Questions tagged [solubility]

For questions related to the solubility of compounds in various solvents, especially in water. Do not confuse with [solutions] or [aqueous-solution].

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Yellow precipitate in SnCl2 solution

I have a few small bottles of 0.5M $\ce{SnCl2}$ solution, however solution was prepared about 4 months ago, and there is a yellow precipitate on the bottom of each bottle. Working hypothesis is that ...
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168 views

What factors contribute most to solubility of ionic substances in highly polar solvents, esp. ionic liquids and DES?

I am trying to determine a method to dissolve a mineral salt with a lattice energy of ≈18000 kJ/mol. I know that lattice energy is the most significant factor affecting solubility of an ionic ...
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135 views

Alkali Metal Rosinates Solubility in Acetone

In violin finishing technology alkali metal Rosinates are used in varnish synthesis. Usually this alkali metal Rosinates are soluble in Turpentine. I also know that Copper, Zinc Rosinates are soluble ...
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388 views

Why isn't orthoboric acid soluble in cold water even though it has polar B-OH bonds?

This is the information I found regarding orthoboric acid's solubility: Textbook (NCERT India): Sparingly soluble in water (didn't say what temperature - presumably cold) and highly soluble in hot ...
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2answers
287 views

How to measure saturated salinity and mineral levels for flaked sea salt?

I am a sea salt enthusiast looking to make the perfect flakey sea salt. I start with sea water and boil it down to a thick brine. Then with less heat I reduce the brine more slowly and inverted salt ...
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138 views

Solubility of PbSO4

The solubility of $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ increase with the addition of $\ce{H2SO4}.$ Why? I don't quite understand this. When dissolving $\ce{PbSO4(s)}$ we get the equilibrium equation: $$\ce{PbSO4(s) <=...
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953 views

Why is potassium bitartrate so insoluble?

The solubility of potassium bitartrate in water at 20°C is given by Wikipedia as 0.57 g per 100 ml, which is considerably lower than that of sodium bitartrate. Generally, a potassium salt is more ...
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481 views

Theory of volume contraction in solution

When a solid is dissolved into a liquid, or two solids are amalgamated, their mutual volume will contract. For example, a crystal of sugar having a volume of one cubic inch dissolved into 10 cubic ...
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How to break down soap and detergents?

I am building a greywater harvesting system. It is a 3-stage system: The 1st stage breaks down soap and detergents. The 2nd stage filters the water. The 3rd stage pumps water out of system. What ...
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643 views

Is there a simple way to memorize/reason out the solubility rules?

Normally, to determine if a compound is soluble, I would just apply the solubility rules, which can be found here. The problem is, these are not fun to memorize as there are often loads of exceptions ...
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43 views

Why is this scintillator component turning into a milky-white emulsion?

I am a chemistry and physics double major doing some chemistry work in a nuclear physics lab. My mentor is a physicist, so his area of expertise is occasionally mismatched with what I need for my ...
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48 views

Transfer of odor molecules from oil to water

I brew beer, I'm not a chemist. I want to add natural peanut aroma to a beer. The most common way this is being done by brewers is the addition of peanut powder, which is essentially the product ...
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61 views

How do salts of a weak acid + weak base behave in solution?

Say you have Ammonium Formate in solution, the salt formed by the reaction of Formic Acid and Ammonia. Would both the Formate ion and Ammonium ion protonate and deprotonate, respectively, to form ...
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227 views

The behaviour of Ag3PO4 in solution

To a $\pu{1L}$ flask, we add $\pu{4.1900 g}$ ($\pu{0.01001 mol}$) of $\ce{Ag3PO4}$, then fill it up with water. Knowing the following constants, we are asked to find the concentration of all species ...
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99 views

Poor aqueous solubility of chloroazodin

Below is the structure of chloroazodin: Why is chloroazodin poorly soluble in water? It has multiple amine and imine nitrogens, all of which appear to be available for hydrogen bonding, and thus it ...
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134 views

Why are critical micelle concentrations so large?

Dissolving a non-polar molecule in water incurs a free energy cost of about $10 kJ/(mol \cdot nm^2)$ (source: http://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?&id=101826) The entropy gained from ...
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Lithium chloride is soluble in pyridine while other lithium halides are not. Why?

Lithium chloride is soluble in pyridine while other lithium halides are not. Why? I know that lithium chloride is deliquescent like magnesium chloride. Lithium halides are covalent and thus are ...
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835 views

Polarity and Solubility of Tetracyclone

In one of my organic chemistry experiments, I synthesized tetracyclone (Tetraphenylcyclopentadienone), and we were supposed to dissolve it in DCM to do our TLC. DCM is polar and looking at the ...
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333 views

Brewing tea with deionized water

I am wondering what efect brewing tea (let us assume for the sake of simplicity it is green tea, brewed at about 80 °C) in deionized water might have on the product. Will the lack of ions in the ...
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94 views

How could I find the solubility of hydrocarbons such as iso- and n-Butane in liquid Methane?

I am trying to figure out the dissolution capacity of iso and normal butane in methane at very low temperatures (110K). This would allow me to make compositions that prevent freeze out of these ...
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Purity of precipitate in selective precipitation

An aqueous effluent contains $12\ \mathrm{mol\ l^{-1}}$ $\ce{Cd^2+}$ and $10\ \mathrm{mol\ l^{-1}}$ $\ce{Mg^2+}$ as solution of nitrates. Current practice is use $\ce{NaOH}$ to selectively precipitate ...
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79 views

UV curable adhesive

I'm looking for a UV curable adhesive that can be removed without peeling or burning. Ideal removal would be some kind of solvent over a relatively short period of time. I also need it to have a ...
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Calculating equilibrium concentrations of silver and halide ions

$\pu{500 ml}$ of $\pu{0.01 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ is mixed with $\pu{500 ml}$ of solution containing $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{NaBr}$. $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{AgCl}$ is $10^{-10}$ and $...
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Activity of NaCl aqueous solution at high ionic strengths: Common-ion effect

Is there any theoretical way to estimate the activity of $\ce{NaCl}$ at high ionic strengths in water and that in $\pu{7 M}$ $\ce{NaCl}$ solution? This question is based on whether solubility of $\ce{...
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1answer
92 views

Mixing cobalt(III) hydroxide and thallium(III) hydroxide

A simple question on solutions is driving me crazy. At this point, I think the textbook's wrong. Here's the question: A saturated solution of cobalt(III) hydroxide $(K_\mathrm{sp} = \pu{1.6e-44})$ ...
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43 views

while using Henry's law does it matter if the solvent is volatile or not?

I am studying about binary solutions (with liquid solvents) and came across Henry's law. This is how it's stated in my textbook: Henry's law states that at a constant temperature the solubility of ...
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Cleaning a stubborn Electrospray residue

I have an electrospray ionization capillary tip that sprays into a chamber that contains some circuit boards. An aqueous CsI sample is apparently causing a white residue to build up on these boards ...
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Stoichiometry based on addition of simultaneous equilibria

I read on another equilibrium question that if two equilibria occur at the same time, then it is not accurate with actual stoichiometry to add the two equations and multiply the equilibrium constants $...
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316 views

is syringaldazine soluble in water?

Would it be better to use water or ethanol as a solvent for syringaldazine? Why? Would water interfere with the oxidation of syringaldazine if laccase enzyme was added?
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209 views

Varying data about solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate

I recently looked up the solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate in water at 20°C and found surprisingly diverse values such as: 613g/l (GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank) 762g/l (TU Freiberg) 1250g/l (applichem, ...
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1answer
960 views

Why is magnesium sulfate acidic? Why are my calculations showing that it is basic?

Let's say I was dissolving $\pu{1M}~\ce{MgSO_4}$ into water and I wanted to find the pH. I would go right to the reaction of the dissociation of $\ce{Mg(OH)_2}$: $$\ce{Mg(OH)_2 <=> Mg^2+ + 2OH-}...
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Other liquids for collecting gas by displacement method for SO2

I am looking for a low cost method of quantifying gases evolved from a reaction. The gas mixture is expected to have $\ce{H2}$, $\ce{SO2}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ but likely others too. I am considering using ...
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155 views

How can I decrease the Krafft temperature of an hexadecyl sulfate surfactant?

I need to prepare an anionic surfactant from a treatment of cetyl alcohol (hexadecanol) and $\ce{H2SO4}$, and then neutralize it using $\ce{NaOH}$ or $\ce{NH3}$; but sodium hexadecyl sulfate has a ...
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42 views

How to determine concentration limits of a buffer that's limited by solubility?

I need to maintain a certain range of % of ionisation from a buffer. For e.g. Histidine buffer. When making high concentration of this buffer at (say) pH 7.2, 25'C, [concentration] is limited to 75mM ...
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591 views

How does increasing ionic strength affect the pH of solution?

I'm having trouble interpreting the data for an experiment. With increasing ionic strength, I found lower solubility but also lower pH of the solution. What is the effect of the ionic strength on the ...
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89 views

Chemical theory, formula(s) that predict final *volume* of a solution?

I asked this question a couple years back regarding the volume of a mixture being less than the volume of the original solute and solvent, but this question asks if there is theory and/or formulation ...
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513 views

Does water acidity affect sugar solubility?

For example, when making lemonade: will mixing sugar in water after adding lemon juice lead to a slower sugar dissolving rate, than if sugar were mixed in before adding lemon juice?
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pH and solute solubility in waste mixed water

I was reading a module on waste management. There were two interesting points. High pH results in higher solubility of $\ce{CN-}$. I understand that for HCN: $$\ce{HCN ->H+ + CN-}$$ Higher pH ...
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554 views

Why add specifically hot solvent during recrystallization procedures instead of heating it up after?

Recrystallization methods that I have seen online and in manuals involve adding a minimum amount hot solvent to the solid mixture. Is there a reason I should do this instead of adding an equivalent ...
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319 views

Apparent solubility of Ag2C2O4 in a buffer solution

We take the following quantities and mix them together: $\pu{20 mL}$ solution of $\ce{AgNO3}$ $\pu{0.001 mol//dm3}$ $\pu{20 mL}$ solution of $\ce{H2C2O4}$ $\pu{0.200 mol//dm3}$ $\pu{40 mL}...
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63 views

Looking for solubility kinetics of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate

$\ce{Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O}$ is a crystalline solid insoluble in water. Often used as nutritional supplement. Preparation and chemistry of zinc chloride hydroxide monohydrate is known. I am looking for some ...
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258 views

Why do some insoluble salts undergo slow chemical reaction instead of dissociation in water?

$$\ce{PbCl2 + H2O ->[\Delta] Pb(OH)Cl + HCl}\tag{1}$$ $$\ce{2ZnCO3 + H2O ->[\Delta] Zn2(OH)2CO3 + CO2}\tag{2}$$ $$\ce{2NiS + 2H2O → Ni2(OH)2S + H2S}\tag{3}$$ $$\ce{Hg2SO4 + H2O → HgO + Hg + ...
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Alternative to water as solvent for lithium metaborate?

I want to prepare a sample of lithium metaborate ($\ce{LiBO2}$) and need to dissolve it for this purpose. The only solvents I found so far are water and ethanol. In ethanol, one cannot dissolve ...
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520 views

How to find the standard enthalpy and entropy for the dissolution of silver chloride?

A maximum of $1.89~\mathrm{mg}$ of $\ce{AgCl}$ will dissolve in $1.00~\mathrm{L}$ of solution at $25.00~^\circ\mathrm{C}$. A maximum of $5.26~\mathrm{mg}$ of $\ce{AgCl}$ will dissolve in $1.00~\...
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162 views

Why don't plus one oxidation state metals form stable complexes with hydroxide ion?

For example, why doesn't AgOH exist as a stable compound? I read that it rapidly decomposes to silver oxide and water. $\ce{2AgOH -> Ag2O + H2O}$ $~~~~~~~~~pK_{decomposition}= 2.875$ http://...
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1answer
575 views

Solubility of n-butanol and n-butanamine

I ran across something saying that n-butanamine is miscible in water while butanol is only partially soluble. Is this correct? Can anyone offer an explanation? I would have guessed that the decreased ...
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Carbon Capture Absorption with Henry's Law

Assume the Henry’s coefficient for water at $\pu{20 °C}$ is $\pu{1.6E8 Pa}.$ What is the mole fraction of $\ce{CO2}$ that will be dissolved in water assuming that it is at equilibrium with a flue gas ...
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34 views

Calculating the solubility of aspirin in water

I am trying to investigate the relationship between the solubility of aspirin in water with the relationship to some variables. In my investigation, I seem to be stuck with the calculation of finding ...
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155 views

Solubility product constant of copper(II) bromide in water

One of the questions from chegg.com mentions $K_\mathrm{sp}(\ce{CuBr2}) = 6.3\cdot 10^{-10}$, but I suspect this value might be incorrect. Could anyone confirm or refute that $K_\mathrm{sp}$ value? ...
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What lubricant can be used for mechanical parts in a system containing diethyl ether?

I make a thermal actuator that works with the expansion of diethyl ether at its boiling point of around 34 °C. For sealing and lubrication of the polypropylene piston and barrel, I need a lubricant ...