Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

169 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
6
votes
2answers
227 views

Is there a potentiometric method for monitoring salt formation in organic solvent?

I work in a pharmaceutical R+D lab, and currently aim to develop a validatable potentiometric method for determining the optimal amount of acid to add to a basified small organic molecule for ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

How do I calculate the amount of preservatives one would need for a cleaning solution?

I plan on making a very simple cleaning solution to clean metal contacts on PCB boards. It cannot contain anything that is flammable or hazardous so I've come up with the solution below. Distilled ...
4
votes
0answers
139 views

Is there an adhesive that is not dissolved by acetone?

I am trying to glue glass sheets together to make a sealed 13" x 13" x 13" box. Inside this box there would be acetone gas used to melt 3D printed parts to make them more durable. Acetone will remove ...
4
votes
0answers
533 views

Theory of volume contraction in solution

When a solid is dissolved into a liquid, or two solids are amalgamated, their mutual volume will contract. For example, a crystal of sugar having a volume of one cubic inch dissolved into 10 cubic ...
4
votes
0answers
265 views

Debye-Huckel theory with non-polar solvents

I want to calculate the activity coefficients of mixed solvent salt solutions. I am seeing very strange behavior when I try calculating the activity coefficient of salts in non-polar solvents using ...
4
votes
0answers
103 views

Synthesizing monodisperse PbS quantum dots

For a research project, I am trying to synthesize lead (II) sulfide quantum dots using the method of Li et al.. I am injecting sulfur dissolved in 1-octadecene into a mixture of $\ce{PbO}$, oleic ...
4
votes
0answers
163 views

How do xanthan gum and other hydrocolloids work?

Does anyone know what causes things like xanthan gum to make water into a slimy substance on the molecular level?
4
votes
1answer
92 views

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation?

In the nonideal solution, why can't one of the solute be positive deviation and the other be negative deviation? Let's say A and B makes a nonideal solution. The moleculat force between A and B means ...
3
votes
0answers
51 views

How does the surface to volume ratio of ions and their distribution in solution compare to that of suspended nanoparticles in nanofluids?

I am interested in understanding the heat transfer capabilities of fluids. Nano-fluids are suspensions of nanoparticles (1-100nm sized particles) in a base fluid, often water, oil or glycol. These ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

What does isohydric solution mean?

While studying ionic equilibrium, I came across the term "Isohydric Solutions" which is defined as: Solutions of electrolyte are said to be isohydric if the concentration of the common ion ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Creating a chemical solution with water and chlorine

I bought a swimming pool for my kids and also a measurement instrument for measuring the amount of chlorid in the pool in mg/l. The problem is now that you have to calibrate the instrument before ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Discussion about Warren-Cowely Parameter

The Warren-Cowely Parameter (WCP) for short range solution order is defined as: $$\mathrm{WCP}_{ij} = 1 - \frac{Z_{ij}}{x_j \cdot Z_i}$$ where $Z_{ij}$ is the partial Coordination Number (CN) of ...
3
votes
0answers
139 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

Phantom Material: why formaldehyde doesn't rise my jelly melting point?

Just to be clear, I'm not a chemical but only a electronic engineer which want create a "phantom material" to reproduce the electrical characteristic of epidermis for the analysis of electrodes ...
3
votes
0answers
750 views

Calculating total volume mixing NaCl and water

I'm (as a non chemist) trying to calculate the the volume of a NaCl solution. The problem is that I know the volume of water prior to mixing in NaCl, but I want to know the volume of the solution ...
3
votes
0answers
491 views

What solution is not in equilibrium?

An example of a solution not in equilibrium (A) Chemical ph indicator (B) Acid/base buffer (C) Anhydrous solution (D) hypotonic solution (E) Supersaturated solution I eliminated A and ...
3
votes
0answers
791 views

how was freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration described?

Molarity is arguably the most intuitive descriptor for the "number of particles". But freezing point depression dependence on solute concentration is commonly described in textbooks as a function of ...
3
votes
0answers
1k views

Dissociation of H3PO4 and colligative properties

Which of the following solutions that have concentrations of $0.01\ \mathrm{M}$ show the highest elevation in boiling point and why? A) $\ce{NaCl}$ B) $\ce{CaCl2}$ C) $\ce{H3PO4 }$ D) $\ce{C6H12O6}$ (...
3
votes
0answers
139 views

Why are critical micelle concentrations so large?

Dissolving a non-polar molecule in water incurs a free energy cost of about $10 kJ/(mol \cdot nm^2)$ (source: http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=101826) The entropy gained from ...
3
votes
0answers
221 views

Do extreme homeopathic dilutions still retain quantities of the starting materials?

This Indian Institute of Technology Bombay press release quotes some research papers which claims to prove that homeopathic remedies do retain original substances even when diluted. The paper ...
3
votes
0answers
162 views

How to prevent Tin ions from precipitating as Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides

Alright, so Tin ions in most of it's salts have the propensity to form Tin(II,IV) Hydroxides and then precipitating out of aqueous solutions. What can I throw in the solutions to prevent this? Using ...
3
votes
2answers
124 views

How can one reclaim isotopic cadmium from a solution of acid, i.e. H2SO4 or HCl etc.?

I have dissolved isotopic cadmium-114 with $\ce{H2SO4}$ and or $\ce{HCl}$. Now that I have the cadmium-114 in solution, precipitating out $\ce{CdSO4}$ and or $\ce{CdCl2}$, how can I reduce these ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Can different components show different deviations from Raoult's law?

Introduction: Raoult's law is used to calculate the partial pressures of the vapour phases of volatile components of a solution Given that there are two components, A and B, in the liquid-liquid ...
2
votes
0answers
64 views

I have tried to remove oxidation from a metal scraper using vinegar, now the metal looks and smells burnt, what went wrong?

I have recently tried to remove some oxidation from a metal scraper spatula by using vinegar. After leaving it there for a couple of hours I was left with a burnt smell (with a hint of burnt candle ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Why does conductivity of a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia decrease with a decrease in temperature?

What happens to the conductivity when a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia at $\pu{-33^{\circ}C}$ (Boiling point of ammonia) is further cooled? I expected the solution to behave as any other ...
2
votes
1answer
158 views

What is the derivation for the expression of depression in freezing point?

In my textbook, it is written that the expression for depression in freezing point is $$ΔT_{f}=K_{f}\cdot m$$ where $ΔT_{f}$ is the freezing point depression (defined as positive value), $K_{f}$ is a ...
2
votes
0answers
101 views

Will potassium permanganate react with ferric chloride?

I came across a question : Which of the following compound does not decolourise an acidified solution of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Answer was: After doing a bit of research I found that $\ce{KMnO4}$ oxidises $\...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

DIY lipid nanoparticles

I, and a number of friends, take a bunch of supplements that are polyphenols and often flavin-oids, -ols or -es; also numerous carotenoids. Examples include quercetin, luteolin, fisetin, curcumin, ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Out of KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, NaCl, which causes the greatest corrosion rate of iron and why?

I know that salts act as an electrolyte in a redox process and rusting of iron, where iron loses electrons and oxidizes, and oxygen gains electrons and reduces. I did an experiment with KCl, NaCl, ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

General Question about transferring Solution from containers (Workplace Related)

At my workplace we will soon begin diluting a solution to specific concentrations, this is done within a specific container. The solution to be diluted is provided by a manufacturer in the following ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

Colligative properties: why does the size of solute not matter?

Colligative properties are defined as the "properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the ...
2
votes
0answers
64 views

Understanding formulas for PZT

In the slides i'm studying (about the production of PZT), is given the following formula for lead zirconate titanate : $$\ce{PbZr(Ti)O_3}$$ with the explanation: It is a solid solution of two oxides: ...
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Is the total ionic-dipole bond (hydrogen bonds) acting on an ion stronger than the lattice energy holding the ions together?

When magnesium chloride dissolves in water, its $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol}$ is negative. Since $\Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{sol} = \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{hyd} - \Delta H^⦵_\mathrm{latt},$ this means $-\Delta H^⦵_\...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Hydrochloric acid substitute in an Iron-gall ink solution

Recently I started experimenting with making my own ink to be used in fountain pens. I was wondering if hydrochloric acid in an iron-gall ink is used to prevent sediment ONLY by lowering the pH of ...
2
votes
0answers
865 views

Why does LDA solution gradually turn dark brown?

LDA (lithium diisopropylamide) solution in THF/hexane gradually turns red-brown liquid. Especially commercially available one is extremely dark red-brown. What makes it brown? I've searched online ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

QM modelling of charge separation reactions

I have a general question regarding the modelling of reactions in which neutral reactants form charged species/ions (in solution). How can one get the energetics approximately right on reactions like ...
2
votes
0answers
339 views

What determines the maximum size of salt crystals as grown in flux growth?

Like many other children, I grew single crystal salt crystals in a salt solution. This is a common and fun experiment for children. However, with both this experiment, and with flux growth methods ...
2
votes
0answers
70 views

Why does soapy dishwater lose soapiness over time?

I wash dishes by making a concentrated solution of dishsoap (eg dawn) and water. Sometimes I'm lazy and forget to wash the container containing the soap solution, and it sits on the counter overnight....
2
votes
0answers
322 views

Heat and Sugar Syrup Consistency

I make my own sugar syrups and have been observing how heating the syrup to different degrees results in syrups of radically different consistencies, I wonder why. Heating up syrups (4:3 Sugar:Water) ...
2
votes
0answers
109 views

How to interpret the shape in this representation of an electride?

This excellent answer describes the appearance of solvated electrons in ammonia as first a blue, and then metallic color. It is produced by dissolving sodium in ammonia at low temperature. According ...
2
votes
0answers
441 views

Homemade copper etching solution

I'm trying to make an etching solution for copper (PCB) with easy to access materials. I'm using hydrochloric acid (9%), peroxide (common "oxygene" that contains many more ingredients), table vinegar, ...
2
votes
0answers
2k views

Calculating the Activity Coefficient parameters form Henry's Law

Here is the question, I am stuck on part B: Basically, this is my thought process so far, as $x_a \rightarrow 0$, the Henry's law line becomes tangential to the actual partial pressure curve.. Henry'...
2
votes
0answers
42 views

Ionic emission spectrum contamination

Imagine that I am trying to identify the presence of ions from among the metals $\ce {Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr, Ba}$ in some solution through their emission spectrum. By mistake the wire used to introduce ...
2
votes
0answers
650 views

Calculating the pH of buffer solution made of two salts of a polyprotic acid

When we are making a buffer solution by solutions of a weak acid and its salt like $\ce{CH3COOH}$ and $\ce{CH3COONa}$, or by a weak base and its salt like $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$, we can use the ...
2
votes
0answers
766 views

Copper sulphate solution dissolves iron nail?

I tried an experiment of the Galvanic series and put three iron nails (slightly rusty, but brushed) into a copper sulphate solution and waited a few days until the nails get coated with copper. ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Does isopropyl alcohol have a similar affect as dipropylene glycol regarding absorption?

I am an aromatherapist and am making essential oil reed diffusers. Do you know if isopropyl alcohol has a similar affect in absorption as dipropylene glycol?
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Looking for solubility kinetics of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate

$\ce{Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O}$ is a crystalline solid insoluble in water. Often used as nutritional supplement. Preparation and chemistry of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate is known. I am looking for some ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Solvation rates of crystalline and noncrystalline materials

Assuming equal surface area (and other variables), would a highly ordered crystal of some substance dissolve more slowly or quickly than (or at the same rate as) a disordered sample of the same ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Behaviour of oleophobic and hydrophobic object in an oil and water solution

I am wondering what would happen if I put a small (between $\mathrm{5mm}$ and $\mathrm{1\mu}$, density between $\mathrm{1}$ and $\mathrm{2\: g/mL}$) item with both oleophobic and hydrophobic ...
2
votes
0answers
131 views

Methods of dissolving a gas into a liquid

I know that carbon dioxide is dissolved into water in a soda fountain using a sort of a tubular manifold that mixes the water with pressurized carbon dioxide as it goes through it. Is that the best ...