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Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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-1 votes
2 answers
1k views

How is Henry's constant affected by change in temperature

According to me Henry's constant $K_h$ should be directly proportional to the effect of temperature. It is because $K_h$ is inversely proportional to solubility and as we increase temperature ...
1 vote
2 answers
62 views

Problem in finding relation between molarity and weight by weight percentage

While finding the relation I did the following steps:- $\frac WW$% $= \frac{W_{solute}}{W_{solution}}\times100$ $.......(eq^n 1)$ (where both masses are in grams) Since weight of solution can be ...
-3 votes
1 answer
61 views

what percent HCl is 0.1M HCl solution? [closed]

If I have 1 liter of 0.1M HCl solution, how can I determine what % HCl this is equivalent to?
-1 votes
0 answers
14 views

Why does potential difference between electrode and electrolytic phase depend on concentration of metallic ions but not on area of electrode? [closed]

Why is it so that the potential difference between an electrode phase and an electrolytic phase depend upon the concentration of solution but not on the area of electrode dipped in the solution??
2 votes
2 answers
85 views

White powder-like substance on top of sodium hydroxide solution

i've made sodium hydroxide solution adding 100g of hydroxide to water 100g. i've been adding it slowly and constantly stirring. few days later on top of solution was thick layer of white powder. it ...
1 vote
2 answers
156 views

Why don't P graphs contradict Raoult's law graphs?

Our teacher gave us the following question: 1 mole each of liquids A, B are mixed in a piston-type vessel and piston is moved slowly and isothermally. (PA0 = 75 torr and PB0 = 25 Torr) Find: (a) ...
4 votes
1 answer
366 views

Variation of conductance of saturated aqueous solution with temperature

The following question was asked in JEE Mains 2020: Let $C_{\ce{NaCl}}$ and $C_{\ce{BaSO4}}$ be the conductances (in S) measured for saturated aqueous solutions of $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{BaSO4}$, ...
2 votes
2 answers
82 views

How can gelling agents "dissolve" in the liquid phase as a "colloid" mixture?

Gelling agents according to Wikipedia: Some thickening agents are gelling agents (gellants), forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture... But colloid according to Wikipedia: ...
4 votes
1 answer
76 views

Why do azeotropes behave the way they do?

I read this answer to a similar question whilst it proved to be plenty insightful there was this one point I failed to understand: To get a minimum boiling azeotrope, the deviation from Raoult's Law ...
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

Do pipettes always outclass glass syringes?

I was previously working in a lab preparing lots of samples for gas chromatography that exclusively used glass pipettes and was able to get really high precision between replicates. Now I'm working on ...
-1 votes
2 answers
75 views

Is dissolution of NH4Cl in water a physical change or chemical change?

A chemical change involves a reorientation of atoms of the substance, resulting in the formation of new substances. A physical change causes changes in physical properties of the substance, like its ...
2 votes
0 answers
82 views

Fundamental reasons for using vapors for ALD rather than solutions

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been developed for many materials, as can be seen from this overview: https://atomiclimits.com/alddatabase/ However, a search for liquid phase ALD gives less results. ...
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why does entropy increase on mixing two ideal liquids?

Why does entropy increase when we mix two ideal liquids? In my opinion entropy shouldn't change. Say we have two beakers of equal volume filled with $\ce{H2O(l)}$. I mark them red and blue (the ...
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Henry's law p = kx vs m = kp

What exactly is the difference between the following equations? $$p = kx \qquad\text{and}\qquad m = kp$$ Is the $k$ in both same, because I have seen same $k$ in textbooks for both equations?
0 votes
1 answer
156 views

Is this evidence that solubility of sodium bicarbonate<sodium carbonate?

Someone introduced $\ce{CO2}$ into saturated $\ce{Na2CO3}$ solution, and observed that white precipitate is produced. He therefore claims that $\ce{NaHCO3}$ has less solubility than $\ce{Na2CO3}$. His ...
5 votes
1 answer
94 views

Relation between dilution and osmotic pressure

The following question is taken from IAT 2024, an entrance test for research institutes in India at the high school level: Which one of the following plots correctly describes the variation of ...
1 vote
3 answers
2k views

How can semi-permeable membrane be so smart?

According to the definition, a semi-permeable membrane is a membrane that allows only solvent molecules to pass through it; solute molecules are blocked. Solvent molecules flow from the membrane side ...
-1 votes
1 answer
39 views

Would it be possible to form dense metal using a sol gel technique?

I was trying reduce some silver salt AgNO3 into elemental metal by thermal reduction I mixed it with citric acid and formed a solution and poured it into a circular cap (makeshift mould) and what I ...
2 votes
1 answer
48 views

Does osmotic pressure depend on the quantities of the outer membrane solvent?

$$\pi V = nRT$$ What is the osmotic pressure at $\pu{25^oC}$ of an aqueous solution of 0.0010 M $\ce{C12H22O11}$ (sucrose)? We just need to substitute the data into equation (13.4) $$\pi = \frac{\pu{...
-3 votes
1 answer
23 views

What is the difference between dissociation and ionisation exactly and is ionisation in this case connected to ionisation as in "ionisation energy"? [closed]

What exactly is the difference between ionisation and dissociation and is it connected to with ionisation energy
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

Do volatile solutes affect the vapour pressure of solutions?

If a non-volatile solute is added to water it will reduce vapour pressure as some space is occupied by non-volatile solute but what if the solute density is higher than water does vapour pressure ...
3 votes
0 answers
61 views

Is double excitation of nitrogen possible, and would it be able to use it as a central atom in a coordination complex?

I’m 17 and in my 2nd year of high-school (we have it a tad different here in the Czech Republic) and am interested in theoretical chemistry so that’s the explanation of the nature of my question. So, ...
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

Total pressure of saturated solution of air and Benzene [closed]

The question asked for me is - A sample of air is saturated with benzene (vapour pressure =100 mm Hg at 298 K) at 298 K, 750 mm Hg pressure.If it is isothermally compressed to one third of its initial ...
4 votes
0 answers
142 views

Solubility or reactivity of tantalum carbide and potassium polyselenides?

It is probably an unexplored system, but is there anything known about the low temperature thermodynamic equilibrium state of this? By 'tantalum carbide', I mean $\ce{TaC}$, and by potassium ...
1 vote
2 answers
20k views

What made my solution cloudy?

I may know, but I would like an expert opinion and a possible solution? I had an ethanol product from molasses, brown sugar and yeast which was clear. I then added (and feel all information is ...
1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Vapor Pressure of Two Immiscible Liquids [duplicate]

The vapor pressure of two immiscible liquids (A and B) is the sum of their vapor pressures in their pure liquid form. Intuitively, I don't see how this is possible. If the liquids are being stirred ...
1 vote
0 answers
19 views

Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling- Point Elevation diagram

Hey I don't understand how can it be that the phase diagram of the solvent in a solution, can be separated from of the overall solution? isn't the freezing or melting and etc is of the whole solution? ...
-1 votes
1 answer
76 views

Considering Le Chatelier's principle, what happens when you add more solute to a saturated solution already in equilibrium?

If I'm not wrong saturated solutions are in dynamic equilibrium. Will the addition of solute disturb the equilibrium? What exactly occurs and how to apply Le Chatelier's principle?
1 vote
1 answer
78 views

What is the exact definition of isotonic solutions?

Background of the Question I am a high school student so maybe my understanding of this topic is quite less, so apologies in case I have asked an elementary question. My chemistry sir taught that :- ...
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Dihydrogenphosphate and hydrogenphosphate buffer solution

I have just come across a problem involving a buffer solution comprising of dihydrogenphosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions, which asks how the mixture of these two ions can function as a buffer ...
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Why Henry's Law for solubility of gas is defined in two ways?

My school book (NCERT) states Henry's Law as: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas present above the surface of liquid or solution. and then ...
2 votes
2 answers
170 views

What solvents can I use to dissolve Epichlorohydrin rubber and Chloroprene Rubber

I am working with Epichlorohydrin and Chloroprene Rubbers and I would like to cast films of 2 mm at most. The solvents I have in my lab are DMSO, THF, DMF, Acetone, Ethanol and Propylene Carbonate. ...
5 votes
2 answers
3k views

A solution is cloudy at lower concentration and becomes clear at higher concentration. Why?

This might be just an "everyday life science" question. I am a university professor but not in chemistry so please educate me. Today I was adding some floor cleaner formula to water as ...
0 votes
4 answers
3k views

Is vapour pressure of a liquid solution constant at a given temperature, no matter the size of closed container and amount of liquid taken?

Does vapour pressure of a liquid solution depend on the size of the closed container, the amount of solution taken, given that, the temperature is kept constant? Or will it change if some extra gas is ...
0 votes
0 answers
52 views

Why doesn't vapour pressure depend upon the amount of liquid?

I was reading about the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, which is as follows: I was also reading about Vapour Pressure, when I learned this: The vapor pressure of a liquid does not depend on the amount ...
2 votes
0 answers
43 views

Henry's Law vs Raoult's Law Standard States for Activities

I am currently reading McQuarrie and Simon's Physical Chemistry and don't fully understand their discussion of standard states for activities. On page 990 they write (with a few minor adjustments to ...
-5 votes
1 answer
114 views

Find the pH of a solution obtained by mixing 100 ml 0.1m Na3PO4 and 100 ml 0.1 M NaH2PO4. Given that H3PO4: [Κα₁ = 10^-4, Κα₂ = 10^-7, Каз = 10^-11] [closed]

So, my query is that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid, and Na3PO4 is a basic salt, wouldn't they react? Another theory was that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid and Na3PO4 is a salt of strong acid and NaH2PO4,...
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Why do some powders form powder-filled blobs in a liquid?

e.g., why does this happen? (I think in the picture, it's flour mixed with water. I've seen examples of this with many different powders mixed in liquids, usually water.) What has happened at the ...
14 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there a name for this algorithm to calculate the concentration of a mixture of two solutions containing the same solute?

There is an algorithm called "Mischungskreuz" (German for "x of mixing") that is sometimes taught as a shortcut to figure out the following problem: You have two solutions that ...
-1 votes
1 answer
459 views

Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
2 votes
2 answers
146 views

In an unsaturated solution, is the product of ions still equal to Ksp?

Suppose I have a solution of a sparingly soluble compound, and consider its solubility in g/L. If I have less g/L of solution than that amount, it means the solution is unsaturated, but what happens ...
-2 votes
2 answers
71 views

Can you clearly explain what osmotic pressure is?

There are two main questions I'm struggling to get my head around. What exerts osmotic pressure? Is it the molecules of the solvent (water) or solute particles (sugar) ? Where is it exerted? On the ...
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Why can we calculate the molar mass of a non volatile solute using lowering in vapour pressure?

Apparently it is possible to calculate the molecular mass of a non volatile solute using relative lowering of vapour pressure using the equation: Where P is the total vapour pressure of the solution, ...
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

What does it mean for a substance to be "sparingly soluble"?

I have trouble understanding what solubility means. Merriam-Webster defines it as follows: 1 the quality or state of being soluble 2 the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of ...
-2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂

Trying to calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂ needed to produce 2.00 g of CaCO₃ (s). There is an excess of Na₂CO₃. Molar Mass of Carbon Carbonate = 100.09 g/mol. I am getting the answer ...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Increasing energy density for flow batteries with water based electrolyte?

Given a flow battery with a water based electrolyte, would it be possible to increase the energy density of battery by precipitating the redox active species from the anolyte and catholyte solutions? ...
1 vote
0 answers
51 views

History of Azeotrope (azeotropic mixtures)

I'm currently researching the history of azeotropic mixtures for an essay, and I've come across some interesting information. The term "azeotrope" was coined in 1911 by English chemists John ...
2 votes
4 answers
31k views

Does solute add to volume of solution?

I have to calculate the concentration of sucrose in water just by knowing their masses (and their temperature). Now, if the volume doesn't change when the sugar is being dissolved, I can do that quite ...
-4 votes
1 answer
61 views

Is it possible to make acids and bases in amphiprotic solvents other than water [closed]

In such solvents, could there be chemicals which could donate/accept protons, and if so could their solutions display acidic/basic properties?
0 votes
2 answers
6k views

What is the difference between reacting and dissolving?

When one chemical is added to another how would we come to know whether the compound dissolves in it or reacts with it? For example $\ce{AgNO3}$ dissolves in $\ce{CCl4}$ whereas it could also have ...

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