Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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3answers
32k views

How is Langmuir adsorption isotherm different from Freundlich's?

I see no difference between the two. Both say that the degree of adsorption reaches a limiting value at high pressures and at very low pressures degree of adsorption is directly proportional to the ...
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2answers
58 views

Why doesn't base/acid reacting with water create a salt?

An acid/base nwutralization will create a salt + water. If one uses water itself as the acid or base, and have an acid/base neutralization, how come that doesn't create a salt? For example:$$ \ce{HCN(...
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0answers
11 views

Ion concentration [closed]

How do you find the concentration for a specific ion in a solution? For example, if you had a question like what would be the hydroxide ion concentration in a 0.50 M sodium hydroxide solution, how ...
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0answers
19 views

What made my propylene glycol/ethanol solution cloudy? [closed]

I've mixed 3ml propylene glycol with 7 ml non-denatured ethanol, both at room temperature. The final product came out cloudy. What could be causing this? I've got multiple vials of this same solution, ...
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0answers
13 views

Find the initial pressure of a chemical equilibrium [closed]

Ethylene gas, $\ce{C2H4}$, reacts with hydrogen in the presence of a platinum catalyst to form ethane according to the equation: $$\ce{C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)-> C2H6}$$ 0.035 mol of a initial mixture of ...
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0answers
21 views

How is alcohol in water an important liquid-liquid solution for chemical and biological processes? [closed]

I found this statement somewhere online. Does it have something to do with the open-ring structure they form? What characteristics does it have that makes it essential to so many processes?
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0answers
19 views

How is it aqueous ethanolic potassium cyanide? [closed]

To undergo nucleophilic substitution of halogenoalkane, aqueous ethanolic potassium cyanide is added to ethanolic halogenoalkane. But how can potassium cyanide be dissolved in water and ethanol, is ...
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2answers
45 views

How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
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0answers
42 views

Solubility of gases in water in comparison to their liquefiability

My textbook of physical chemistry says ...The following factors affect the solubilities of gases in liquids: (i) Nature of the gas and solvent: Generally, the gases which can be easily liquefied are ...
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1answer
48 views

Make Acetic Acid from wood

I would like to know if it would be possible to make Acetic Acid from Wood. I know that you can charcoal wood to get the gases, cool it, and get the liquid. This would yield a bunch of chemicals in a ...
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4answers
11k views

Does solute add to volume of solution?

I have to calculate the concentration of sucrose in water just by knowing their masses (and their temperature). Now, if the volume doesn't change when the sugar is being dissolved, I can do that quite ...
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0answers
23 views

Flux a specific concentration of a tracer constituent of a gas

I need to flux 250 ppm of CO2 at 1000 ml/min. I have a gas system with a tank containing CO2 (CO2 at 5000 ppmvol, Oxygen 21%vol and Nitrogen the rest), connected with a mass flow controller (MFC1, ...
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2answers
14k views

How to mix small amount of alcohol into coconut oil

I want to mix some alcohol (say rum) into a coconut oil base. At the minute when I try this the alcohol seperates and sits on the bottom as a liquid. Is there any way I can mix these together so the ...
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0answers
34 views

Problem in the calculation of ionic strength of a solution

Recently I've been trying to answer the question 10-13 (c) of 9th edition of Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry of Skoog et al. Comparing my answers with the student manual , I realized that my ...
2
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1answer
836 views

Calculating the concentration of a diluted solution

I have this problem: From a stock solution of initial concentration of $10~\mathrm{mg/l}$, I take $2\,\mathrm{ml}$, and then I add $10\,\mathrm{ml}$ of distilled water. I am supposed to calculate ...
5
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2answers
212 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
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1answer
33 views

How to thicken Paint [closed]

I'm non technical and have a question that you can hopefully help me out with as I've been searching online and so far haven't found any answered I'm looking for a product that will thicken the ...
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1answer
81 views

What happens to a solution below its freezing point?

This is the question we did in class- 1000g of 1 molality sucrose solution in water is cooled to -3.534°c. What mass of ice would be seperated out at this temperature? (Kf of H2O= 1.86 K.mol^-1.kg) We ...
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2answers
74 views

Why does a proton react with water to form hydronium ion and why does that ion has an overall positive charge? [closed]

Take this is an example: $$\ce{HCl(aq) -> H^+(aq) + Cl^-(aq)}$$ and $$\ce{HCl(aq) + H2O -> H3O+ + Cl^-(aq)}$$ Clearly the proton latches on to the water molecule but why? Also, why does the ...
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1answer
1k views

Equation to find specific gravity (or density) from a solution of sugar and water

Is there an equation or simple way to calculate the final density of a solution made from x grams of sugar and y liters of water? And would it work in reverse? if we have y liters of water at z ...
4
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1answer
690 views

Kohlrausch Law and conductivity

Im writing up a lab report at the minute and part of it concerns ions in solution and how they affect conductivity. I've been doing lots of reading and I think ive got the grasp of most of it, but its ...
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1answer
97 views

Change in boiling and freezing point

I recently encountered a question while solving previous year question papers for JEE. This is a JEE 2005 question. The question demands to complete this statement: Equimolar solutions in the ...
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2answers
72 views

If stirring negatively affects crystal purity, why is it so?

My Intellectual Expectations Intuitively, I would expect strong stirring to improve crystal purity during the process of crystalization. My rationale is that strong stirring would increase contact ...
5
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2answers
2k views

Effect of impurities on enthalpy of fusion of ice

When I freeze water with some impurities (1% NaCl by mass), the mixture seems to have a much lower enthalpy of fusion that pure water. The impurities cause the freezing point to depress to 0.6°C. I ...
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0answers
34 views

Does the level of water go down when you add salt to it? [duplicate]

My textbook states: Did you know that if you pour a handful of salt into a glass of water the water level will actually go down rather than overflowing the glass? I tried this experiment and the glass ...
7
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1answer
6k views

Is calcium chloride an acidic or basic salt?

What I reason: Calcium chloride is the salt of hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide is usually not considered a strong base, and I believe this is because of it's low solubility. ...
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2answers
107 views

How can one reclaim isotopic cadmium from a solution of acid, i.e. H2SO4 or HCl etc.?

I have dissolved isotopic cadmium-114 with $\ce{H2SO4}$ and or $\ce{HCl}$. Now that I have the cadmium-114 in solution, precipitating out $\ce{CdSO4}$ and or $\ce{CdCl2}$, how can I reduce these ...
2
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1answer
37 views

What is the mechanism of endothermic dissolution?

My real question is in fact "How can dissolution happen if it's endothermic?" However, there have been many questions regarding this exact topic and the answers about Gibbs free energy ...
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0answers
23 views

General Question about transferring Solution from containers (Workplace Related)

At my workplace we will soon begin diluting a solution to specific concentrations, this is done within a specific container. The solution to be diluted is provided by a manufacturer in the following ...
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1answer
48 views

Effect of mixing acids on solubility

Please help me clarify the title if you come up with a better way to put it (you certainly will). My question is the following: If you make a mix of equal parts of various acids (Bicarbonate, ...
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0answers
21 views

Comparative Solubility of Double Salts

Is there a tendency that could be used to generally forecast how a double salt might dissolve in aqueous medium compared to the simple salts of its constituents? Example: There is metal A, metal B and ...
0
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1answer
48 views

How does solutions of two liquids work? [closed]

I'll start by establishing my potentially flawed understanding of solutions: A solution is a completely homogenous mixture. That means that the two (or more) substances are evenly distributed ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Creating a chemical solution with water and chlorine

I bought a swimming pool for my kids and also a measurement instrument for measuring the amount of chlorid in the pool in mg/l. The problem is now that you have to calibrate the instrument before ...
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0answers
103 views

Partial molar volume of binary mixture

A 2% (weight %) solution of a salt with Mr = 190.6 g mol-1 was prepared at 25 0C. The density of the prepared solution was 1.00926 g cm-3. The density of water at 25 0C is 0.99707 g cm-3, and the ...
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1answer
42 views

Deposition of saturated solution and affect of evaporated water

20g of water is evaporated from 200g of saturated solution of KNO3(aq) at 60°C by heating and the solution was cooled to 20°C. How many grams of KNO3 were deposited? The solubility of KNO3 in 100g of ...
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1answer
78 views

In what solvents does ionic association occur?

When a ionic compound like $\ce{NaCl}$ dissolves, it doesn't always full dissociate due to ionic pairing. This is measured by the van 't Hoff factor. Now, this is what I'm looking at for my chem ...
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2answers
26 views

Effect of water vaporation on saturated solution

At a high temperature, water is evaporated from the saturated solution by heating. What is the solution losing exactly by the fact that the water left the saturated solution? Does it affect its ...
2
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0answers
30 views

Colligative properties: why does the size of solute not matter?

Colligative properties are defined as the "properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the ...
7
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2answers
399 views

Apparent contradiction in the type of deviation of an ethanol-water mixture

For a mixture of $\ce{EtOH}$ and $\ce{H2O}$: $\Delta H_{\text{mix}} < 0$ (exothermic) and $\Delta V_{\text{mix}} < 0$ (volume contraction). This means that the unlike interactions are stronger ...
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1answer
116 views

I need help finding several immiscible liquids [closed]

I am trying to fill a vial with as many immiscible liquids as possible so that they form many separate layers. I want to do this as a way to visualise how liquids with different refractive indexes ...
0
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1answer
26 views

opening valve separating two volatile solutions [closed]

Let there be two containers A and B containing two volatile solutions (ideal) of pure liquids P and Q respectively. The containers are connected by a tube such that only vapours can travel through ...
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0answers
14 views

What is it meant by “preparing solutions on a blister”?

I was recently looking into an aspirin hydrolysis preparation lab and noticed the following: (This preparation was taken from http://www.kii3.ntf.uni-lj.si/analchemvoc2/file.php/1/HTML/SPEKTRA/...
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1answer
126 views

Confusion on when to use mass of entire solution when performing q=mc∆T

I hope you are having a good day. I am studying for the AP Chemistry exam in May 2020. While studying, I encountered a doubt. In Problem 1 (the question on the top), the educator saw that the ...
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2answers
44 views

Why is water transferred from a beaker of pure water to a beaker of sugar solution when placed in the a closed container?

I know that there is something to do with the vapour pressure of pure water being higher than the vapour pressure of the sugar solution, but I still can’t really explain what happens on a molecular ...
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3answers
69 views

Why does Vapor Pressure decrease on addition of solute? [duplicate]

Consider a vessel with a volatile liquid in it. Let's say it has a vapor pressure $P^0$ when it is pure. Now a non-volatile solute is added to it. Its vapor pressure decreases as $P^0\chi_{solvent}$. ...
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1answer
26 views

Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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2answers
108 views

Copper anode dissolves in electrolysis of copper sulfate solution [closed]

I did an experiment with copper sulfate where you place two copper rods in an aqueous solution of copper sulfate. You apply an electric current and copper metal builds up on the cathode. I noticed ...
4
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2answers
133 views

How does a shock, such as the snap of the disk in a reusable hand warmer, trigger the re-crystalization of a supersaturated solution?

Reusable handwarmers are made of something dissolved nearly to its saturation point in hot water (Sodium Acetate in the case of HotSnapz) at a high temperature, and then cooled to a temperature at ...
0
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1answer
33 views

When is Raoult's Law valid for solid-liquid solution?

Raoult's Law for solid-liquid solution is stated as such in my books that it is applicable for all non-volatile solutes. However different solutes must have different attractive or repulsive forces ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Suitable safe cleaning solution for aliphatic urethane

I am looking for a suitable cleaning solution for a sprayed on coating that is an acrylic aliphatic urethane. My end goal would ideally be something that can neutralize rust, whiten and brighten the ...

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