Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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How are ions distributed in solutions? What are their surface area to volume ratios, impact on heat transfer capability, compared to nano-particles?

If I were to dissolve silver nitrate in water, I would get $\ce{Ag+}$ and $\ce{NO3-}$ ions distributed in the solution. Will they be distributed as aggregates of positively charged silver and ...
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Could ammonium phenolate be merely a solution of ammonia in phenol?

Could ammonium phenolate be merely a solution of ammonia in phenol? Ammonium phenolate (or phenoxide) is a liquid with a CAS number, 5973-17-1, and boiling point of 181.8$^o$C http://www.chemnet.com/...
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Formulate lugol solution and for which purpose we used this solution. Which label we should use for labelling? Formulate iodine tincture [closed]

Formulate lugol solution and for which purpose we used this solution. Which label we should use for labelling? Formulate iodine tincture .
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Hydration vs Dissolution

While revising Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry from revision material published by Arihant publications I encountered the following mentioned statement. During dissolution, the physical state of ...
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Why in positive deviation from Raoult's Law partial vapour pressure of a liquid component is greater than what is predicted by Raoult's Law?

When my teacher was teaching me positive deviation from Raoult's Law, he told me that in this case $P_{solution}>P_A^°χ_{A} + P_B^°χ_{B}$ He told that here the solute-solvent interactions are ...
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What is the derivation for formulae of osmotic pressure? [closed]

"Osmotic pressure of mixture of two solutions: Case I: Let two solutions of same substance having different osmotic pressures $Π_{1}$ and $Π_{1}$ are mixed. Osmotic pressure of the resultant ...
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Osmotic pressure and reverse osmosis [closed]

What will happen if pressure greater than osmotic pressure is applied on the solution separated by a semi permeable membrane FROM THE SOLVENT?
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Osmotic Pressure of Aqueous Solution

The osmotic pressure of an aqueous solution at $25$ Celsius is $92.0$ $kPa$. Calculate the boiling point of the solution. (Assume that the density of the solution is $1.0$ $g/mL$, ignore the mass of ...
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What is the derivation for the expression of resultant osmotic pressure?

Below I have given the photo from my physical chemistry textbook. As you can see they have given some formulas of resultant osmotic pressure but they have not given any derivation of the formulas. Can ...
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Why is universal gas constant equal to molar solution constant? [closed]

The ideal gas equation is : $PV=nRT$ van't Hoff Theory of Dilute Solutions states that : $ΠV = nST$. In the above equations, $R$ is the universal gas constant and $S$ is the molar solution constant. ...
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Why does the non-volatile solute go into the liquid part of the the solution when a solution containing non-volative solute is freezed?

My teacher gave the following diagram in the class notes. He said that when a solution containing a non-volative solute (for e.g. a solution of $\ce{NaCl}$ in water) is freezed, then there will be ...
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What is the derivation for the expression of depression in freezing point?

In my textbook, it is written that the expression for depression in freezing point is $ΔT_{f}=K_{f}m$ But how did this expression come? There is literally no derivation given in my textbook. Can ...
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How to switch concentration of 30/70 water/ethanol through dialysis? [closed]

I mistakenly dialysed a preparation in ethanol such that it is now 30% water and 70% ethanol. How do i make switch the water/ethanol concentrations (70% water and 30% ethanol) via dialysis again? The ...
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Why lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property?

In my textbook, it is written that lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property but relative lowering of vapour pressure is a colligative property. But why is that? There is literally no ...
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Why is change in volume of the solution zero in case of an ideal solution?

In my textbook it is written that $ΔV_{mix} = 0$ for ideal solutions i.e. $V_{solution} = V_{A} + V_{B}$. But why is this true? There is literally no explanation in my textbook as to why this is true. ...
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Where does the residue accumulate in the boiling point composition curve?

My teacher was teaching me the boiling point composition curve for fractional distillation and in the class notes he gave the following diagram (I have given below). It says that the residue starts ...
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Confusion about an example of Minimum Boiling Azeotropes [closed]

We know that for minimum boiling azeotrope, there is an example of 95.37 % Ethanol aqueous solution. The question I wanted to ask that this percentage of ethanol is by mass(w/w) or by volume(v/v)....
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When diluting 10 g of KI into 50 ml of water, what is the concentration of the solution in volume percentage? [closed]

Assume that the density of KI is 0.2 g/cm^3. The way I got is that the solution weighs 10g + 50g = 60g, so the volume of solution is 60 / 0.2 = 300 cm^3. But I cannot figure out what is the volume of ...
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What is meant by highest freezing point and lowest freezing point? [closed]

Can you please help in understanding this, I am confused with these terms. These terms are mentioned in my textbook which says nothing about it and asks to find it on the basis of some data. It is ...
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Will potassium permanganate react with ferric chloride?

I came across a question : Which of the following compound does not decolourise an acidified solution of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Answer was: After doing a bit of research I found that $\ce{KMnO4}$ oxidises $\...
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A solution is cloudy at lower concentration and becomes clear at higher concentration. Why?

This might be just an "everyday life science" question. I am a university professor but not in Chemistry so please educate me. Today I was adding some floor cleaner formula to water as ...
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1answer
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Can we compare the vapour pressure of solutions whose concentrations and temperature is known?

If we have some solutions, in which we know the temperature and concentration of the solute particles, can we compare their vapour pressures? Original question: Which solution has the highest vapour ...
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2answers
116 views

Azeotropic mixtures and Raoult's Law

So I find this everywhere: "Mixtures showing large deviations from Rault's law form azetropic mixtures at specific compositions" My questions are: (a)Why is it so?Why deviation from Raoult's ...
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1answer
44 views

Does the composition of a solution keep changing when being boiled? [closed]

The mole fractions of the components of vapours aren't the same as those of the liquid-liquid solution (unless the solution is azeotropic), this implies a change in the composition of the liquid ...
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50 views

Henry's Law and “Gases in Vapour Phase”

I found the following definition of Henry's Law in my textbook: "The partial pressure of the gas in vapour phase is proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution." My ...
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70 views

To calculate total vapour pressure of a solution

Question: 1 mole each of A and B were mixed to obtain an ideal solution of which one mole went to the vapour phase at equilibrium. If $P°_\mathrm{A} = \pu{100 torr}$ and $P°_\mathrm{B} = \pu{900 torr}$...
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Finding the concentration from a dilution

This must be a very basic question but I have gotten confused over it. How would I find the concentration of each component of the reaction for each experiment from this data? I am guessing it can’t ...
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Confusion in solubility expressions in Henry's Law

While reading about Henry's law and solubility I frequently come across two relations: $C = k_{h}P$ (c = concentration of a dissolved gas) $P = k_{h}x$ (x = solubility/mole_fraction) What is the ...
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What is an effective coagulant/flocculant for an acidic solution?

The acidic solution is a mixture of dissolved ammonium sulfate and mono-ammonium phosphate (pH about 4.5-4.8) along with an inorganic sludge with a similar consistency to clay I am looking to remove ...
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2answers
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How to run electrochemical tests on Microorganism (bacteria in a medium)?

I am trying to run some electrochemical tests(e.g.CV (Cyclic Voltammetry) & EIS (electrical impedance spectroscopy)) using half cell configuration on micro-organisms (e.g.bacteria). The bacteria ...
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1answer
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Is mixture of ammonium hydroxide and ammonium nitrate a buffer solution? [closed]

Is a mixture of $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4NO3}$ a buffer solution? I have seen some examples with $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ but never $\ce{NH4NO3}$.
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Why is the Ag+ concentration in a beaker fixed in the reaction between excess AgCl (s) and KI (aq) from the start? [duplicate]

This arises as a sub-question for the following question: Calculate the concentration of I- in a solution obtained by mixing 0.10 M KI with an excess of AgCl(s). I tried to look at How does addition ...
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61 views

How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions? [closed]

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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1answer
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Universal symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality

This is a really basic (perhaps trivial) question, but I just want to confirm: What are the SI symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality? For molality and molarity, there is a difference, but I’...
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1answer
66 views

Depression of the Freezing Point

Recently we learnt that there is a depression in the freezing point when a non-volatile solute is added to the solvent. Our teacher explained this phenomenon with a graph where the vapour pressure of ...
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DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...
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1answer
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How to calculate pH of an CH3COOH solution? [closed]

please, does anyone know, how to properly (with calculation procedure) calcutate $\mathrm{pH}$ of an $\ce{CH3COOH}$, when you know only: -$\ce{CH3COOH}$ is 8% (water solution) -density of $\ce{...
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1answer
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Are the particles of a colloid “solid”?

I want to understand what are the particles of a colloid in the microscopic scale. According to Wikipedia: A colloid is a phase separated mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed ...
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What does isohydric solution mean?

While studying ionic equilibrium, I came across the term "Isohydric Solutions" which is defined as: Solutions of electrolyte are said to be isohydric if the concentration of the common ion ...
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1answer
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Solute and Solvent classification in a Solution

When I look up the definition of solute and solvent, the definition by the Oxford English Dictionary is ...
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1answer
27 views

How to clean out a contaminated aluminum automotive radiator

I have a very expensive custom made automotive aluminum radiator that has had a mouse or mice nesting inside the top tank. I have removed most of the nesting material through the top inlet but I want ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between atom and nucleus? [closed]

Atomic nucleus-The atomic nucleus is the small dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom discovered in 1911 by EARNEST RUTHERFORD. Atoms are made up of a positively ...
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Out of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, which causes the greatest corrosion rate of iron and why?

I know that salts act as an electrolyte in a redox process and rusting of iron, where iron loses electrons and oxidizes, and oxygen gains electrons and reduces. I did an experiment with KCl, NaCl, ...
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1answer
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Calculate the percentage in a solution

The aim of this exercise is to determine the percentage (degree) of acetic acid in vinegar. For this purpose 10 mL of vinegar requires 8mL of sodium hydroxide of molar concentration 0.1mol/L to react ...
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486 views

How long can iodine bottle left open? Can it go bad sooner than expiration date?

I have bought iodine about a year ago but the bottle cap got damaged during the transportation and it leaked all over the package, but I have decided to keep it anyway. Unfortunately I did not use it ...
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What determines solubility (or miscibility) in organic solvents?

I'm actually quite surprised that this isn't really mentioned anywhere on the internet (or I'm just bad at searching)! Solubility in water is known to be directly related by multiple factors, and for ...
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3answers
179 views

How do I prepare citric acid solution (from anhydrous powder) of accurate concentration, given that the solution volume expands when water is added?

I attempted to prepare saturated citric acid solution from anhydrous powder. According to online data, the solubility limit was 59.2 w/w at 20 °C, i.e. 59.2 g citric acid in 100 mL water. To ensure ...
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1answer
89 views

Can the total amount of solution be found as a ratio between molar mass of a component and total mass of solution? [closed]

I wonder whether the following relation is true: $$n_\mathrm{solvent} + n_\mathrm{solute} = \frac{M}{m_\mathrm{solvent} + m_\mathrm{solute}},$$ where $M$ is the molar mass of the component, $n$ is the ...
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1answer
42 views

Entropy of Dissolution of Hydrocarbons

Here is what I think I know: The entropy of dissolution reactions increases as methylene groups are added (i.e. butanol has higher entropy of dissolution than propanol). Also, acyclic saturated ...
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1answer
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Confusion in Raoults Law

In Raoults law for a solution of two volatile liquids do we measure the mole fraction of components at the time when we just add the two liquids and there is no vapour pressure or we measure their ...

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