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Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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Why does ethanol and water mixture show positive deviation from Raoult's Law?

So, my teacher said, "For a solution to show positive deviation from Raoult's Law, it must have a compound which is lacking hydrogen bond and a compound which has hydrogen bond." This is because the ...
2
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0answers
364 views

Homemade copper etching solution

I'm trying to make an etching solution for copper (PCB) with easy to access materials. I'm using hydrochloric acid (9%), peroxide (common "oxygene" that contains many more ingredients), table vinegar, ...
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0answers
25 views

Deliquescence database

I am looking for a database or printed document providing the RH0 (relative humidity above which deliquescence will occur) for inorganic salts. I've looked everywhere on the internet can find nothing.
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1answer
102 views

Adding ethanol to louche

I'm watching MIT chemistry by Donald Sadoway. In one of his lectures devoted to solutions and phase separation, he performs experiments with absinthe. First he mixes absinthe with 5 $\times$ water ...
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1answer
650 views

Calculating Boiling Point of solution

I wish to calculate the boiling point of the following solution. (w/w) 78.8% Glycerol, 11.6% Propylene Glycol, 8.3% Water, 1.2% Nicotine (molar fraction) 0.5790 Glycerol, 0.1037 Propylene Glycol, ...
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0answers
328 views

How to find the concentration of ammonia in its saturated solution in methanol?

I have prepared a saturated solution of ammonia in methanol, by bubbling it out of ammonium hydroxide soln, to do some ammonolysis reactions. How can I find out the molarity and percentage of $\ce{...
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0answers
67 views

pOH listed as basic?

In a solution, the pOH value is 8.95. You are asked to evaluate whether the solution is an acid, a base, or neutral solution. If the pOH is 8.95, then the pH is ...
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2answers
2k views

Is lithium bicarbonate an aqueous solution of lithium carbonate?

This question is related to: Are Lithium bicarbonate and​ Magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water? What type of chemical reaction is this? How can bromine water be called a solution? In the ...
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2answers
416 views

Is it possible to prepare a solution of hydrogen sulfate in a lab? What is the procedure to do so?

I don't want a buffer solution with it, I want to know if its possible to have a solution with only $\ce{HSO4^{-}}$ ions in it.
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0answers
295 views

Water vapor equilibrium calculations

The question had two parts. The first part said: Calculate the amount of water required to saturate a vessel of volume 82 L at 300 K given that the vapor pressure of water is 38 torr at 300 K. The ...
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1answer
355 views

How to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed and enthalpy of solution?

I am trying to figure out how to determine the mass of ammonium nitrate needed to reduce the temperature of solution from $\pu{23 ^\circ C}$ (measured room temperature at start) to $\pu{3 ^\circ C}$, ...
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3answers
762 views

Proof of Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium

Here is how my textbook proves that dissolution of solid in liquid is dynamic in nature. It considers the example of a saturated solution of sugar. It says that, Though the solution is in ...
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1answer
797 views

Making artificial sweat

I'm currently working on a chemistry investigation wherein I need to dilute a compound with artificial sweat. I have looked at various forums, including this, which gave answers, but is very outdated. ...
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0answers
287 views

What is the pH of a solution that results of a mixture of two others with known pH?

Solution A has a pH of 1, soultion B has a pH of 6. If I mix the same volume V of each solution into one, what will be the pH of the resulting solution? I'm guessing here as no more information has ...
3
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2answers
396 views

Super-saturated solutions

If a solution is super-saturated is it possible to add a substance to it without allowing it to crystallise? Does a change in temperature have to happen and reduce it's saturation if I want to add ...
0
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1answer
746 views

Can I add the molarities of multiple solutes together?

If I am calculating the molarity of a solution in which more than one solute is dissolved, can I add the total number of moles of all the solutes together and divide it by the total volume of solvent ...
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4answers
7k views

Can other substances be dissolved in a saturated solution?

If I have a liter of water fully saturated with sucrose would it be possible to dissolve something like salt or any other substance in the water? Or when the solution is saturated, is it impossible to ...
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1answer
676 views

One volume of something

I am following some protocols for a reaction and after diluting my substrate in a solution I need to precipitate it in methanol. For this I need to pour my solution into "one volume" of methanol- ...
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1answer
92 views

Is there a free online resource where I can get the solubility of a solute in a solvent?

I'm looking for a online resource that lets me find the solubility at of any solute (e.g Choline Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, Dextrose) in any solvent (e.g. Ethylene Glycol, Oleic Acid, Isopropanol, ...
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1answer
3k views

How to find mole fraction of solvent and solute in a vapor pressure lowering problem?

At $25$ degrees celsius, the vapor pressure of pure benzene ($\ce{ C6H6}$) is $93.9$ torr. When a non-volatile solute is dissolved in benzene, the vapor pressure of benzene is lowered to $91.5$ torr. ...
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1answer
370 views

Precipitation reaction stoichiometry?

I have a question where I do not understand the final step to solve...here it is: What will be the Strontium ion concentration remaining after 30.0 mL of 0.10 M Na2SO4 solution are added to 70.0 mL ...
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2answers
69 views

What do we call ions without basic and acidic properties

According to Brønsted theory, Acids are substances (molecules and ions) donating $\ce{H+}$ Bases are substances (molecules and ions) receiving $\ce{H+}$ I've been trying to find a complete Brønsted-...
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1answer
299 views

Any other Colligative properties?

Are there any other colligative properties other than lowering of vapor pressure, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression? I was wondering whether surface tension of ...
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1answer
701 views

What is happening in this video of solvated electrons donated from sodium in ammonia?

I just saw the Periodic Video Liquid Electrons - Periodic Table of Videos where sodium is added to liquid ammonia. The demonstration shows that even if electrons are solvated, if you have a high ...
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0answers
111 views

How does the ease of fractional distillation vary?

How does the ease of fractional distillation of a mixture containing two volatile liquids vary according to the following factors :- Vapour pressure of individual liquids Mole fraction or ...
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1answer
725 views

How do hydrogen bonds break the ionic bonds of a crystal lattice? [duplicate]

In the case of water dissolving sodium chloride. I was under the impression that hydrogen bonds were much weaker than the ionic bonds in sodium chloride, so how do they overcome the ionic bond ...
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0answers
87 views

How to calculate the gas-liquid interaction for dissolved HNO3 in water with air?

Thanks for reading this and (maybe) helping me in advance! I have to face the following problem: I have got $\ce{HNO3}$ dissolved in water (roughly $\pu{50\%}$) and I want to know how much $\ce{HNO3}...
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2answers
180 views

Suspension or Solution

Tomorrow I have a science test, and in it there are some mixtures, and we have to identify whether they are a solution, a suspension or a colloid. Is there an easy way we can identify this WITHOUT ...
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0answers
79 views

Osmotic pressure and Raoult's law co-relation?

Consider two compartments A and B joined. A contains pure water. B contains brine (dilute). Consider the Vant Hoff factor ($i$). Obviously pressure over B is less than over A. We also know that the ...
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0answers
942 views

Calculating the Activity Coefficient parameters form Henry's Law

Here is the question, I am stuck on part B: Basically, this is my thought process so far, as $x_a \rightarrow 0$, the Henry's law line becomes tangential to the actual partial pressure curve.. Henry'...
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1answer
240 views

The safety of homemade slime

Disclaimer: I am not a chemist, but I figured this may be the place to ask. So, recently, there has been a lot of news going around about the homemade slime burning a child's hands and I got curious ...
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2answers
2k views

Why doesn't the vapor pressure of water depend on the humidity?

Correct me if I'm wrong, I'd like to think of vapor pressure of water as the number of water molecules escaping from the water surface per unit area. Greater the leaving number, greater the vapor ...
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2answers
364 views

Colligative properties and sizes of particles

Why do colligative properties only depend on the number of particles and not the size? *My argument being that since the root cause of these properties is the occurrence of solute particles on the ...
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3answers
942 views

Is vapour pressure of a liquid solution constant at a given temperature, no matter the size of closed container and amount of liquid taken?

Does vapour pressure of a liquid solution depend on the size of closed container, amount of solution taken, given that, temperature is kept constant? Or will it change, if some extra gas is added to ...
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1answer
3k views

Van't Hoff Factor of Sucrose [closed]

What is the Van't Hoff factor for sucrose? According to me it should be 2 as sucrose is a disaccharide.
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1answer
2k views

Bubble formation when aluminium reacts with copper(II) sulfate solution

I recently did an experiment putting pieces of $\ce{Al}$ and $\ce{Fe}$ into copper(II) sulfate solution and I noticed when the piece of aluminium was reacting, tiny bubbles were coming out whereas ...
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1answer
2k views

What happens to the solute when a solution freezes?

I came across a situation in which my chemistry textbook gives phase diagram of a pure solvent and a solution with the same solvent.I am considering 2 different , say beakers, one containing some ...
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0answers
258 views

Mutual solubility of water and hexane [closed]

The question says that the value of mutual solubility of water and hexane is small. Consult bibliography to find it out. I can't find it and I'm also concerned as to why the question doesn't ...
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1answer
497 views

Mg and Cu Reaction in HCl

When a solid piece of Mg is attached to a solid piece of Cu and is placed into HCl(aq), why does it appear that the Cu slowly starts to bubble?
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1answer
90 views

Is it possible for the remaining solute of a saturated solution to form a single even phase from top to bottom (similar to that of a colloid)?

If a solute that dissolves in a liquid solvent has reached high enough levels to cause saturation within the solution, is it possible for the remaining solute particles to form an evenly distributed ...
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1answer
155 views

Recovering iodine from activated carbon

I have a sample of an iodine solution that has been dyed brown to mask the amount of iodine within. I have added activated carbon to 100 mL of the sample and mixed for 3 hours to remove the iodine ...
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1answer
52 views

Is there a way to find the mixture type with just the molecular formulas and masses of the solute and solvent?

If you had the molecular formula and molar mass of a solvent and a solute and no other specific information about the two, could one deduce the type of mixture (suspension, colloid, solution) they ...
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1answer
26 views

How can I know if there is a phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) in a solution?

I have a solution which probably contains a phospholipid (phosphatydylcholine), I would like to know if there is an easy method to show the presence of the phospholipid. I came across TLC, but I ...
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2answers
695 views

How does the composition of a mixed solvent affect solubility?

I am trying to find out how varying the proportion of each solvent in a binary (water/ethanol) solvent solution affects the solubility of an organic acid. I know the solubilities of the acid in each ...
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1answer
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Expressing solubility in binary solvents with non-additive volumes

I have experimentally obtained data that shows the molarity of a saturated solution in mixed solvents, with different proportions of solvents. The issue here is that the two solvents (water/ethanol)...
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2answers
77 views

Solubility of salts

A saturated solution is prepared at 70 °C containing $\pu{32.0 g}~ \ce{CuSO4.5H2O}$ per 100 g solution. A 335 g sample of this solution is then cool to 0 °C so that $\ce{CuSO4.5H2O}$ crystallises out....
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2answers
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Why and how are azeotropes formed?

Why and how are azeotropes formed? I could not find a detailed explanation of how azeotropic mixtures are formed anywhere on the internet. Now, that I figured it out myself, I thought I'd share it.
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2answers
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How to make solution of specific concentration with non-stoichiometric hydrate?

I am currently working with a drug molecule known as Amiloride $\ce{HCl}$ and it seems to be a non-stoichiometric hydrate. How would I go about making a solution with a specific concentration of ...
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1answer
410 views

With a partition coefficient how do you decide which solute concentration is the numerator?

Kpc = [X(in solvent A)]/[X(in solvent B)] I realise that Kpc is actuallly a ratio but when you need the numerical value it has to be treated as a fraction. When it has to be treated as a fraction ...
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1answer
793 views

How to calculate concentration of unknown saturated stock solution from diluted solution whose concentration is known?

I want to measure the solubility of a compound. I prepared a saturated stock solution of my compound in 100ml of water by dissolving it in excess and filtering out the undissolved sample. Then I ...