Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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1answer
179 views

Why is change in volume of the solution zero in case of an ideal solution?

In my textbook it is written that $ΔV_{mix} = 0$ for ideal solutions i.e. $V_{solution} = V_{A} + V_{B}$. But why is this true? There is literally no explanation in my textbook as to why this is true. ...
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1answer
30 views

Where does the residue accumulate in the boiling point composition curve?

My teacher was teaching me the boiling point composition curve for fractional distillation and in the class notes he gave the following diagram (I have given below). It says that the residue starts ...
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0answers
167 views

Will potassium permanganate react with ferric chloride?

I came across a question : Which of the following compound does not decolourise an acidified solution of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Answer was: After doing a bit of research I found that $\ce{KMnO4}$ oxidises $\...
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2answers
197 views

A solution is cloudy at lower concentration and becomes clear at higher concentration. Why?

This might be just an "everyday life science" question. I am a university professor but not in Chemistry so please educate me. Today I was adding some floor cleaner formula to water as ...
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1answer
144 views

Can we compare the vapour pressure of solutions whose concentrations and temperature is known?

If we have some solutions, in which we know the temperature and concentration of the solute particles, can we compare their vapour pressures? Original question: Which solution has the highest vapour ...
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2answers
325 views

Azeotropic mixtures and Raoult's Law

So I find this everywhere: "Mixtures showing large deviations from Rault's law form azetropic mixtures at specific compositions" My questions are: (a)Why is it so?Why deviation from Raoult's ...
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1answer
54 views

Does the composition of a solution keep changing when being boiled? [closed]

The mole fractions of the components of vapours aren't the same as those of the liquid-liquid solution (unless the solution is azeotropic), this implies a change in the composition of the liquid ...
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60 views

Henry's Law and "Gases in Vapour Phase"

I found the following definition of Henry's Law in my textbook: "The partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution." My ...
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1answer
542 views

To calculate total vapour pressure of a solution

Question: 1 mole each of A and B were mixed to obtain an ideal solution of which one mole went to the vapour phase at equilibrium. If $P°_\mathrm{A} = \pu{100 torr}$ and $P°_\mathrm{B} = \pu{900 torr}$...
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1answer
61 views

Finding the concentration from a dilution

This must be a very basic question but I have gotten confused over it. How would I find the concentration of each component of the reaction for each experiment from this data? I am guessing it can’t ...
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1answer
70 views

Confusion in solubility expressions in Henry's Law

While reading about Henry's law and solubility I frequently come across two relations: $C = k_{h}P$ (c = concentration of a dissolved gas) $P = k_{h}x$ (x = solubility/mole_fraction) What is the ...
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What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
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2answers
58 views

How to run electrochemical tests on Microorganism (bacteria in a medium)?

I am trying to run some electrochemical tests(e.g.CV (Cyclic Voltammetry) & EIS (electrical impedance spectroscopy)) using half cell configuration on micro-organisms (e.g.bacteria). The bacteria ...
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1answer
317 views

Is mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate a buffer solution? [closed]

Is a mixture of $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ a buffer solution? I have seen some examples with $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ but never $\ce{NH4NO3}$.
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24 views

Why is the Ag+ concentration in a beaker fixed in the reaction between excess AgCl (s) and KI (aq) from the start? [duplicate]

This arises as a sub-question for the following question: Calculate the concentration of I- in a solution obtained by mixing 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s). I tried to look at How does addition ...
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2answers
152 views

How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions? [closed]

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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1answer
463 views

Universal symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality

This is a really basic (perhaps trivial) question, but I just want to confirm: What are the SI symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality? For molality and molarity, there is a difference, but I’...
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1answer
80 views

Depression of the Freezing Point

Recently we learnt that there is a depression in the freezing point when a non-volatile solute is added to the solvent. Our teacher explained this phenomenon with a graph where the vapour pressure of ...
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0answers
65 views

DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...
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1answer
722 views

Can sugars dissolve in liquid ammonia?

Can monosaccharides and disaccharides dissolve in liquid ammonia due to hydrogen bond formation? My rationale is that these sugars may be able to form hydrogen bond with ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$).
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1answer
100 views

How to calculate pH of an CH3COOH solution? [closed]

please, does anyone know, how to properly (with calculation procedure) calcutate $\mathrm{pH}$ of an $\ce{CH3COOH}$, when you know only: -$\ce{CH3COOH}$ is 8% (water solution) -density of $\ce{...
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1answer
534 views

Are the particles of a colloid "solid"?

I want to understand what are the particles of a colloid in the microscopic scale. According to Wikipedia: A colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed ...
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0answers
76 views

What does isohydric solution mean?

While studying ionic equilibrium, I came across the term "Isohydric Solutions" which is defined as: Solutions of electrolyte are said to be isohydric if the concentration of the common ion ...
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1answer
37 views

Solute and Solvent classification in a Solution

When I look up the definition of solute and solvent, the definition by the Oxford English Dictionary is ...
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1answer
35 views

How to clean out a contaminated aluminum automotive radiator

I have a very expensive custom made automotive aluminum radiator that has had a mouse or mice nesting inside the top tank. I have removed most of the nesting material through the top inlet but I want ...
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1answer
350 views

What is the difference between atom and nucleus? [closed]

Atomic nucleus-The atomic nucleus is the small dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom discovered in 1911 by EARNEST RUTHERFORD. Atoms are made up of a positively ...
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0answers
39 views

Out of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, which causes the greatest corrosion rate of iron and why?

I know that salts act as an electrolyte in a redox process and rusting of iron, where iron loses electrons and oxidizes, and oxygen gains electrons and reduces. I did an experiment with KCl, NaCl, ...
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1answer
36 views

Calculate the percentage in a solution

The aim of this exercise is to determine the percentage (degree) of acetic acid in vinegar. For this purpose 10 mL of vinegar requires 8mL of sodium hydroxide of molar concentration 0.1mol/L to react ...
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2answers
3k views

How long can iodine bottle left open? Can it go bad sooner than expiration date?

I have bought iodine about a year ago but the bottle cap got damaged during the transportation and it leaked all over the package, but I have decided to keep it anyway. Unfortunately I did not use it ...
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0answers
131 views

What determines solubility (or miscibility) in organic solvents?

I'm actually quite surprised that this isn't really mentioned anywhere on the internet (or I'm just bad at searching)! Solubility in water is known to be directly related by multiple factors, and for ...
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3answers
834 views

How do I prepare citric acid solution (from anhydrous powder) of accurate concentration, given that the solution volume expands when water is added?

I attempted to prepare saturated citric acid solution from anhydrous powder. According to online data, the solubility limit was 59.2 w/w at 20 °C, i.e. 59.2 g citric acid in 100 mL water. To ensure ...
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1answer
100 views

Can the total amount of solution be found as a ratio between molar mass of a component and total mass of solution? [closed]

I wonder whether the following relation is true: $$n_\mathrm{solvent} + n_\mathrm{solute} = \frac{M}{m_\mathrm{solvent} + m_\mathrm{solute}},$$ where $M$ is the molar mass of the component, $n$ is the ...
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1answer
74 views

Entropy of Dissolution of Hydrocarbons

Here is what I think I know: The entropy of dissolution reactions increases as methylene groups are added (i.e. butanol has higher entropy of dissolution than propanol). Also, acyclic saturated ...
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1answer
48 views

Confusion in Raoults Law

In Raoults law for a solution of two volatile liquids do we measure the mole fraction of components at the time when we just add the two liquids and there is no vapour pressure or we measure their ...
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1answer
267 views

Combining solutions with multiple concentrations - Mixing NPK fertilizer ratios

I'm trying to mix my own fertilizer to grow some peppers. Fertilizers are labeled with NPK ratios, so mixing two volumes and finding the result is easy: Just multiply the concentration of each ...
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1answer
672 views

How to prepare a 10% alcoholic KOH solution? [closed]

I am confused actually. A 10% alcoholic KOH solution means that there is 10g of KOH in 100 ml of ethanol, or 10g KOH in 100 g of ethanol or something entirely different? Also, I understand that the ...
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2answers
112 views

Why doesn't base/acid reacting with water create a salt?

An acid/base nwutralization will create a salt + water. If one uses water itself as the acid or base, and have an acid/base neutralization, how come that doesn't create a salt? For example:$$ \ce{HCN(...
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0answers
202 views

Solubility of gases in water in comparison to their liquefiability

My textbook of physical chemistry says ...The following factors affect the solubilities of gases in liquids: (i) Nature of the gas and solvent: Generally, the gases which can be easily liquefied are ...
4
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1answer
112 views

How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
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0answers
24 views

Flux a specific concentration of a tracer constituent of a gas

I need to flux 250 ppm of CO2 at 1000 ml/min. I have a gas system with a tank containing CO2 (CO2 at 5000 ppmvol, Oxygen 21%vol and Nitrogen the rest), connected with a mass flow controller (MFC1, ...
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0answers
56 views

Problem in the calculation of ionic strength of a solution

Recently I've been trying to answer the question 10-13 (c) of 9th edition of Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry of Skoog et al. Comparing my answers with the student manual , I realized that my ...
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1answer
103 views

What happens to a solution below its freezing point?

This is the question we did in class- 1000g of 1 molality sucrose solution in water is cooled to -3.534°c. What mass of ice would be seperated out at this temperature? (Kf of H2O= 1.86 K.mol^-1.kg) We ...
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1answer
34 views

How to thicken Paint [closed]

I'm non technical and have a question that you can hopefully help me out with as I've been searching online and so far haven't found any answered I'm looking for a product that will thicken the ...
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2answers
280 views

Why does a proton react with water to form hydronium ion and why does that ion has an overall positive charge? [closed]

Take this is an example: $$\ce{HCl(aq) -> H^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq)}$$ and $$\ce{HCl(aq) + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl^-(aq)}$$ Clearly the proton latches on to the water molecule but why? Also, why does the ...
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1answer
184 views

Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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2answers
165 views

If stirring negatively affects crystal purity, why is it so?

My Intellectual Expectations Intuitively, I would expect strong stirring to improve crystal purity during the process of crystalization. My rationale is that strong stirring would increase contact ...
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0answers
50 views

Does the level of water go down when you add salt to it? [duplicate]

My textbook states: Did you know that if you pour a handful of salt into a glass of water the water level will actually go down rather than overflowing the glass? I tried this experiment and the glass ...
2
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1answer
72 views

What is the mechanism of endothermic dissolution?

My real question is in fact "How can dissolution happen if it's endothermic?" However, there have been many questions regarding this exact topic and the answers about Gibbs free energy ...
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0answers
29 views

General Question about transferring Solution from containers (Workplace Related)

At my workplace we will soon begin diluting a solution to specific concentrations, this is done within a specific container. The solution to be diluted is provided by a manufacturer in the following ...
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45 views

Comparative Solubility of Double Salts

Is there a tendency that could be used to generally forecast how a double salt might dissolve in aqueous medium compared to the simple salts of its constituents? Example: There is metal A, metal B and ...

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