Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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2answers
321 views

Azeotropic mixtures and Raoult's Law

So I find this everywhere: "Mixtures showing large deviations from Rault's law form azetropic mixtures at specific compositions" My questions are: (a)Why is it so?Why deviation from Raoult's ...
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1answer
54 views

Does the composition of a solution keep changing when being boiled? [closed]

The mole fractions of the components of vapours aren't the same as those of the liquid-liquid solution (unless the solution is azeotropic), this implies a change in the composition of the liquid ...
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0answers
59 views

Henry's Law and "Gases in Vapour Phase"

I found the following definition of Henry's Law in my textbook: "The partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution." My ...
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1answer
539 views

To calculate total vapour pressure of a solution

Question: 1 mole each of A and B were mixed to obtain an ideal solution of which one mole went to the vapour phase at equilibrium. If $P°_\mathrm{A} = \pu{100 torr}$ and $P°_\mathrm{B} = \pu{900 torr}$...
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1answer
61 views

Finding the concentration from a dilution

This must be a very basic question but I have gotten confused over it. How would I find the concentration of each component of the reaction for each experiment from this data? I am guessing it can’t ...
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1answer
70 views

Confusion in solubility expressions in Henry's Law

While reading about Henry's law and solubility I frequently come across two relations: $C = k_{h}P$ (c = concentration of a dissolved gas) $P = k_{h}x$ (x = solubility/mole_fraction) What is the ...
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0answers
13 views

What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
2
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0answers
65 views

DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Equation to find specific gravity (or density) from a solution of sugar and water

Is there an equation or simple way to calculate the final density of a solution made from x grams of sugar and y liters of water? And would it work in reverse? if we have y liters of water at z ...
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1answer
315 views

Is mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate a buffer solution? [closed]

Is a mixture of $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ a buffer solution? I have seen some examples with $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ but never $\ce{NH4NO3}$.
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3answers
828 views

How do I prepare citric acid solution (from anhydrous powder) of accurate concentration, given that the solution volume expands when water is added?

I attempted to prepare saturated citric acid solution from anhydrous powder. According to online data, the solubility limit was 59.2 w/w at 20 °C, i.e. 59.2 g citric acid in 100 mL water. To ensure ...
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0answers
24 views

Why is the Ag+ concentration in a beaker fixed in the reaction between excess AgCl (s) and KI (aq) from the start? [duplicate]

This arises as a sub-question for the following question: Calculate the concentration of I- in a solution obtained by mixing 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s). I tried to look at How does addition ...
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2answers
148 views

How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions? [closed]

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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1answer
100 views

How to calculate pH of an CH3COOH solution? [closed]

please, does anyone know, how to properly (with calculation procedure) calcutate $\mathrm{pH}$ of an $\ce{CH3COOH}$, when you know only: -$\ce{CH3COOH}$ is 8% (water solution) -density of $\ce{...
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1answer
531 views

Are the particles of a colloid "solid"?

I want to understand what are the particles of a colloid in the microscopic scale. According to Wikipedia: A colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed ...
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0answers
76 views

What does isohydric solution mean?

While studying ionic equilibrium, I came across the term "Isohydric Solutions" which is defined as: Solutions of electrolyte are said to be isohydric if the concentration of the common ion ...
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1answer
37 views

Solute and Solvent classification in a Solution

When I look up the definition of solute and solvent, the definition by the Oxford English Dictionary is ...
0
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1answer
35 views

How to clean out a contaminated aluminum automotive radiator

I have a very expensive custom made automotive aluminum radiator that has had a mouse or mice nesting inside the top tank. I have removed most of the nesting material through the top inlet but I want ...
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1answer
346 views

What is the difference between atom and nucleus? [closed]

Atomic nucleus-The atomic nucleus is the small dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom discovered in 1911 by EARNEST RUTHERFORD. Atoms are made up of a positively ...
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3answers
8k views

Is sodium acetate strong or a weak electrolyte?

Since it is formed of a strong base and a weak acid it should be a strong electrolyte but a chemistry teacher said that it is a weak electrolyte.....
7
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1answer
9k views

Is calcium chloride an acidic or basic salt?

What I reason: Calcium chloride is the salt of hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide is usually not considered a strong base, and I believe this is because of it's low solubility. ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Out of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, which causes the greatest corrosion rate of iron and why?

I know that salts act as an electrolyte in a redox process and rusting of iron, where iron loses electrons and oxidizes, and oxygen gains electrons and reduces. I did an experiment with KCl, NaCl, ...
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2answers
27k views

How does volume contraction in solvent mixing work?

I recall seeing chemistry demonstrations where a significant amount of a solute is dissolved in a solvent and the solution volume barely changes. Questions regarding this: 1) How is this possible? 2)...
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1answer
36 views

Calculate the percentage in a solution

The aim of this exercise is to determine the percentage (degree) of acetic acid in vinegar. For this purpose 10 mL of vinegar requires 8mL of sodium hydroxide of molar concentration 0.1mol/L to react ...
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1answer
19k views

Why do some substances ionize instead of dissolving in water?

My question can also be understood as what make something electrolyte or nonelectrolyte? I think this question stems mainly from my confusion with the definitions of ionizing and dissolving. ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Relative lowering of vapour pressure

Why is lowering of vapour pressure (Po - Ps) temperature dependent? And why is relative lowering of vapour pressure (1 - Ps/Po) independant of temperature?
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1answer
100 views

Can the total amount of solution be found as a ratio between molar mass of a component and total mass of solution? [closed]

I wonder whether the following relation is true: $$n_\mathrm{solvent} + n_\mathrm{solute} = \frac{M}{m_\mathrm{solvent} + m_\mathrm{solute}},$$ where $M$ is the molar mass of the component, $n$ is the ...
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2answers
3k views

How long can iodine bottle left open? Can it go bad sooner than expiration date?

I have bought iodine about a year ago but the bottle cap got damaged during the transportation and it leaked all over the package, but I have decided to keep it anyway. Unfortunately I did not use it ...
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0answers
106 views

In what solvents does ionic association occur?

When a ionic compound like $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolves, it doesn't always full dissociate due to ionic pairing. This is measured by the van 't Hoff factor. Now, this is what I'm looking at for my chem ...
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0answers
131 views

What determines solubility (or miscibility) in organic solvents?

I'm actually quite surprised that this isn't really mentioned anywhere on the internet (or I'm just bad at searching)! Solubility in water is known to be directly related by multiple factors, and for ...
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1answer
73 views

Entropy of Dissolution of Hydrocarbons

Here is what I think I know: The entropy of dissolution reactions increases as methylene groups are added (i.e. butanol has higher entropy of dissolution than propanol). Also, acyclic saturated ...
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2answers
2k views

can magnesium chloride and iodine react together?

If everything is in a mixture of alcohol and water, would it be possible for magnesium chloride and iodine to react and produce something?
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1answer
48 views

Confusion in Raoults Law

In Raoults law for a solution of two volatile liquids do we measure the mole fraction of components at the time when we just add the two liquids and there is no vapour pressure or we measure their ...
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1answer
265 views

Combining solutions with multiple concentrations - Mixing NPK fertilizer ratios

I'm trying to mix my own fertilizer to grow some peppers. Fertilizers are labeled with NPK ratios, so mixing two volumes and finding the result is easy: Just multiply the concentration of each ...
0
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1answer
104 views

How does solutions of two liquids work? [closed]

When two liquids mix, and they are not hindered by a polarity mismatch (like oil and water), why don't they always form a homogenous mixture? Due to entropy, a liquid will disperse itself evenly. This ...
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1answer
657 views

How to prepare a 10% alcoholic KOH solution? [closed]

I am confused actually. A 10% alcoholic KOH solution means that there is 10g of KOH in 100 ml of ethanol, or 10g KOH in 100 g of ethanol or something entirely different? Also, I understand that the ...
2
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3answers
37k views

How is Langmuir adsorption isotherm different from Freundlich's?

I see no difference between the two. Both say that the degree of adsorption reaches a limiting value at high pressures and at very low pressures degree of adsorption is directly proportional to the ...
-1
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2answers
111 views

Why doesn't base/acid reacting with water create a salt?

An acid/base nwutralization will create a salt + water. If one uses water itself as the acid or base, and have an acid/base neutralization, how come that doesn't create a salt? For example:$$ \ce{HCN(...
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0answers
202 views

Solubility of gases in water in comparison to their liquefiability

My textbook of physical chemistry says ...The following factors affect the solubilities of gases in liquids: (i) Nature of the gas and solvent: Generally, the gases which can be easily liquefied are ...
0
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4answers
16k views

Does solute add to volume of solution?

I have to calculate the concentration of sucrose in water just by knowing their masses (and their temperature). Now, if the volume doesn't change when the sugar is being dissolved, I can do that quite ...
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0answers
24 views

Flux a specific concentration of a tracer constituent of a gas

I need to flux 250 ppm of CO2 at 1000 ml/min. I have a gas system with a tank containing CO2 (CO2 at 5000 ppmvol, Oxygen 21%vol and Nitrogen the rest), connected with a mass flow controller (MFC1, ...
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2answers
16k views

How to mix small amount of alcohol into coconut oil

I want to mix some alcohol (say rum) into a coconut oil base. At the minute when I try this the alcohol seperates and sits on the bottom as a liquid. Is there any way I can mix these together so the ...
0
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0answers
56 views

Problem in the calculation of ionic strength of a solution

Recently I've been trying to answer the question 10-13 (c) of 9th edition of Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry of Skoog et al. Comparing my answers with the student manual , I realized that my ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Calculating the concentration of a diluted solution

I have this problem: From a stock solution of initial concentration of $10~\mathrm{mg/l}$, I take $2\,\mathrm{ml}$, and then I add $10\,\mathrm{ml}$ of distilled water. I am supposed to calculate ...
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1answer
34 views

How to thicken Paint [closed]

I'm non technical and have a question that you can hopefully help me out with as I've been searching online and so far haven't found any answered I'm looking for a product that will thicken the ...
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1answer
103 views

What happens to a solution below its freezing point?

This is the question we did in class- 1000g of 1 molality sucrose solution in water is cooled to -3.534°c. What mass of ice would be seperated out at this temperature? (Kf of H2O= 1.86 K.mol^-1.kg) We ...
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2answers
280 views

Why does a proton react with water to form hydronium ion and why does that ion has an overall positive charge? [closed]

Take this is an example: $$\ce{HCl(aq) -> H^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq)}$$ and $$\ce{HCl(aq) + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl^-(aq)}$$ Clearly the proton latches on to the water molecule but why? Also, why does the ...
4
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1answer
952 views

Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
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2answers
162 views

If stirring negatively affects crystal purity, why is it so?

My Intellectual Expectations Intuitively, I would expect strong stirring to improve crystal purity during the process of crystalization. My rationale is that strong stirring would increase contact ...
5
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2answers
3k views

Effect of impurities on enthalpy of fusion of ice

When I freeze water with some impurities (1% NaCl by mass), the mixture seems to have a much lower enthalpy of fusion that pure water. The impurities cause the freezing point to depress to 0.6°C. I ...

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