Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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1answer
539 views

Why sugar solution/sugarcane juice becomes sour when kept for certain time?

I stir-dissolve some sugar in a cup of water and then keep it open for certain time (say a few hours), when I taste it I feel that it has became sour. I have observed the same thing many times when I ...
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1answer
84 views

Molality of solution to be used when finding water separated from solution as ice

Question $\pu{1 kg}$ of a solution of cane sugar is cooled and maintained at $\pu{-4 ^\circ C}$. How much ice will separate out if molality of solution is $0.75$? $K_\mathrm{f} \ \text{(water)} = 1....
4
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1answer
2k views

How is the formula of mean activity coefficient derived?

The mean activity coefficient is defiend as follows: $$\gamma_\pm = (\gamma_+\gamma_-)^{1/2}.\tag{1}$$ If Debye-Hückel equation $$-\log\gamma_i = 0.5z_i^2\mu^{1/2}\tag{2}$$ is used, then the mean ...
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0answers
38 views

Solubility of salts in water

I came across the formula for enthalpy of solution, which is equal to the sum of lattice enthalpy and hydration enthalpy. Therefore, for salts that have endothermic dissolution, the lattice enthalpy ...
1
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1answer
75 views

Are colligative properties applicable for volatile liquids and gases in liquid solvent? Why/Why not?

My teacher told me that the expressions for calculation of colligative properties like lowering in freezing point are only applicable if the solute is non volatile liquid or a solid. We cannot apply ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Caustic and Toxicological Determination [closed]

I need to determine whether or not a product that I am importing is "toxic" and or "corrosive" as defined below. But I am a chemistry n00b — that is to say I have virtually zero ...
2
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1answer
344 views

At what composition is Maximum deviation from Raoult's law observed?

Raoult's law states that in an ideal binary solution of two volatile components, the partial vapour pressure of each component is proportional to its mole fraction in the solution. A plot of total ...
7
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2answers
2k views

Limitations of Henry's law

Consider the diagram Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas in a liquid is proportional to its partial pressure above the liquid. The proportionality factor is called ...
0
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1answer
279 views

Do pipettes always outclass glass syringes?

I was previously working in a lab preparing lots of samples for gas chromatography that exclusively used glass pipettes and was able to get really high precision between replicates. Now I'm working on ...
-1
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1answer
110 views

How does sodium rosinate enhances lathering property? [closed]

Why don't we use sodium carbonate or sodium stearate? What does sodium rosinate contain that the other two don't?
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0answers
37 views

Column Dispersive Mass Balance analytical / numerical solution

Is there any analytical solution for the most common expression of column mass balance: $\dfrac{\partial C}{\partial t} + \left(\dfrac{1+\varepsilon}{\varepsilon}\right)\dfrac{\partial q} {\partial t} ...
2
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0answers
63 views

Understanding formulas for PZT

In the slides i'm studying (about the production of PZT), is given the following formula for lead zirconate titanate : $$\ce{PbZr(Ti)O_3}$$ with the explanation: It is a solid solution of two oxides: ...
3
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1answer
85 views

Is the mole fraction used in Raoult's law calculated initially or at equilibrium?

Raoult’s law states that: The partial pressure of any volatile constituent of a solution at a constant temperature is equal to the vapour pressure of pure constituent multiplied by the mole fraction ...
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2answers
110 views

Definition of “solution” [closed]

In my textbook “solutions” are defined as follows: Homogenous mixtures of two or more substances are known as solutions. Should the two substances always be non-reacting? The definition has no ...
3
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2answers
113 views

How can one reclaim isotopic cadmium from a solution of acid, i.e. H2SO4 or HCl etc.?

I have dissolved isotopic cadmium-114 with $\ce{H2SO4}$ and or $\ce{HCl}$. Now that I have the cadmium-114 in solution, precipitating out $\ce{CdSO4}$ and or $\ce{CdCl2}$, how can I reduce these ...
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4answers
199 views

How many grams of sodium phosphate must be added to precipitate as much of one ion as possible?

Problem text: Solid sodium phosphate is slowly added to $\pu{200 mL}$ of a solution containing $\pu{0.002 mol}$ of aluminum chloride and $\pu{0.001 mol}$ of calcium chloride (assuming no volume ...
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1answer
302 views

Using solubility product to determine the mass of the precipitate of a reaction

I mix together $\pu{100 mL}$ of an aqueous $\ce{NaCl}$ solution at $\pu{0.5 M}$ and $\pu{100 mL}$ of an aqueous $\ce{AgNO3}$ solution at $\pu{0.3 M}$. Assuming that the solubility of $\ce{NaCl}$ in ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Creating a chemical solution with water and chlorine

I bought a swimming pool for my kids and also a measurement instrument for measuring the amount of chlorid in the pool in mg/l. The problem is now that you have to calibrate the instrument before ...
-3
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1answer
88 views

Radioactive decay of ions in solution [closed]

What happens when ionic salts in solution decays? For example, if I had a handful of Francium-223 Palmitate(Francium salt of palmitic acid) and I were to put it in solution, how would the francium ...
0
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1answer
72 views

Calculating concentration of OH⁻ ions [closed]

Calculate concentration of $\ce{OH-}$ ions in $\pu{0.66 mol L^-1}$ solution of $\ce{NH4+}.$ I think that there might be something missing, as the only law I have for this kind of problems is $$[\ce{...
-3
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1answer
59 views

Deviations from Raoult's Law [closed]

A solution of two compounds may be an ideal solution and follow Raoult's Law, or it may show a positive or negative deviation from Raoult's Law. How to predict that whether a solution of two given ...
9
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3answers
4k views

Can a solvent be a solid?

Can a solvent be a solid? I do not think so. But is it possible for a solvent to be a solid?
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1answer
107 views

Determining solvent and solute [closed]

On which conditions does determining solvent depend on? 1. the higher boiling indicates the solvent the material with the higher concentration is the solvent the solvent is kept first in a pot. ...
1
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1answer
270 views

Creating a 10 ppb Lead Nitrate Solution

I’m trying to make a 10 ppb Lead Nitrate solution as part of a concentration calibration step for a Beer Lambert’s Law experiment. I plan on performing a dilution in three steps. The calculations have ...
0
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1answer
47 views

thinking about osmotic pressure when liquid is replaced by gas

An option in my test says: "The osmotic pressure of a dilute solution is the same as it would exert if it exists as a gas in the same volume of the solution and at same temperature." I'm not able ...
-1
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1answer
146 views

Cross checking the fact that gas solubility decreases with temperature increase and Henry's law's validity

It is known that the solubility of gas decreases with increase in temperature which is due to the kinetic energy freeing the solute particles into the vapor phase. Henry's law states that the partial ...
-2
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1answer
51 views

Where do the electrons in lead–acid battery come from? [closed]

$$ \begin{align} \ce{PbO2 + H2SO4 &-> PbSO4 + H2O + O} &\quad &\text{(anode)}\\ \ce{Pb + H2SO4 &-> PbSO4 + H2} &\quad &\text{(cathode)} \end{align} $$ The cathode’s $\ce{...
4
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0answers
131 views

Is there an adhesive that is not dissolved by acetone?

I am trying to glue glass sheets together to make a sealed 13" x 13" x 13" box. Inside this box there would be acetone gas used to melt 3D printed parts to make them more durable. Acetone will remove ...
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2answers
3k views

Calculating ratio of conjugate base and acid when pH and pKa are given

Buffer solutions are used by biological mammalian systems to maintain the $\mathrm{pH}$ of blood plasma within a narrow range. In these systems, the compound from which this solution is obtained is $\...
-2
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1answer
291 views

Why do azeotropes boil at constant temperature? [closed]

As given in the Wikipedia page, An azeotrope (/əˈziːəˌtroʊp/) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple ...
-1
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2answers
197 views

In a double displacement reaction, why don’t the two products reform after being dissolved in water? [duplicate]

Let’s say I have $\ce{AB (aq) + CD (aq) —> AD + CB}$. When AB and CD are dissolved in water, they get dissociated into their component ions. But why don’t they reform as AB and CD, if it is already ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the easiest way to concentrate a solution without causing it to hydrolyze?

I’ve been working with iron acetate solutions in dilute acetic acid (vinegar) and I’ve been running into a problem. Every time I try to boil off the solvent the solution hydrolyzes to form iron oxides....
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1answer
68 views

Difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixture [closed]

When i mix two equal but large number of stones it is possible (though extremely unlikely) that stone a and stone b perfectly segregate themselves into two halves or that they are uniformly ...
0
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1answer
583 views

Confusion on when to use mass of entire solution when performing q=mc∆T

I hope you are having a good day. I am studying for the AP Chemistry exam in May 2020. While studying, I encountered a doubt. In Problem 1 (the question on the top), the educator saw that the ...
-2
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1answer
36 views

Solutions and Precipitates [closed]

If a solution of $\pu{20mL}$ of $\pu{ 0.050M}~\ce{K+ }$is added to $\pu{80mL}$ of $\pu{0.50M}\ce{ClO4-}$ will a precipitate form and what is the value of $Q_\mathrm{sp}$? For $\ce{KClO4}, K_\mathrm{...
1
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1answer
61 views

A gram of salt added to pure (distilled) water introduces around $2 \times 10^{22}$ ions? [closed]

I am currently studying Practical Electronics For Inventors, Fourth Edition, by Scherz and Monk. Chapter 2.5.2 Resistivity and Conductivity, claims the following: Adding an ionic compound in the ...
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1answer
52 views

Microscopic View of Adding Water to A Basic Solution

I confronted a problem, stating that we have a solution of potassium hydroxide. By adding extra water, when the volume of solution reaches 630 mL, the pH decreases by 0.5 units. How much extra water ...
2
votes
2answers
346 views

Under what circumstances would azeotrope exist in non ideal solutions? (when would the dew point curve and the bubble point curve meet?)

[solved. For anyone who's interested in this topic, please view MaxW's comment under his/her answer. A thousand thanks to Poutnik and MaxW.] I looked up several books on thermodynamics, and they all ...
6
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2answers
321 views

What makes some chemicals form steep density gradients in solution?

Caesium chloride and sucrose are both suitable for isopycnic centrifugation, and presumably not much else is. I'm unclear as to the mechanism by which they form useful density gradients. Wikipedia ...
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0answers
30 views

Science of soap bubbles

On the web there are tons of different recipes for a solution to make soap bubbles. Most of them use only three ingredients: water dish soap glycerin But their ratios widely change among the sources....
0
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1answer
160 views

Vapour Pressure of A Solution

I study in class 12, and have a doubt in vapour pressure that my school teacher and my friends are not able to clarify. My doubt is the reason why the partial vapour pressure of each individual ...
-5
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1answer
195 views

How to calculate the volume of HNO3 needed to produce a specific concentration? [closed]

How much $\pu{cm^3}$ of $\ce{HNO3}$, $\omega_{\ce{(HNO3)}} = \pu{63}\%$ with density $\ce{HNO3}$ of $\pu{1.4 g cm-3}$ do we need to create $\pu{500 cm^3}$ of solution whose $c = \pu{0.2 mol dm-3}$? I ...
-1
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1answer
264 views

What is the solubility of d-Glucose in water as a function of temperature? [closed]

I can't find solubility of d-Glucose in water as a function of temperature. I.e. a function that can tell me that at 35 Celsius the maximum amount of d-Glucose that can be dissolved in 100g water is ...
2
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0answers
26 views

Is the total ionic-dipole bond (hydrogen bonds) acting on an ion stronger than the lattice energy holding the ions together?

When magnesium chloride dissolves in water, its $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol}$ is negative. Since $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol} = \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{hyd} - \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{latt},$ this means $-\Delta H^⦵_\...
2
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1answer
211 views

Significance of shapes of Conical flask and Kjeldahl flask

What is the practical significance of the shapes of conical flask and Kjeldahl flask?
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0answers
22 views

What is the precipitate of aqueous copper (II) and polysulfides?

So if you heat up a piece of sodium engulfed in a large excess of sulfur, what you would get (from what I've read) is sodium polysulfide $\ce{NaS_n}$. But how large can $n$ get? If you left sodium ...
-3
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2answers
53 views

How does one dilute sulphuric acid (1.28sg@25ºc 460g/L) to 3 M Sulphuric Acid?

Thanks for looking. The extent of my research around the issue so far. SA sg table but wrong temp 60f not 77f/25c http://www.sschemical.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Conversion_Table.pdf From ...
0
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1answer
17 views

Heterogeneous ion solution

I am a college student and for my chemistry of solutions class, I had a lab where we had to titrate orange juice to check the calcium content. However, the experimental results are 20% off the ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Discrepancy between the apparent volume of the solution and the volume of the solute arising from the definition of solubility

I have solubility $s$ given in $\pu{g/mL}.$ I understand this as mass of solute $m$ divided by volume of solvent $V.$ But how about the volume of the resulting solution? I read online I should pour ...
-2
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1answer
61 views

Which type of deviation from Rault's law is shown by mixture of water and acetone? [closed]

There are dispersion forces in acetone amd hydrogen bond in water so what they should show negative deviation but just want it to be confirmed

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