Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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1answer
19 views

How does addition of side chains affect solubility and processibility of polyphenylene vinylene?

I am studying electrical engineering and physics. In a recent lecture I was told the $\ce{OC1C10}\text{-PPV}$ molecule has the chains added to the oxygen atom down below because it allows for ...
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0answers
16 views

What happens to the pH of a solution composed of a mixture of potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide and water? [closed]

What happens to the pH of a solution composed of a mixture of potassium carbonate, potassium hydroxide and water? There is also a carbon rich active ingredient in this mixture, after mixing all the ...
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0answers
23 views

Vapour pressure and boiling [duplicate]

I have come across two definitions for boiling point: It is the temperature at which a liquid gets vaporised It is the point where vapour pressure = external pressure How are they related? How does ...
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2answers
119 views

Peak in beer freezing temperature plot

I left an open beer in the freezer while monitoring its temperature. The first minutes works as expected. But after the plateau, at about −8 °C, a peak appeared: I thought it was an artefact because ...
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0answers
89 views

Why is there preferential adsorption of a common ion during preparation of colloids by peptization?

There was a similar question asked here on Chem SE, but the answer was not very satisfactory to me, so I am asking a fresh question. Peptization is the process of creating a colloid from a precipitate ...
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1answer
59 views

How much solvent do you add for a 1:20 dilution, and why is it called 1 to 20? [closed]

A 1:20 dilution implies that you take 1 part of stock solution and add 19 parts of water to get a total volume of diluted solution equal to 20 times that of the stock solution So is ...
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0answers
21 views

Question regarding Vapour pressure of liquid

I learned that Vapour pressure of a liquid didn't depend upon its surface area. That is, the vapour pressure of water over a small glass and a big tub will be same if the temperature is same. Now, if ...
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2answers
240 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
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1answer
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Why does Dead Sea water feel greasy?

The best explanation I found so far is this: These salts (magnesium, potassium, sodium, etc.) are responsible for the "greasy" feel of the water. But it doesn’t say which salts exactly are ...
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2answers
2k views

Get the molar mass of an unknown liquid in a dissolution

A dissolution has $10$ g of some unknown liquid and also $90$ g of water. The freezing point of this dissolution is $-3.3\, ^\text{o}$C. What is the molar mass of the unknown liquid in g/mol? Alright....
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2answers
192 views

Does Raoult's law hold for immiscible liquids?

I know that Raoult's law holds true only for a non volatile solute in a volatile solvent mixture wherein the vapour pressure of the solution gets lowered due to the addition of solute. Now, first of ...
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0answers
41 views

Why should hydrogen peroxide be added to sulfuric acid and not vice versa?

When preparing aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid through dilution of the pure acid, it is well known that we should add acid to water and never the reverse. To prepare a solution of hydrogen peroxide ...
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1answer
3k views

Baking soda + oil solubility

I have a question regarding the solubility of baking soda (bicarb soda) in oil. I am pretty sure that it has poor solubility, but I have a chemistry dilemma and cannot seem to solve it. I make all-...
3
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1answer
35 views

Energy required to break apart water molecules in dissociation?

I'm learning about the process of dissociation. I'm aware in dissolution that essentially three processes occur (I know I may be simplifying it, but I am in Year 11): Solute particles break apart (...
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20 views

Why does pure alpha glucose powder clump when attempting to dissolve in water and become very hard?

I noticed that when I attempted to dissolve some pure alpha glucose powder in water, it would become hard and clump at the bottom of the beaker if I dumped it into the beaker all at once. It was ...
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42 views

Can different components show different deviations from Raoult's law?

Introduction: Raoult's law is used to calculate the partial pressures of the vapour phases of volatile components of a solution Given that there are two components, A and B, in the liquid-liquid ...
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1answer
155 views

Why lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property?

In my textbook, it is written that lowering of vapour pressure is not a colligative property but relative lowering of vapour pressure is a colligative property. But why is that? There is literally no ...
3
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1answer
118 views

Is the mole fraction used in Raoult's law calculated initially or at equilibrium?

Raoult’s law states that: The partial pressure of any volatile constituent of a solution at a constant temperature is equal to the vapour pressure of pure constituent multiplied by the mole fraction ...
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0answers
67 views

I have tried to remove oxidation from a metal scraper using vinegar, now the metal looks and smells burnt, what went wrong?

I have recently tried to remove some oxidation from a metal scraper spatula by using vinegar. After leaving it there for a couple of hours I was left with a burnt smell (with a hint of burnt candle ...
3
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1answer
28k views

Can you find the mass of solvent with mass of solute, volume of solution, and solution density?

If you have, for example, $\pu{10 g}$ of a solute dissolved into $\pu{100 ml}$ of a solution, and the solution density is $\pu{1.5 g ml^-1}$, can you just multiply $100\ \mathrm{ml} \times 1.5\ \...
3
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0answers
151 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
4
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1answer
93 views

How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
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2answers
126 views

How can one reclaim isotopic cadmium from a solution of acid, i.e. H2SO4 or HCl etc.?

I have dissolved isotopic cadmium-114 with $\ce{H2SO4}$ and or $\ce{HCl}$. Now that I have the cadmium-114 in solution, precipitating out $\ce{CdSO4}$ and or $\ce{CdCl2}$, how can I reduce these ...
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1answer
70 views

Heating NaOH solutions

I am trying to determine the best heat at which to use an NaOH solution to clean a textile fiber. This is being done, carefully, in Asian villages. The raw material is ribbons of bark peeled from a ...
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1answer
190 views

What is the derivation for the expression of depression in freezing point?

In my textbook, it is written that the expression for depression in freezing point is $$ΔT_{f}=K_{f}\cdot m$$ where $ΔT_{f}$ is the freezing point depression (defined as positive value), $K_{f}$ is a ...
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0answers
56 views

Why does conductivity of a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia decrease with a decrease in temperature?

What happens to the conductivity when a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia at $\pu{-33^{\circ}C}$ (Boiling point of ammonia) is further cooled? I expected the solution to behave as any other ...
2
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2answers
77 views

How do you achieve phase separation of a methanol / chloroform solution?

If I'm washing a methanol solution with chloroform, can I just add water in a 1:1 mixture with the methanol and expect it to break? Do I need to do anything else to cause the aqueous phase to separate ...
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1answer
73 views

What does water saturated oxygen mean? [closed]

What does water saturated oxygen mean in this question: The vapour pressure of water at 80º C is 355 torr. A 100 ml vessel contained water saturated oxygen at 80º C, the total gas pressure being 760 ...
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1answer
44 views

Using samples in titrations

I've never done an experiment before. So, the methodology provided in this pdf is quite confusing. Link to the pdf: https://www.canterbury.ac.nz/media/documents/science-outreach/vitaminc_iodine.pdf So,...
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2answers
53 views

Why vapor pressure is unaffected by change in atmospheric pressure [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I am very confused in a topic about "vapor pressure of liquid". Why doesn't a change in atmospheric pressure affect vapor pressure? I think intuitively that ...
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1answer
67 views

Calculating molarity of iodine solution after reaction

I made an iodine solution referring to the methodology provided in this link: https://www.thoughtco.com/vitamin-c-determination-by-iodine-titration-606322 $$\ce{KIO3 + 5KI + 3H2SO4->3I2 + 3H2O + ...
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1answer
140 views

Does equality of molarity or molality determine constancy of boiling (or freezing) points of different solutions?

I encountered a question among papers for JEE (2005) that demands completing a statement: Equimolar solutions in the same solvent have _______ There are four options and the correct answers are ...
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2answers
801 views

Can aluminium form blue-colored solution in liquid ammonia?

I've read that group 1 elements and group 2 elements with exception of Be form blue-colored solutions in liquid ammonia (Mg requires an electrolytic process). What are the conditions for a metal to ...
3
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1answer
91 views

Creating a chemical solution with water and chlorine

I bought a swimming pool for my kids and also a measurement instrument for measuring the amount of chlorid in the pool in mg/l. The problem is now that you have to calibrate the instrument before ...
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1answer
38 views

is boiling point a colligative property? [closed]

I know that elevation in boiling point is a colligative property .But is elevation in boiling point a colligative property ? Boiling point should be a colligative property acc to me bcz it depends ...
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0answers
21 views

Cleaning solution alternatives for acetate, nitrate, or polyester base motion picture film

I am in search of alternative film cleaning solutions which are safe for the film, me, and the environment. I have used several different professional film cleaning solutions in my many years of ...
2
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1answer
287 views

Universal symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality

This is a really basic (perhaps trivial) question, but I just want to confirm: What are the SI symbols for molar mass, molarity, and molality? For molality and molarity, there is a difference, but I’...
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2answers
48 views

Finding freezing temperature and osmotic pressure of an ethylene glycol and glycerol solution in water

A water solution is prepared by mixing $\pu{200 g}$ of a ethylene glycol (ethan-1,2-diol; $\ce{C2H6O2}$) solution (20% by weight) with $\pu{500 g}$ of glycerol (propan-1,2,3-triol; $\ce{C3H8O3}$) ...
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2answers
7k views

Why is partial pressure proportional to mole fraction in Henry's law?

According to Henry's law of partial pressure, partial pressure of a gas above a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the gas in the solution. But my question is: If the mole ...
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1answer
24 views

Where does the residue accumulate in the boiling point composition curve?

My teacher was teaching me the boiling point composition curve for fractional distillation and in the class notes he gave the following diagram (I have given below). It says that the residue starts ...
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1answer
152 views

Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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1answer
126 views

Detection of NaF levels in aqueous solution also containing NaCl

Is it possible to determine the concentration of sodium fluoride, more specifically fluoride ions, in a solution that also contains sodium chloride? I have looked into using an ion-specific electrode, ...
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1answer
29 views

diprotonated vs monoprotonated inorganic phosphate

We have made confounding observations in the physiology lab working with inorganic phosphate. The cell processes we study rely upon the transport of diprotonated inorganic phosphate. But we get ...
9
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1answer
678 views

Can sugars dissolve in liquid ammonia?

Can monosaccharides and disaccharides dissolve in liquid ammonia due to hydrogen bond formation? My rationale is that these sugars may be able to form hydrogen bond with ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$).
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1answer
654 views

Effect of nitrobenzene on solution UV/Vis spectra

I am wondering if there is a difference in the maximum absorbed wavelength of light if nitrobenzene is added to an acidic or basic solution. I've figured that resonance plays a part in some ...
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1answer
42 views

Density and Viscosity for Solution: 80% Liquid Methane CH4 with Solution of 20% Gas Nitrogen N2 on Surface of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn)?

Problem: Need to estimate the density and dynamic viscosity of such a mixed fluid: 80% Liquid Methane CH4 with solution of 20% Nitrogen Gas N2 with temperature of 94K and pressure of 1,467 hPa (the ...
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3answers
111 views

How are compounds within a complicated mixture detected?

I was reading an article about an independent pharmaceutical watchdog group called Valisure which recently released a report stating that they found Benzene, a toxic substance, in many bottles of ...
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2answers
104 views

Finding the molarity of the combination of two solution reacting with each other

I have a question that gives two concentrations and asks for the mass of $\ce{HCl}$ formed by the reaction. $$\ce{H2SO4 + NaCl ->Na2SO4 + HCl}$$ I have two concentrations: $\pu{250 mL}$ of $\pu{4....
5
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2answers
120 views

How to crystallize a solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalaninemethylesterhydrochloride without heating it?

I have an aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalaninemethylesterhydrochloride and I need to crystallise it as a salt. I'm afraid of increasing the temperature or the concentration of acid due to the ...

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