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Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

128 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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6
votes
1answer
198 views

Apparent contradiction in the type of deviation of an ethanol-water mixture

For a mixture of $\ce{EtOH}$ and $\ce{H2O}$: $\Delta H_{\text{mix}} < 0$ (exothermic) and $\Delta V_{\text{mix}} < 0$ (volume contraction). This means that the unlike interactions are stronger ...
4
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0answers
477 views

Theory of volume contraction in solution

When a solid is dissolved into a liquid, or two solids are amalgamated, their mutual volume will contract. For example, a crystal of sugar having a volume of one cubic inch dissolved into 10 cubic ...
4
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2answers
183 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
4
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0answers
202 views

Do extreme homeopathic dilutions still retain quantities of the starting materials?

This Indian Institute of Technology Bombay press release quotes some research papers which claims to prove that homeopathic remedies do retain original substances even when diluted. The paper ...
4
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0answers
215 views

Debye-Huckel theory with non-polar solvents

I want to calculate the activity coefficients of mixed solvent salt solutions. I am seeing very strange behavior when I try calculating the activity coefficient of salts in non-polar solvents using ...
4
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0answers
99 views

Synthesizing monodisperse PbS quantum dots

For a research project, I am trying to synthesize lead (II) sulfide quantum dots using the method of Li et al.. I am injecting sulfur dissolved in 1-octadecene into a mixture of $\ce{PbO}$, oleic ...
4
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0answers
160 views

How do xanthan gum and other hydrocolloids work?

Does anyone know what causes things like xanthan gum to make water into a slimy substance on the molecular level?
4
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1answer
81 views

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation?

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation? Let's say A and B makes a nonideal solution. The moleculat force between A and B means ...
3
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0answers
53 views

Phantom Material: why formaldehyde doesn't rise my jelly melting point?

Just to be clear, I'm not a chemical but only a electronic engineer which want create a "phantom material" to reproduce the electrical characteristic of epidermis for the analysis of electrodes ...
3
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0answers
20 views

Is there a concise notation for a solution of one substance in another?

I'm aware of phase notation of $\ce{(aq)}$ for aqueous solutions. Is there something similar for solutions of chemical X dissolved in chemical Y?
3
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0answers
518 views

Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
3
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0answers
362 views

What solution is not in equilibrium?

An example of a solution not in equilibrium (A) Chemical ph indicator (B) Acid/base buffer (C) Anhydrous solution (D) hypotonic solution (E) Supersaturated solution I eliminated A and ...
3
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0answers
750 views

how was freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration described?

Molarity is arguably the most intuitive descriptor for the "number of particles". But freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration is commonly described in textbooks as a function of ...
3
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0answers
134 views

Why are critical micelle concentrations so large?

Dissolving a non-polar molecule in water incurs a free energy cost of about $10 kJ/(mol \cdot nm^2)$ (source: http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=101826) The entropy gained from ...
3
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0answers
153 views

How to prevent Tin ions from precipitating as Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides

Alright, so Tin ions in most of it's salts have the propensity to form Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides and then precipitating out of aqueous solutions. What can I throw in the solutions to prevent this? Using ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
2
votes
1answer
89 views

Cheap but efficient disinfectant / biocide for home lab

EDIT I am forced to reword my question about a chemical mixing ratio. I have seen in Wikipedia that peroxide ($\ce{H2O2}$) and Acetic Acid can be mixed to Peracetic acid - this is an equilibrium. I ...
2
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0answers
36 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
2
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0answers
266 views

Why does LDA solution gradually turn dark brown?

LDA (lithium diisopropylamide) solution in THF/hexane gradually turns red-brown liquid. Especially commercially available one is extremely dark red-brown. What makes it brown? I've searched online ...
2
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0answers
33 views

QM modelling of charge separation reactions

I have a general question regarding the modelling of reactions in which neutral reactants form charged species/ions (in solution). How can one get the energetics approximately right on reactions like ...
2
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0answers
254 views

What determines the maximum size of salt crystals as grown in flux growth?

Like many other children, I grew single crystal salt crystals in a salt solution. This is a common and fun experiment for children. However, with both this experiment, and with flux growth methods ...
2
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0answers
51 views

Why does soapy dishwater lose soapiness over time?

I wash dishes by making a concentrated solution of dishsoap (eg dawn) and water. Sometimes I'm lazy and forget to wash the container containing the soap solution, and it sits on the counter overnight....
2
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0answers
203 views

Heat and Sugar Syrup Consistency

I make my own sugar syrups and have been observing how heating the syrup to different degrees results in syrups of radically different consistencies, I wonder why. Heating up syrups (4:3 Sugar:Water) ...
2
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0answers
402 views

Homemade copper etching solution

I'm trying to make an etching solution for copper (PCB) with easy to access materials. I'm using hydrochloric acid (9%), peroxide (common "oxygene" that contains many more ingredients), table vinegar, ...
2
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0answers
2k views

Calculating the Activity Coefficient parameters form Henry's Law

Here is the question, I am stuck on part B: Basically, this is my thought process so far, as $x_a \rightarrow 0$, the Henry's law line becomes tangential to the actual partial pressure curve.. Henry'...
2
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0answers
40 views

Ionic emission spectrum contamination

Imagine that I am trying to identify the presence of ions from among the metals $\ce {Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr, Ba}$ in some solution through their emission spectrum. By mistake the wire used to introduce ...
2
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0answers
685 views

Copper sulphate solution dissolves iron nail?

I tried an experiment of the Galvanic series and put three iron nails (slightly rusty, but brushed) into a copper sulphate solution and waited a few days until the nails get coated with copper. ...
2
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0answers
35 views

Does isopropyl alcohol have a similar affect as dipropylene glycol regarding absorption?

I am an aromatherapist and am making essential oil reed diffusers. Do you know if isopropyl alcohol has a similar affect in absorption as dipropylene glycol?
2
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0answers
491 views

Dissociation of H3PO4 and colligative properties

Which of the following solutions that have concentrations of $0.01\ \mathrm{M}$ show the highest elevation in boiling point and why? A) $\ce{NaCl}$ B) $\ce{CaCl2}$ C) $\ce{H3PO4 }$ D) $\ce{...
2
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0answers
62 views

Looking for solubility kinetics of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate

$\ce{Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O}$ is a crystalline solid insoluble in water. Often used as nutritional supplement. Preparation and chemistry of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate is known. I am looking for some ...
2
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0answers
579 views

Does complex formation lead to increase in freezing point?

Original question:- When mercuric iodide is added to an aqueous solution of Potassium iodide, freezing point increases. Why? Answer given:- Due to formation of Complex $\ce{...
2
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0answers
27 views

Solvation rates of crystalline and noncrystalline materials

Assuming equal surface area (and other variables), would a highly ordered crystal of some substance dissolve more slowly or quickly than (or at the same rate as) a disordered sample of the same ...
2
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0answers
54 views

Behaviour of oleophobic and hydrophobic object in an oil and water solution

I am wondering what would happen if I put a small (between $\mathrm{5mm}$ and $\mathrm{1\mu}$, density between $\mathrm{1}$ and $\mathrm{2\: g/mL}$) item with both oleophobic and hydrophobic ...
2
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0answers
123 views

Methods of dissolving a gas into a liquid

I know that carbon dioxide is dissolved into water in a soda fountain using a sort of a tubular manifold that mixes the water with pressurized carbon dioxide as it goes through it. Is that the best ...
2
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0answers
57 views

Method for increasing concentration of extracts

I am using reagent grade propylene glycol (99.9% pure) and vegetable glycerin (99.7% pure) separately as solvents to extract certain active essential oils/molecules of various plant flowers. The ...
2
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0answers
70 views

If a conductivity meter is calibrated with aqueous standards, can it be used to measure the conductivity of an organic-based solvent system?

Trying to figure out if the calibration solutions for a conductivity probe/meter must be of a similar nature to the system which will be measured. I can only find aqueous calibration solutions online, ...
2
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0answers
87 views

Ink / formulation chemistry: What lab requirements

Little open information can be found on the requirements of the manufacture, development and testing of gel and printing inks. It seems that most ink manufacturers have their own specific lab ...
2
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0answers
289 views

How to derive the energy of solvation equation?

The work done as a ion is solvated is given by: $-z^2e^2/8\pi\epsilon r$ but since the top line can be written $Q^2$, for simplicity I will say the equation is $-Q^2/8\pi\epsilon r$. Is this derived ...
1
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0answers
42 views

How to dissolve PLA/PCL/PMMA?

I have a research about electrospun membrane synthesis where I dissolve PLA pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours and also PCL pellets in chloroform:methanol (3:1) for 3 hours too. Another ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile one?

I am working on my scholarship exam practice assuming high school chemistry knowledge and struggling at how I can rationalize this question. Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile ...
1
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0answers
47 views

Over time what happens to soluble liquids with different densities

I have a case with two liquids: Water and another chemical which is miscible in water. The chemical has a density of 800 g/l so it's 20% less dense than water. Initially the chemical was mixed with ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Freezing point lowering for a mixture of many liquids

I have been taught that if I have a solute of molality $m$ mixed with a liquid, the freezing point in lowered by an amount $K_\mathrm{f}\cdot m$ where $K_\mathrm{f}$ is the molal freezing depression ...
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0answers
105 views

Does the mole fraction of a solution change with Vant Hoff factor?

I reason that as mole fraction is a measure of colligative properties, increase in the Vant Hoff factor ( and hence increase in the value of colligative properties) should also leave a mark on the ...
1
vote
1answer
137 views

Why zinc sulphate solubility is higher in ethylene glycol than water?

I'm trying to find saturation point for dissolved zinc sulphate in water and ethylene glycol. Based on my knowledge, water is more polar than ethylene glycol as reflected in its higher dielectric ...
1
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0answers
53 views

Is awaruite to nickel sulfate possible?

Much time has passed since my basic chemistry and I am trying to determine if an awaruite mine proposed by FPX Nickel Corp ("FPX") might serve as feed-stock to nickel sulfate for battery production. ...
1
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0answers
66 views

How to make rheoscopic fluid using glycol stearate flakes

Rheoscopic fluid can be made by adding mica powder to water. I read that mica powder can settle and condense after sitting around for a long time. So I want to use glycol stearate flakes instead. ...
1
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0answers
237 views

Dependence of Osmotic Effects on Particle Size

van't Hof's equation for osmotic pressure is derived with the assumption, among others, that the particle size of the solute is comparable to the particles size of the solvent. It holds well so long ...
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0answers
33 views

Hypothetically, can sufficiently powerful centrifugation separate normally miscible chemicals of differing densities?

Centrifugation is used to separate phases in suspensions by density. I read that this is not possible with colloids and solutions, but the distinction between the three seems to be optical properties ...
1
vote
1answer
332 views

Equation to find specific gravity (or density) from a solution of sugar and water

Is there an equation or simple way to calculate the final density of a solution made from x grams of sugar and y liters of water? And would it work in reverse? if we have y liters of water at z ...
1
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0answers
173 views

What's the density of a frozen ethanol or ethanol solutions?

How can we know what's the density of ice (water), but there's no data on how much is the density of frozen ethanol? (as far as I know)