu{0.5 °C}.$ If the temperature of this solution is ...
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1answer
86 views

Liquid solutions and vapour pressure

"The vapour pressure of water at 80° C is 355 torr. A 100 mL vessel contained water-saturated oxygen at 80° C, the total gas pressure being 760 torr. The contents of the vessel were pumped into a 50 ...
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1answer
168 views

Applying Raoult's Law in volatile solids–liquid solutions

My textbook explains applying Raoult's Law for the two cases: liquid–liquid solutions, in which the vapour pressure of the solution is due to both the components non-volatile solids–liquid solutions, ...
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2answers
113 views

Are hydroxides soluble in each other?

Let's say I have molten potassium hydroxide and then I add some Calcium hydroxide. I imagine, since there are hydroxide groups floating around, it would be energetically neutral for the calcium ions ...
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1answer
136 views

Does equality of molarity or molality determine constancy of boiling (or freezing) points of different solutions?

I encountered a question among papers for JEE (2005) that demands completing a statement: Equimolar solutions in the same solvent have _______ There are four options and the correct answers are ...
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1answer
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How do I determine molality from mole fraction without knowing how much of the solution I have?

What is the value of $x$ if $x$ molal solution of a compound in benzene has a mole fraction of solute equal to 0.2? I tried calculating the moles of $x$ through the value given but there are two ...
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182 views

How to calculate the i-value of known NaCl solution, if it is isotonic with known solution of glucose?

How do I calculate the value of $i$ for 1.17% solution of $\ce{NaCl}$, if it is isotonic with 7.2% solution of glucose? I actually do not know where to start in this question. is it possible to ...
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2answers
811 views

Why doesn't the solute settle out of a solution, such as brine or sugar water? [closed]

If I have a solution of salt or sugar dissolved in water, the solute will never settle out or "fall to the bottom", no matter low long I wait. Why is that? Since salt and sugar (in their pure, solid ...
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1answer
41 views

Is adding the word “solution” necessary when listing the materials used in a synthesis?

I am editing a chemistry-related paper and the synthesis procedure described is as follows: Then, 10 mL of the intermediate were mixed with 10 mL of 1% (w/v) VCPL and 2 mL of 0.1% (w/v) KPS. I ...
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80 views

How to determine the solubility of a Metal Fluoride in liquid Gallium

How do I determine if a Metal Fluoride is soluble in liquid Gallium and under what conditions the Metal Fluoride will stay in solution in the liquid Gallium? I am involved in a project that is ...
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3answers
362 views

If Beer's Law appears to apply to a high concentration (>0.01M) of a solute, is it valid to use for concentration calculation?

Internet consensus seems to define "high concentration" for Beer's Law as >0.01M. If one has a solution at higher concentrations than that, but the absorbance vs. concentration is still linear, is it ...
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1answer
192 views

How Would A Vast Mixture (Like an Ocean) of Ammonia-Water Behave in Terms of Evaporation and Freezing?

First, I'll go ahead and say I'm not very versed in chemistry. My question comes from my interest in planetary-sciences, specifically the speculation that there are likely exoplanets and moons with ...
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1answer
131 views

Does water in air occur as liquid or as gas? [closed]

I've learned that in a gas, the solute has to be a gas a well. Is that always the case? How about water in air, is that liquid in a gas, or a gas in a gas?
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1answer
876 views

Conductance of the mixture of two solutions with given resistance values [duplicate]

If $R_1$ and $R_2$ are the resistances of two solutions of equal volume what is the conductance of the mixture in the same conductivity cell? In general, I grasped neither the approach, nor the ...
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0answers
112 views

Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile one?

I am working on my scholarship exam practice assuming high school chemistry knowledge and struggling at how I can rationalize this question. Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile ...
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1answer
54 views

Solubility: Is the common ion effect proportional to individual solubility values?

I'm trying to grasp how solubility works in real applications. Is it so that in a solution with only one salt, it's solubility will change upon the addition of another salt with a common ion in a ...
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1answer
3k views

Entropy change in non-ideal solutions

We know that some solutions show positive deviations and some show negative deviation from Raoult's law.The former is endothermic and the latter is exothermic. And again, the volume change show ...
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31 views

What is the cause for the difference in pH between NaCl and Ringer Lactate

Reading this article, I came across a passage which got me to think of this question: "Normal saline contains approximately $\pu{154mM}$ of each $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ with average pH of 5.0 and ...
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2answers
241 views

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? [closed]

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? If yes, how do we find the new temperature and pressure of this point?
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195 views

Over time what happens to soluble liquids with different densities

I have a case with two liquids: Water and another chemical which is miscible in water. The chemical has a density of 800 g/l so it's 20% less dense than water. Initially the chemical was mixed with ...
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1answer
29 views

Dosing leaves with Zinc Nitrate for pollution experiment - Need specific concentration

I am trying to assess the pollution tolerance of an insect using Zn as a proxy. I have a supply of Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate that I want to use to contaminate dried leaves (the insect's food). The LD50 ...
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1answer
231 views

Why does mixing two solutions decrease the concentration of the solutes?

The irreversible liquid reaction $$\ce{A + B -> C + D}$$ follows an elementary rate law and is carried out isothermally in a plug flow reactor (PFR). The volume of the PFR is 500 litres....
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1answer
173 views

Cheap but efficient disinfectant / biocide for home lab

EDIT I am forced to reword my question about a chemical mixing ratio. I have seen in Wikipedia that peroxide ($\ce{H2O2}$) and Acetic Acid can be mixed to Peracetic acid - this is an equilibrium. I ...
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1answer
2k views

Relative lowering of vapour pressure

Why is lowering of vapour pressure (Po - Ps) temperature dependent? And why is relative lowering of vapour pressure (1 - Ps/Po) independant of temperature?
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1answer
1k views

Molarity of pure water [closed]

The molarity of pure water is 55.5 M at which temprature is obtained this value? Further, you will come across that 1000 mL = 1000 g (for water only, but at which temprature?)
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2answers
383 views

Is osmosis really a special case of diffusion across a semipermeable membrane?

A general idea we have about osmosis is that it is the movement of solvent particles through a semi permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This seems ...
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1answer
251 views

Freezing point of solution

It's stated in my textbook that at the freezing point, the vapour pressure of the solid phase equals the vapour pressure of the liquid phase. In a mixture, since the vapour pressure of the solution is ...
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2answers
5k views

Relation between size of ion and hydration energy [closed]

Suppose I take 1 tablespoon of an ionic crystal and put it in excess water. We know that shall the hydration energy of the crystal be more than the lattice energy, the crystal will separate in ions ...
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1answer
490 views

How to find the concentration of barium ions in a mixture of barium sulfate and barium thiosulfate?

I have a hard time with selective precipitation problem. A mixture of $\ce{BaSO4}$ and $\ce{BaS2O3}$ is shaken with pure water until a saturated solution is formed. Both solids remain in excess. ...
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1answer
518 views

Is vapour pressure a surface phenomenon?

As a fact, I know that vapour pressure doesn't depend on surface area. Does this imply it is not a surface phenomenon also? It shouldn't be as then it would depend on surface area of molecules and ...
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2answers
84 views

How do you get contents of large flask into a smaller separatory funnel?

Separatory flasks that I use have a ground glass joint, but it is not clear how that joint is to be used. Videos I have seen just show people pouring stuff into the throat of the funnel. Normally the ...
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1answer
662 views

Why do Cu⁺ ions spontaneously form copper metal and Cu²⁺ ions in solution?

The standard electrode potentials for three reactions involving copper and copper ions are: $$ \begin{align} \ce{Cu^2+(aq) + e- &-> Cu+(aq)} &\quad E &= \pu{+0.15 V} \\ \ce{Cu^2+(...
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517 views

Henry's law p = kx vs m = kp

What exactly is the difference between the following equations? $$p = kx \qquad\text{and}\qquad m = kp$$ Is the $k$ in both same, because I have seen same $k$ in textbooks for both equations?
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1answer
110 views

Difference of Ascorbic acid dissolved or precipitated in Glycerol?

Difference of Ascorbic acid (AA) dissolved or precipitated in Glycerol? Referring to pat US20110008445A1 Solution 1 At 25C, AA was dissolved in glycerol and alcohol (subsequently removed by ...
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1answer
670 views

Why is the entropy of solidifying solution higher than that of a pure solvent?

According to a source, Solutions have a greater entropy than pure liquids as the particles in a solution are more separated and solvent molecules separate the solute particles. If the number of ...
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1answer
51 views

Neutralisation Reaction Confusion

What will happen when $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ reacts with $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{NaOH}$? Will $\pu{1 mol}$ each of $\ce{NaHSO4}$ and water be formed? Or will $\pu{0.5 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ will ...
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2answers
53 views

Heating 2% solution to get 4% solution

I have a 2% solution of Zinc sulfate in water (in heptahydrate form) that I want to turn into 4% solution instead of having to buy 4% solution separately. Would heating it to 100 degrees Celsius and ...
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1answer
1k views

Methyl Orange Indicator-Reason for small amount of NaOH [closed]

I used methyl orange as my indicator to titrate a weak acid: At first, I added 3 drops of methyl orange to a solution of the weak acid, $\ce{CH3COOH}$, and the solution turned red. Then, after adding ...
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0answers
138 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
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31 views

How addition of a soluble salt affects equilibrium involving precipitation with a base sharing the same cation?

I have the following reaction at equilibrium: $$\ce{Ba(NO3)2(aq) + KOH(aq) <=> Ba(OH)2(s) + 2 KNO3(aq)}$$ Will there be a change in the equilibrium if the salt $\ce{KCl}$ is added? Will the ...
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1answer
7k views

Is calcium chloride an acidic or basic salt?

What I reason: Calcium chloride is the salt of hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide is usually not considered a strong base, and I believe this is because of it's low solubility. ...
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2answers
1k views

What happens if you mix two insoluble liquids but with the same density? [closed]

Would it make two separate phases? or would it make something like and emulsion?
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1answer
115 views

Adjustment of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in drinking water?

It's been a long time since I did any molar chemistry in school and despite doing a lot of reading on the subject this week, I am making a mess of some basic calculations. I hope that someone who ...
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0answers
491 views

Trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution

I have bought some anhydride of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and would like to prepare an acidic solution. My problem is, that I don't know how much "powder" to mix with how much water to produce an x% ...
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2answers
674 views

Does the amount of solute affect rate of solvation?

I know that in order to increase the rate of solvation, you need to increase how often solute and solvent particles come into contact. You can do it by: agitating the mixture increasing the surface ...

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