Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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1answer
61 views

Discrepancy between the apparent volume of the solution and the volume of the solute arising from the definition of solubility

I have solubility $s$ given in $\pu{g/mL}.$ I understand this as mass of solute $m$ divided by volume of solvent $V.$ But how about the volume of the resulting solution? I read online I should pour ...
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1answer
61 views

Which type of deviation from Rault's law is shown by mixture of water and acetone? [closed]

There are dispersion forces in acetone amd hydrogen bond in water so what they should show negative deviation but just want it to be confirmed
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1answer
112 views

looking for alternatives to lysol wipes (Alkyl C12-18 dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) [closed]

Lysol and other recommended disinfectants claiming virucidal properties have been basically impossible to find here for weeks. I did however, find a bottle of clorox all-purpose disinfecting cleaner ...
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1answer
3k views

Can someone help me find the limting reagent? [closed]

Okay, so for home work i was given this problem. Suppose that 8.00g of CH4 reacts with 16.00g O2 to form CO2 and H2O, find the grams of CH4, H2o, and O2 left over Balanced Equation : CH4 + 2O2 = ...
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1answer
48 views

Solution for Electroplating Selenium?

I need to electroplate selenium onto a conductive metal (for an experiment). The end goal is a thin film of pure, elemental selenium. Unfortunately I can't find anything on the internet: Ideally, I'd ...
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1answer
43 views

If ions are floating around in a solution, how do we know they combine to form a compound in a solution?

I apologize if my question sounds confusing I am not sure how to properly convey it here's an example: For the reaction between lead nitrate and ammonium phosphate you get the reaction: $$\ce{3Pb(...
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2answers
104 views

How can I calculate the amount of HF in aquoues solution of NH4F and an aquoues solution of NH4HF2?

Dissociation of $\ce{NH4F}$ and $\ce{NH4HF2}$ in water is complete, I assume: $$\ce{NH4F -> NH4+ + F-}$$ and $$\ce{NH4HF2 -> NH4+ + HF2-}$$ Can I calculate the amount of $\ce{HF}$ in these ...
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0answers
88 views

Is there a difference between hand soap and body soap with killing viruses? [closed]

With the Coronavirus in full swing around the globe, I wanted an answer to this, particularly since my dad has just been diagnosed with Leukaemia. We can't find hand wash anywhere but instead I just ...
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1answer
145 views

Limiting molar conductivity of multiple solutes

Suppose there is a water solution at $\pu{25 °C}$ with $\ce{Na+},$ $\ce{Mg^2+}$ cations and $\ce{Cl-},$ $\ce{HCO3-}$ anions. Concentrations $[\ce{Na+}],$ $[\ce{Mg^2+}],$ $[\ce{Cl^-}]$ and $[\ce{HCO3-}]...
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1answer
35 views

Problem with determining the mass value of a soil sample for gravimetric calculations [closed]

I'm having some trouble with how to determine the representative mass value of a prepared soil sample for calculating its $\ce{Cl-}$ concentration in ppm (mg/kg). Recently I carried out a gravimetric ...
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2answers
562 views

Endothermic reaction absorbs heat from environment

I read on my school book about chemistry the reaction: $$\ce{H2O + NH4Cl}$$ with $T(\ce{H2O}) = \pu{25 °C}.$ The temperature of the final solution is $\pu{20 °C}$. I know that it is an endothermic ...
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50 views

Hydrochloric acid substitute in an Iron-gall ink solution

Recently I started experimenting with making my own ink to be used in fountain pens. I was wondering if hydrochloric acid in an iron-gall ink is used to prevent sediment ONLY by lowering the pH of ...
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0answers
39 views

Discussion about Warren-Cowely Parameter

The Warren-Cowely Parameter (WCP) for short range solution order is defined as: $$\mathrm{WCP}_{ij} = 1 - \frac{Z_{ij}}{x_j \cdot Z_i}$$ where $Z_{ij}$ is the partial Coordination Number (CN) of ...
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1answer
1k views

What does (sol) in a chemical equation mean?

I'm reading Shrivers Inorganic Chemistry book and some of the equations have a (sol) state on them. I'm sure the book has already defined this but I cannot find where. Examples: \begin{align} \ce{[...
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1answer
83 views

If I dissolve 0.1M of CaCl2.2H2O in water, do I get a 0.1M CaCl2 solution? [closed]

If I dissolve $\pu{0.1 M}$ of $\ce{CaCl2.2H2O}$ in water, do I get a $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{CaCl2}$ solution?
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3answers
162 views

Molarity of two solutions

Question: Two solutions of ethanol marked as X and Y are labeled as 25% ethanol by mass and 25% ethanol by volume respectively. If the density of solution Y is 0.789 g/mL and that of solution X is 0....
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2answers
1k views

How much of Sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate should I use to replace bleach? [closed]

I am trying to determine how much sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate powder I should add to water to create a dilution that can be injected into my water supply to react with the Hydrogen ...
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1answer
41 views

Difference between a species and a phase in a solution? [closed]

Overview: As of my knowledge from metallurgical thermodynamics a phase is a thermodynamically stable and homogeneous entity made up of different species of a given concentration. e.g = 'Austenite' ...
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0answers
101 views

Why does changing the salt of the salt bridge effect the voltage produced in a galvanic cell?

My experiments results showed that the voltage decreases down $\pu{Group 1}$: $\ce{Cl-}$ salts in the salt bridge. All other variables were kept constant. $\ce{Zn}$ and $\ce{Cu}$ rods were used. ...
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2answers
392 views

Will NaF + CaCO3 precipitate much CaF2?

If I mix sodium fluoride, calcium carbonate powder, and water, under what conditions (if any) would there be an equilibrium? I.e. assume we start out with fully dissociated $\ce{Na+(aq) + F-(aq)}$, ...
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0answers
29 views

Can Methylene Blue Detect Spoilage in Food?

Initially, there is already a product which is a sensor based on Methylene Blue, which can detect changes in oxygen levels in a packaging. However, as our thesis project, we decided to take on this ...
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1answer
671 views

Is the solution isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic?

The problem is shown below. I don't understand how can the tonicity of a solution be determined if the solution has multiple solutes dissolved in it. Do I take the total sum of the mass of solutes ...
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2answers
209 views

Can you dissolve iodine without potassium iodide? [closed]

I don't have a sufficient amount of potassium iodide, so I wanted to know if there is other way which I can use to dissolve iodine without using potassium iodide.
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1answer
278 views

Effect of impurities on Enthalpy of vapourization

How does the Enthalpy of vapourization change when impurities are added? I know that the boiling point of a substance increases on addition of impurities, but how does the Enthalpy of vapourization ...
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1answer
138 views

Can ascorbic acid be neutralized and keep it's elastic properties in dough?

Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is commonly used in dough to give it strength and elasticity. However, I need this dough to be alkaline, or at the very least neutral. I've used sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) before ...
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1answer
45 views

How is Henry's constant affected by change in temperature

According to me Henry's constant $K_h$ should be directly proportional to the effect of temperature. It is because $K_h$ is inversely proportional to solubility and as we increase temperature ...
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2answers
132 views

How would I separate a solution of sodium iodide and water in order to obtain the sodium [closed]

I am an amateur in this field of science and I am trying to separate a solution of Sodium Iodide and water. How would I separate the solution so I can obtain sodium?
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32 views

Ion exchange resins

My problem is explained quite easily: I have no experience with ion exchange resins but I would like to test something out in order to exchange my sulfate ions in solution for nitrate (can also be ...
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1answer
61 views

Is there any non-toxic and non-solvable-in-air liquid? [closed]

I want to heat the air with non-aqueous, non-toxic and non-solvable-in-air liquid (with very low relative pressure in air). Is there any such liquid exists? It would be great if the boiling point of ...
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1answer
233 views

Methods to increase the speed of dissolving potassium sulfate in water apart from heating, grinding or shaking

I bought potassium sulfate to be used as a fertilizer. The fertilizer comes in the form of small pebbles 1-2mm in diameter. Wikipedia states that the solubility is around 111g/liter at 20°C. I ...
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0answers
33 views

Is it possible to remove sugar from a sweetened drink but without boiling it? [duplicate]

Is it possible to remove sugar from a sweetened drink without boiling it? This might not be a good question but I'm wondering if you could separate sugar from a sweetened drink and replace the sugar ...
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1answer
54 views

What formula allows adjusting balance of (Ethyl Alcohol / Water / Caffeine powder) to know concentration for the Caffeine solution?

I am experimenting with different levels of concentrated caffeine solution. The solution has a small percentage of ethyl alcohol, in the $\ce{H2O}$. Problems encountered too much ethyl alcohol ...
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1answer
401 views

If volatility depends on intermolecular forces, then why in Raoult's law, two substances have different volatility?

I have a doubt, Ideal solutions are solutions where intermolecular forces between solute-solute and solvent-solvent are nearly equal to solute-solvent. Since intermolecular forces between A-A = B-B, ...
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3answers
551 views

Dynamic equilibrium in unsaturated solutions

One standard definition of equilibrium in beginner chemistry is that for a reversible reaction, (dynamic) equilibrium has been achieved when the rate of the forward and backward reactions are equal. ...
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1answer
514 views

Is it possible to prepare a 0.1 N solution of HCl and methanol? [closed]

In my lab guide I read: "Use a $\pu{0.1 N}$ solution of methanol-chloridic acid $(9:1)$ for the anthocyanin extraction", so I tried to calculate the volume of $\ce{CH3OH}$ and $\ce{HCl}$ to prepare it,...
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1answer
112 views

Can compounds dissolved in different miscible solvents react?

For example, can crystal iodine dissolved in ethanol react with sodium thiosulfate dissolved in water when mixed together?
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1answer
26 views

Can there be a compound which stops the pesticide from entering into the fruit or vegetable? [closed]

Can there be a compound which stops the pesticide from entering into the fruit or vegetable? For example, a solution which is sprayed before pesticides and somehow blocks pesticides from entering into ...
4
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1answer
855 views

Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
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2answers
642 views

Freezing Point Depression and Temperature Decrease

I don't have a problem understanding the chemical mechanisms underlying freezing point depression or colligative properties in general, but what I cannot seem to grasp is how if you add salt to ice ...
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0answers
18 views

How can I make a reference humidity environment with NaOH pellets? [duplicate]

I have NaOH pellets at my disposal. Some of the pellets are degraded, but most are not, and I can provide a new batch if needed. I would like to test several humidity sensors in an environment with a ...
2
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1answer
69 views

What is the interaction between dissolved ions of opposite valence in a solution at rest?

NaCl is dissolved in water. Ions sodium and chloride are sufficiently free from each other so that they may occupy different regions of the solution after an active transport process through a ...
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2answers
1k views

Phenolphthalein Indicator mixed with base that first turns pink and then clear

What occurs in the following situation: After adding 2 drops of Phenolphthalein Indicator (an indicator that turns bases pink and stays clear for acids,) into a unknown solution, the solution turns ...
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1answer
349 views

Finding original concentration w%/w%

A question from a grade 9 admission exam: When 1 kg of salt is added to a solution of salt and water, the solution becomes 33 1/3% salt by mass. When 1 kg of water is added to the new solution, the ...
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1answer
5k views

Why does concentration of solutions of alkali metals in liquid ammonia change the magnetic properties?

In "NCERT Chemistry for Class XI - Volume II", in chapter "s-block elements", under the topic "Chemical Properties of alkali metals", it is given: (vi) Solutions in ...
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1answer
75 views

Home made dispersion/solution with detectable >0.1μm particles [closed]

Sorry for the possibly wrong terminology. I'm not a chemist and I'm not a native English speaker. Please edit the question as needed. Thank you. Is it possible to buy or prepare a dispersion with the ...
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0answers
143 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
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1answer
76 views

Separate less volatile component from distilling a mixture [closed]

Is it a strict rule that when we boil a mixture of two liquids, with one being less volatile than the other, the more volatile vapour has to form the greater portion of the total vapours? If it is so,...
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1answer
60 views

How does acetone help to make a liquid cleaner stronger? [closed]

Acetone, as a solvent, seems to behave somewhat different than other solvents. It seems to solve things other unpolar solvents do not. For example, I have two cleaner sprays from the same brand, and ...
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1answer
79 views

Boiling point elevation and liquid solutions

$\pu{1 L}$ of an aqueous solution of urea having density $\pu{1.06 g mL-1}$ is found to have elevation in boiling point $\Delta T_\mathrm{b} = \pu{0.5 °C}.$ If the temperature of this solution is ...
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1answer
85 views

Liquid solutions and vapour pressure

"The vapour pressure of water at 80° C is 355 torr. A 100 mL vessel contained water-saturated oxygen at 80° C, the total gas pressure being 760 torr. The contents of the vessel were pumped into a 50 ...

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