Questions tagged [solutions]

This tag should be applied to questions dealing with solutions of any kind. A solution is a liquid or solid phase containing more than one substance where, for convenience, one (or more) substance(s) called the solvent is treated differently from the other substances, which are called solutes. If water is the solvent, then the more appropriate 'aqueous-solution' tag should (also) be specified.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

Is this evidence that solubility of sodium bicarbonate<sodium carbonate?

Someone introduced $\ce{CO2}$ into saturated $\ce{Na2CO3}$ solution, and observed that white precipitate is produced. He therefore claims that $\ce{NaHCO3}$ has less solubility than $\ce{Na2CO3}$. His ...
2 votes
2 answers
109 views

In an unsaturated solution, is the product of ions still equal to Ksp?

Suppose I have a solution of a sparingly soluble compound, and consider its solubility in g/L. If I have less g/L of solution than that amount, it means the solution is unsaturated, but what happens ...
-2 votes
2 answers
63 views

Can you clearly explain what osmotic pressure is?

There are two main questions I'm struggling to get my head around. What exerts osmotic pressure? Is it the molecules of the solvent (water) or solute particles (sugar) ? Where is it exerted? On the ...
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

Why can we calculate the molar mass of a non volatile solute using lowering in vapour pressure?

Apparently it is possible to calculate the molecular mass of a non volatile solute using relative lowering of vapour pressure using the equation: Where P is the total vapour pressure of the solution, ...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

What does it mean for a substance to be "sparingly soluble"?

I have trouble understanding what solubility means. Merriam-Webster defines it as follows: 1 the quality or state of being soluble 2 the amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of ...
-2 votes
1 answer
43 views

Calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂

Trying to calculate the volume (in mL) of 0.200 M CaCl₂ needed to produce 2.00 g of CaCO₃ (s). There is an excess of Na₂CO₃. Molar Mass of Carbon Carbonate = 100.09 g/mol. I am getting the answer ...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Increasing energy density for flow batteries with water based electrolyte?

Given a flow battery with a water based electrolyte, would it be possible to increase the energy density of battery by precipitating the redox active species from the anolyte and catholyte solutions? ...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

History of Azeotrope (azeotropic mixtures)

I'm currently researching the history of azeotropic mixtures for an essay, and I've come across some interesting information. The term "azeotrope" was coined in 1911 by English chemists John ...
2 votes
2 answers
125 views

What solvents can I use to dissolve Epichlorohydrin rubber and Chloroprene Rubber

I am working with Epichlorohydrin and Chloroprene Rubbers and I would like to cast films of 2 mm at most. The solvents I have in my lab are DMSO, THF, DMF, Acetone, Ethanol and Propylene Carbonate. ...
2 votes
4 answers
29k views

Does solute add to volume of solution?

I have to calculate the concentration of sucrose in water just by knowing their masses (and their temperature). Now, if the volume doesn't change when the sugar is being dissolved, I can do that quite ...
-4 votes
1 answer
60 views

Is it possible to make acids and bases in amphiprotic solvents other than water [closed]

In such solvents, could there be chemicals which could donate/accept protons, and if so could their solutions display acidic/basic properties?
0 votes
2 answers
6k views

What is the difference between reacting and dissolving?

When one chemical is added to another how would we come to know whether the compound dissolves in it or reacts with it? For example $\ce{AgNO3}$ dissolves in $\ce{CCl4}$ whereas it could also have ...
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

Iodine solution concentration

I am planning to make 1L of 0.005M iodine solution from KI and I2. I have found instructions that say to use 2 g of KI and 1.3 g of I2 but no explanation why exactly this particular amount. I also ...
4 votes
1 answer
504 views

Why zinc sulphate solubility is higher in ethylene glycol than water?

I'm trying to find saturation point for dissolved zinc sulphate in water and ethylene glycol. Based on my knowledge, water is more polar than ethylene glycol as reflected in its higher dielectric ...
0 votes
2 answers
106 views

Why don't P graphs contradict Raoult's law graphs?

Our teacher gave us the following question: 1 mole each of liquids A, B are mixed in a piston-type vessel and piston is moved slowly and isothermally. (PA0 = 75 torr and PB0 = 25 Torr) Find: (a) ...
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

Entropy as the driving force for osmosis

How is entropy responsible for osmosis and is movement of solvent possible from its higher concentration to lower concentration? By concentration, I will be referring to the concentration of solvent ...
4 votes
1 answer
272 views

Variation of conductance of saturated aqueous solution with temperature

The following question was asked in JEE Mains 2020: Let $C_{\ce{NaCl}}$ and $C_{\ce{BaSO4}}$ be the conductances (in S) measured for saturated aqueous solutions of $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{BaSO4}$, ...
2 votes
4 answers
151 views

How can the Kw of water be constant?

I know in neutral solution, $\ce{[H+]}= \ce{[OH-]}= \pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$. However, let’s say I add an acid like HCl. This will increase $\ce{[H+]}$, therefore it’s no longer $\pu{1.0 x 10^-7}$, but is ...
5 votes
2 answers
187 views

Are hydroxides soluble in each other?

Let's say I have molten potassium hydroxide and then I add some Calcium hydroxide. I imagine, since there are hydroxide groups floating around, it would be energetically neutral for the calcium ions ...
0 votes
1 answer
371 views

Balancing a chemical reaction with oxidation numbers

We have been teached how to balance chemical reactions with oxidation numbers in school, but somehow I can't understand it. This is the equation to balance $$\ce{Cu(s) + NO3−(aq) + H+(aq) -> Cu^2+(...
0 votes
1 answer
69 views

Why Green Solution After Putting Bismuth Antimony in Nitrogen Acid

I am in a physics lab studying dislocation, and we submerged a bismuth antimony sample in nitrogen acid (about 50% concentration, if I remembered it right) as the first step to etch it. There were ...
-4 votes
1 answer
54 views

How to figure out concentration of ingredients in solution? [closed]

I have a solution that contains 3 inactive ingredients: ethanol, propylene glycol, purified water and 5% of an active ingredient. What would be the smartest way to figure out the concentrations of the ...
0 votes
0 answers
193 views

Why does ethanol decrease viscosity of a high pH carbomer solution more compared to water

Carbomer 407 is made up of acrylic acid that undergoes polymerisation to form a long linear structure. At higher pH, the carboxylic acid functional groups will dissociate to form carboxylate ions. ...
1 vote
3 answers
457 views

Silver recovery from sodium hydroxide solution

I have washed graphic film with sodium hydroxide solution removing the silver emulsion. Is there any way to now recover the silver from solution?
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

Vapour pressure and Raoults law [duplicate]

Suppose we take a binary ideal solution having components A and B .... let's say that their mole fraction is 1/3 and 2/3 respectively (for simplicity) Now ... We know that this solution will start ...
11 votes
1 answer
7k views

Why does concentration of solutions of alkali metals in liquid ammonia change the magnetic properties?

In "NCERT Chemistry for Class XI - Volume II", in chapter "s-block elements", under the topic "Chemical Properties of alkali metals", it is given: (vi) Solutions in ...
-4 votes
2 answers
117 views

Mixing two solutions: how to solve such problems, is there a trick? [closed]

Two containers were filled with salt solutions, and the first container contained 1 liter less solution than the second. The mass concentration of salt from the solution in the first container was 10%,...
-1 votes
2 answers
149 views

Calcium-containing acidic solution

I want to prepare an acidic solution containing Ca ions. I thought about dissolving calcium sulphate, acetate or phosphate in $\pu{2 M}$ $\ce{H2SO4}$ or $\ce{H3PO4}$ solutions, but it seems that $\ce{...
1 vote
1 answer
117 views

When does osmosis stop?

In the figure given below:- Since only solvent particles can move through semipermeable membrane, if we manage to keep pressure on both the containers equal say by keeping weights, will osmosis go ...
0 votes
0 answers
63 views

Anti-bumping granules

Anti-bumping granules are usually small stones. I presume that the principle of these granules ensuring smooth boiling, is that it blocks the upward motion of solution molecules. Usually the stones ...
1 vote
2 answers
10k views

Confusion on when to use mass of entire solution when performing q=mc∆T

I am studying for the AP Chemistry exam in May 2020. While studying, I encountered a doubt. In Problem 1 (the question on the top), the educator saw that the problem was referring to the solution as a ...
-2 votes
1 answer
78 views

Does dissolution and crystallization always occur together?

Does dissolution and crystallization always take place simultaneously? Also does crystallization also occur in unsaturated solution but its rate is less than rate of dissolution or is rate of ...
1 vote
0 answers
21 views

Concentration term PPM [duplicate]

What volume do we assume when the concentration is written as mass by volume ppm? I mean when mass by volume percentage is say 20%, we can say that 20g solute is present in 100 ml solution. So if it ...
-2 votes
2 answers
43 views

Explanation for Raoults Law

The vapour pressure of pure liquids is independent of quantity of substance. But when in a solution, the vapour pressure of the components are given by $$P_A=P^°_AX_A$$$$P_B=P^°_BX_B$$ Since $A-A$, $A-...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Why is glass a mixture and not a solution?

While studying mixtures and solutions, I read that glass is a mixture and not a solution. Then I searched over the Internet about it, but I got the same answer that it is a homogenous mixture. But ...
1 vote
0 answers
29 views

Magnetic surface removal

I have a DIY project made from used hard disk. Certain HDD models contain precision glass disks plated with magnetic surface, usually done with magnetron sputtering. I am searching for a substance I ...
3 votes
1 answer
321 views

Enthalpy change of a solution of 1-pentanol in 1-butanol

I came across a question asking to indicate the enthalpy of solution for a solution of 1-pentanol in 1-butanol. The options were the following: $\Delta H < 0$ $\Delta H \approx 0$ $\Delta H >...
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Thickening and/or slowing evaporation of IPA-based ink

The conundrum I have a security printing ink that I make by adding an IR-absorbing dye to a 50/50 mix of Isopropyl Alcohol and distilled water. The ink solution is pale green but dries virtually ...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Why is it that in a buffer solution the equilibrium concentrations may be assumed to be the initial concentrations? [duplicate]

Considering the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, $$\text{pH} = \text{p}K_a + \lg \frac{[\ce{AcO⁻}]} {[\ce{AcOH}]}$$ $$\text{p}K_a = \lg \frac{[\ce{AcO⁻}][\ce{H⁺}]} {[\ce{AcOH}]}$$ Why are the values ...
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Why does the melting point of hexafluorosilicic acid differ that much in these two solution concentrations?

From the Wikipedia article for hexafluorosilicic acid: Melting point: ca. 19 °C (66 °F; 292 K) (60–70% solution) $<$ −30 °C (−22 °F; 243 K) (35% solution) What's the reason for this huge ...
1 vote
2 answers
1k views

Advice on forming a 10% solution of Maltol

I’m having great trouble forming a 10% solution of Maltol. Specifically, I’m trying to dissolve 3 grams of Maltol in 27 grams of solvent. I’ve tried everything from Propylene Glycol, to Deionized ...
0 votes
1 answer
61 views

Why do laundry detergents go bad?

Common lore on the internet is that liquid laundry detergents go bad 1-2 years after they are purchased. Is this true? I'd like to understand the chemistry behind this. This is the laundry detergent I ...
-2 votes
1 answer
52 views

How can a volatile solvent make an ideal solution with a non-volatile solid solute?

I ask because to make an ideal solution the intermolecular forces between the molecules of solvent and solute respectively should be similar and after mixing they should also be similar to what they ...
1 vote
1 answer
76 views

Are all salts completely dissociated in solution when put in smaller amounts than their molar solubility?

From what I understand, the solubility is given in terms of molar solubility (or $\pu{K_{sp}}$), from which it can be easily calculated). Indeed, the saturation point represents the maximum amount of ...
1 vote
2 answers
407 views

How to prepare solution of liquid reagent of the given molar concentration?

I have a liquid reagent with molecular mass $M = \pu{294.08 g mol^-1}.$ I'd like to prepare $V = \pu{400 ml}$ of solution of that reagent with a concentration $c = \pu{100 mM}.$ Does it mean I have to ...
-3 votes
1 answer
89 views

Can acids contain OH-? [closed]

Given that a solution contains $\ce{OH-}$ ions can we sufficiently determine the substance is a base? From my understanding, an acid may still contain $\ce{OH-}$ ions. However, the concentration of $\...
7 votes
2 answers
248 views

How soluble is uranium in molten iron?

As I know, uranium and iron simply aren't mixable, which means there are no U-Fe alloys. The Google says, uranium is insoluble in molten iron. But, if something is "insoluble", it actually means only ...
2 votes
0 answers
61 views

How do I plot ternary phase diagrams using Flory-Huggins solution theory?

I have three components, $A,B,C$, with 3 exchange parameters: $\chi _{AB}, \chi _{BC}, \chi _{AC}$. I want to create a FH ternary diagram to see how such a mixture behaves and how phase separation ...
-2 votes
3 answers
516 views

Why do we have to prevent the hydrolysis of iron(III) nitrate?

I want to make particular concentration of ferric ions from $\ce{Fe(NO3)3.9H2O}$, and then I found this video It says that we have to add nitric acid to prevent iron from hydrolysis, what does it mean?...
-4 votes
1 answer
68 views

What is the significance of semipermeable membrane in osmosis? [closed]

My teacher said that semipermeable membrane allows passage of only selected particles and then said that it is required for osmosis but I cannot totally understand the main function of semipermeable ...

1
2 3 4 5
21