Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

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1answer
27 views

Is adding the word “solution” necessary when listing the materials used in a synthesis?

I am editing a chemistry-related paper and the synthesis procedure described is as follows: Then, 10 mL of the intermediate were mixed with 10 mL of 1% (w/v) VCPL and 2 mL of 0.1% (w/v) KPS. I ...
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2answers
59 views

How do you get contents of large flask into a smaller separatory funnel?

Separatory flasks that I use have a ground glass joint, but it is not clear how that joint is to be used. Videos I have seen just show people pouring stuff into the throat of the funnel. Normally the ...
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0answers
34 views

How to determine the solubility of a Metal Fluoride in liquid Gallium

I am involved in a project that is testing approaches to using CVD to form a graphene layer on liquid Gallium. Fluorine has been used in the process to disassociate methane into carbon and hydrogen ...
6
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1answer
65 views

How Would A Vast Mixture (Like an Ocean) of Ammonia-Water Behave in Terms of Evaporation and Freezing?

First, I'll go ahead and say I'm not very versed in chemistry. My question comes from my interest in planetary-sciences, specifically the speculation that there are likely exoplanets and moons with ...
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3answers
254 views

If Beer's Law appears to apply to a high concentration (>0.01M) of a solute, is it valid to use for concentration calculation?

Internet consensus seems to define "high concentration" for Beer's Law as >0.01M. If one has a solution at higher concentrations than that, but the absorbance vs. concentration is still linear, is it ...
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0answers
13 views

Relative rate of vapor formation in binary solutions

If we mix two liquids,one with a vapor pressure of pure liquid 100 torr and other 900 torr ..can we say that for every one mole of the first liquid which vaporizes correspondingly nine moles of the ...
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1answer
884 views

Does the speed of an ion affect the current that can flow through a solution?

Typically, when a cathode and anode are inserted into a solution that allows current to flow, the ions are moving with a certain kinetic energy. If the ions were to gain kinetic energy (through ...
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0answers
24 views

Physical significance of vapor pressure of pure liquid [closed]

What exactly is the significance of vapor pressure of a pure liquid(the one used in Raoult's Law)? Does it take into account the pressure exerted by the liquid on the walls of the container also or is ...
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3answers
998 views

Why do colligative properties depend only on number of solute particles?

Colligative properties depend solely on the number of even though the interactive forces are different for different solute-solvent pairs. So why is the dependence only on the number of solute?
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1answer
780 views

How to think of solvated electrons?

This excellent answer explains at length what's happening in this fascinating video entitled Liquid Electrons - Periodic Table of Videos. In the screenshot below, the metallic-looking solvated ...
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0answers
17 views

How does a surfactant clean a surface? [closed]

How does cleaning something with a surfactant mechanically work? For example, we have a metal surface covered by a closed layer of oil, and try to remove the oil from the surface with water. We want ...
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1answer
41 views

Does water in air occur as liquid or as gas? [closed]

I've learned that in a gas, the solute has to be a gas a well. Is that always the case? How about water in air, is that liquid in a gas, or a gas in a gas?
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5answers
35k views

Difference between solubility and dissolution?

How is solubility different from dissolution? And how are they both different from solvation?
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1answer
66 views

Cheap but efficient disinfectant / biocide for home lab

EDIT I am forced to reword my question about a chemical mixing ratio. I have seen in Wikipedia that peroxide ($\ce{H2O2}$) and Acetic Acid can be mixed to Peracetic acid - this is an equilibrium. I ...
2
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1answer
36 views

Conductance of the mixture of two solutions with given resistance values [duplicate]

If $R_1$ and $R_2$ are the resistances of two solutions of equal volume what is the conductance of the mixture in the same conductivity cell? In general, I grasped neither the approach, nor the ...
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1answer
34 views

Difference of Ascorbic acid dissolved or precipitated in Glycerol?

Difference of Ascorbic acid (AA) dissolved or precipitated in Glycerol? Referring to pat US20110008445A1 Solution 1 At 25C, AA was dissolved in glycerol and alcohol (subsequently removed by ...
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1answer
21 views

Solubility: Is the common ion effect proportional to individual solubility values?

I'm trying to grasp how solubility works in real applications. Is it so that in a solution with only one salt, it's solubility will change upon the addition of another salt with a common ion in a ...
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0answers
32 views

Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile one?

I am working on my scholarship exam practice assuming high school chemistry knowledge and struggling at how I can rationalize this question. Which of acid aqueous solution 1) to 4) is non-volatile ...
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1answer
51 views

Entropy change in non-ideal solutions

We know that some solutions show positive deviations and some show negative deviation from Raoult's law.The former is endothermic and the latter is exothermic. And again, the volume change show ...
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1answer
56 views

Why does mixing two solutions decrease the concentration of the solutes?

The irreversible liquid reaction $$\ce{A + B -> C + D}$$ follows an elementary rate law and is carried out isothermally in a plug flow reactor (PFR). The volume of the PFR is 500 litres....
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0answers
19 views

What is the cause for the difference in pH between NaCl and Ringer Lactate

Reading this article, I came across a passage which got me to think of this question: "Normal saline contains approximately $\pu{154mM}$ of each $\ce{Na+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ with average pH of 5.0 and ...
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2answers
81 views

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? [closed]

Does adding solutes to water alter its triple point? If yes, how do we find the new temperature and pressure of this point?
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2answers
592 views

Solubility product of HgS

The reported solubility product of $\ce{HgS}$ is $4 \times 10^{-54}$. How is this possible? The minimum concentration that is possible is 1/avogadro's constant which shall be about $10^{-23}\ \mathrm{...
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0answers
35 views

Over time what happens to soluble liquids with different densities

I have a case with two liquids: Water and another chemical which is miscible in water. The chemical has a density of 800 g/l so it's 20% less dense than water. Initially the chemical was mixed with ...
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1answer
20 views

Dosing leaves with Zinc Nitrate for pollution experiment - Need specific concentration

I am trying to assess the pollution tolerance of an insect using Zn as a proxy. I have a supply of Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate that I want to use to contaminate dried leaves (the insect's food). The LD50 ...
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1answer
39 views

Relative lowering of vapour pressure

Why is lowering of vapour pressure (Po - Ps) temperature dependent? And why is relative lowering of vapour pressure (1 - Ps/Po) independant of temperature?
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1answer
53 views

Molarity of pure water [closed]

The molarity of pure water is 55.5 M at which temprature is obtained this value? Further, you will come across that 1000 mL = 1000 g (for water only, but at which temprature?)
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2answers
55 views

Is osmosis really a special case of diffusion across a semipermeable membrane?

A general idea we have about osmosis is that it is the movement of solvent particles through a semi permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This seems ...
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2answers
33 views

Relation between size of ion and hydration energy [closed]

Suppose I take 1 tablespoon of an ionic crystal and put it in excess water. We know that shall the hydration energy of the crystal be more than the lattice energy, the crystal will separate in ions ...
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0answers
18 views

Osmotic pressure and ideal gas equation

When I was studying osmosis I came across the formula for osmotic pressure as: $$\text{Osmotic pressure} =CRT$$ where $C$=molarity $(n/V)$ $R$=universal gas constant $T$=temperature This ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Freezing point of solution

It's stated in my textbook that at the freezing point, the vapour pressure of the solid phase equals the vapour pressure of the liquid phase. In a mixture, since the vapour pressure of the solution is ...
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1answer
278 views

Chemistry - Solutions

Please give me a few hints as to how I can approach this problem A mixture of two miscible volatile ideal liquids P and Q (obeying Raoult’s law) is kept in a vessel (molar ratio of P and Q in the ...
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1answer
30 views

Suitable safe cleaning solution for aliphatic urethane

I am looking for a suitable cleaning solution for a sprayed on coating that is an acrylic aliphatic urethane. My end goal would ideally be something that can neutralize rust, whiten and brighten the ...
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1answer
51 views

Thickening and/or slowing evaporation of IPA-based ink

The conundrum I have a security printing ink that I make by adding an IR-absorbing dye to a 50/50 mix of Isopropyl Alcohol and distilled water. The ink solution is pale green but dries virtually ...
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5answers
20k views

Is it possible to separate/remove sugar from common drinks, such as juice?

Is it possible to remove sugar from a drink (for example, juice) using common household equipment?
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1answer
80 views

How to find the concentration of barium ions in a mixture of barium sulfate and barium thiosulfate?

I have a hard time with selective precipitation problem. A mixture of $\ce{BaSO4}$ and $\ce{BaS2O3}$ is shaken with pure water until a saturated solution is formed. Both solids remain in excess. ...
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1answer
35 views

Is vapour pressure a surface phenomenon?

As a fact, I know that vapour pressure doesn't depend on surface area. Does this imply it is not a surface phenomenon also? It shouldn't be as then it would depend on surface area of molecules and ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Why do Cu⁺ ions spontaneously form copper metal and Cu²⁺ ions in solution?

The standard electrode potentials for three reactions involving copper and copper ions are: $$ \begin{align} \ce{Cu^2+(aq) + e- &-> Cu+(aq)} &\quad E &= \pu{+0.15 V} \\ \ce{Cu^2+(...
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1answer
817 views

Determine the amount of substance of calcium chloride used

Determine the amount of substance (in moles) of calcium chloride used in this lab. (Hint: $0.20\rm~M$ means $0.20\rm~moles:1~L$) I made $96$ milliliters of $\ce{CaCl2}$ which would be $0.096\rm~L$...
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0answers
22 views

Henry's law p = kx vs m = kp

What exactly is the difference between the following equations? $$p = kx \qquad\text{and}\qquad m = kp$$ Is the $k$ in both same, because I have seen same $k$ in textbooks for both equations?
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0answers
23 views

Comparing vapour pressure of 1 molar vs 1 molal solution of sodium chloride

Say, we have 1 molar solution of $\ce{NaCl}$ and 1 molal solution of $\ce{NaCl}$. Among these, which will have maximum vapour pressure? I know that vapour pressure will depend on the number of $\ce{...
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1answer
73 views

How to keep raspberry ketone from forming crystals again after dissolving in alcohol?

I dissolved raspberry ketone 700 mg in 10 ml of 99% isopropyl alcohol. The solubility according to pub chem is 1 g/ml. After dissolving, I added room temperature water to bring the final volume to 70 ...
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1answer
38 views

Why is the entropy of solidifying solution higher than that of a pure solvent?

According to a source, Solutions have a greater entropy than pure liquids as the particles in a solution are more separated and solvent molecules separate the solute particles. If the number of ...
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3answers
8k views

Does solute add to volume of solution?

I have to calculate the concentration of sucrose in water just by knowing their masses (and their temperature). Now, if the volume doesn't change when the sugar is being dissolved, I can do that quite ...
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1answer
42 views

Neutralisation Reaction Confusion

What will happen when $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ reacts with $\pu{1 mol}$ of $\ce{NaOH}$? Will $\pu{1 mol}$ each of $\ce{NaHSO4}$ and water be formed? Or will $\pu{0.5 mol}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ will ...
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2answers
45 views

Heating 2% solution to get 4% solution

I have a 2% solution of Zinc sulfate in water (in heptahydrate form) that I want to turn into 4% solution instead of having to buy 4% solution separately. Would heating it to 100 degrees Celsius and ...
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1answer
81 views

Methyl Orange Indicator-Reason for small amount of NaOH [closed]

I used methyl orange as my indicator to titrate a weak acid: At first, I added 3 drops of methyl orange to a solution of the weak acid, $\ce{CH3COOH}$, and the solution turned red. Then, after ...
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0answers
59 views

Trichloroacetic acid aqueous solution

I have bought some anhydride of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and would like to prepare an acidic solution. My problem is, that I don't know how much "powder" to mix with how much water to produce an x% ...
2
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0answers
28 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
4
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2answers
195 views

What happens if you mix two insoluble liquids but with the same density? [closed]

Would it make two separate phases? or would it make something like and emulsion?