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Questions tagged [solubility]

For questions related to the solubility of compounds in various solvents, especially in water. Do not confuse with [solutions] or [aqueous-solution].

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Why do salts such as NaCl dissolve?

If we look at solubility of salts in water, we are told that they disassociate, because the positive $\ce{Na}$ ion is attracted to the partially negative oxygen in water and the negative $\ce{Cl}$ is ...
26
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Why does ice cream make soda fizz?

I've noticed that adding a chunk of ice cream to soda makes the soda fizz slightly near the soda-ice cream interface. I thought it was a physical effect due to the temperature, but adding ice has no ...
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Why is AgCl less soluble than AgNO₃?

Related: Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride Experimentally, $\ce{AgCl}$ is insoluble in water, but $\ce{AgNO3}$ is soluble. They're pretty common in a lab (well, $\ce{AgCl}$ is a ...
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Are all NO3- salts soluble in water? If so, why?

All the examples of $\ce{NO3-}$ salts are soluble in water (all that I know about). Is it always so or there is some salt which doesn't dissolve in water? If so what is the reason behind it?
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How does oil on the surface of water prevent rust?

I distinctly remember a side-by-side comparison from a book where there are two nails submerged in water, in two beakers: one nail had a layer of oil on top of the water, and that nail didn't rust; ...
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Is honey really a supersaturated solution? Does heating to un-crystalize redissolve it or melt it?

In the SciShow video Honey: Bacteria's Worst Enemy after about 00:30 the narrator says: Honey is only about 17% water. Most, but not all of what remains is sugar....
21
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943 views

Is it possible for a compound to be soluble in a mixture of solvents but not the individual solvents?

Some weeks ago one of my friend needed to use turpentine. As a good but ignorant chemist on that point I did some research about it. I found (at the beginning) in the French wikipedia page of ...
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Can other substances be dissolved in a saturated solution?

If I have a liter of water fully saturated with sucrose would it be possible to dissolve something like salt or any other substance in the water? Or when the solution is saturated, is it impossible to ...
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Why does solubility of solids sometimes decrease with temperature increase?

Recently I was researching $\ce{Ca(OH)_2}$, and I found this on Wikipedia: \begin{array}{|c|l|}\hline {\rm \color{blue}{Solubility~in~water}} & {\mathrm{0.189\,g/100\,mL}\ (0\,^\circ\mathrm{...
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If capsaicin is insoluble in water, what makes chilli water taste spicy?

I have always been told that the 'heat' from chillies came from capsaicin which is oil based. Recently I began wondering how environmentally friendly chilli based insecticide/repellent sprays could ...
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Liquid which neither dissolves in water nor oil

I am looking for a liquid which is not miscible (or very close) with water or vegetable oil. Ideally, I want to have a container which shows three layers (the three liquids) with clear boundary ...
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Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease?

Is it possible to make a drug that liquefies heart plaque to treat heart disease without damaging other parts of the body? If so, would the liquefied plaque be eliminated as regular fluid is through ...
15
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1answer
260 views

Why are copper salts less soluble than zinc salts?

Compounds with cations having pseudo-inert gas electron configurations have more covalent character than those that don't, therefore they should be less soluble. Here are some solubility products: $$...
15
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1answer
657 views

Byproducts in Indigo Synthesis?

I have been messing around with making Indigo dye while waiting for bacteria to grow. I have been following the Baeyer-Drewson method. Basically, you mix nitrobenzaldehyde with an acetone water mix ...
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4answers
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Why is sand that insoluble?

Why is sand that insoluble? Sand is a polar molecule but does not dissolve in water. Is it because of the big structure that sand makes?
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Calculating the pH of a saturated calcium fluoride solution

How can I calculate the pH of a saturated solution of calcium fluoride ($\ce{CaF2}$)? I am given the following values: $$\begin{align} K_\mathrm{sp}(\ce{CaF2}) &= 3.9 \cdot 10^{-11} \\ K_\mathrm{...
14
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1answer
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Old sample of sodium tetraphenylborate—why it is red?

I have a really old sample of sodium tetraphenylborate. It should be white, but it is red. Does anyone know what was formed and how it influences precipitation of cations in water?
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Why doesn't calcium carbonate dissolve in water even though it is an ionic compound?

I studied the solubility of compounds in water. I have found that calcium carbonate doesn't dissolve in water. The teacher stated that the ionic compounds dissolve in water except some carbonates. ...
13
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Why is the melting point of p-dichlorobenzene higher than those of o-dichlorobenzene and m-dichlorobenzene?

I was going through alkyl and aryl halides and noted the following statement in my textbook: p-dichlorobenzene has higher melting point and solubility than those of o-dichlorobenzene and m-...
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2answers
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Predicting relative solubilites of salts without Ksp values

Is there a way of comparing which salt is more soluble without knowing their $ K_{sp}$ data or performing experiments? For example, comparing $\ce{Hg2Cl2}$ and $\ce{Cr2(SO4)3}$. I am not sure ...
12
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5answers
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How to dissolve candle wax (paraffin)?

Wikipedia states that waxes can be dissolved by non-polar organic solvents. I failed to dissolve candle wax in both acetone and ethanol, which are the only organic solvents I have at home. I have ...
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3answers
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Differentiation between zinc, aluminium, and magnesium ions in solution

If I have three aqueous ionic solutions in which I know that the cation is $\ce{Al^3+}$, $\ce{Mg^2+}$, or $\ce{Zn^2+}$, how do I find out which is which? I was thinking to add $\ce{OH-}$ in the form ...
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Why does like dissolve like?

Polar solvents love polar solutes to be dissolved in it and non polar with non polar. Often said as like dissolves like. Okay, polar loving polar can be understood with help of the facts: same polar ...
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2answers
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How do I predict the solubility of a compound in a mixture of water and an organic co-solvent?

I'm trying to predict the solubility of long alcohols (e.g. 1-octanol, 1-decanol or 1-dodecanol) in a mixture of water and an organic co-solvent such as DMSO, acetonitrile or ethyl acetate. For ...
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Increasing the solubility of sodium hydroxide

$\ce{NaOH -> Na+ + OH-} \quad \Delta H^\circ = -44.51\ \mathrm{kJ/mol}$ The dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water is an exothermic process, and so, according to Le Chatelier’s principle, ...
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Why is DMSO more polar than other solvents, yet it dissolves ionic compounds worse?

I'm working right now in the solvent importance in ionic character, and I noticed how a binary salt ($\ce{CuCl2}$) dissolved better in methanol than in dimethylsulfoxide, and in contrast, a ...
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Why is Diiron nonacarbonyl so exceptional?

My textbooks says: With exception of $\ce{Fe2(CO)9}$, all other metal carbonyls are soluble in hydrocarbon solvents. Weller, M.; Overton, T.; Rourke, J.; Armstrong, F. Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed. ...
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Reaction between silver nitrate and aluminum chloride

I googled a bit about what $\ce{AgNO3 + AlCl3}$ will yield and found out the following: $\ce{3AgNO3 + AlCl3 -> Al(NO3)3 + 3AgCl}$ Why is that? I know that $\ce{Ag}$ is higher up in the reactivity ...
11
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1answer
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Why CCl4 does not dissolve in water while SiCl4 does?

Why $\ce{CCl4}$ does not dissolve in water while $\ce{SiCl4}$ does? Does it have to do with d-orbitals? If yes, then how are they related?
11
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What is the carbon dioxide content of a soda can or bottle?

I sort of know how carbonated beverages are carbonated: a lot of $\ce{CO2}$ gets pushed into the liquid, and the container is sealed. There are at least two things I don't know. First, how much carbon ...
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Are lithium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water?

Are lithium bicarbonate and​ magnesium bicarbonate both soluble in water? Source: JEE Mains 2017 (National Level Examination of India) Please do cite a reputed source along with your answer. ...
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Why do biphasic systems of fluorous and organic solvents form?

It's possible to select a perfluorinated hydrocarbon that is immiscible in another organic solvent, forming a distinct phase boundary. Such systems may become miscible at elevated temperature which is ...
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2answers
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Why does the solubility of Group II hydroxides increase and the solubility of sulphates decrease down the group?

I know that, solubility of alkaline earth metal hydroxides increases down the group and solubility of alkaline earth metal sulfates decreases down the group. I wish to understand the reason for these ...
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Experimental calculation of solubility product constant

In order to calculate the $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of lead(II) iodide, I mixed $\pu{6.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.01 M}$ $\ce{Pb(NO3)2}$, $\pu{6.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.02 M}$ $\ce{KI}$, and $\pu{8.0 mL}$ of water, and a ...
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Why does sodium sulfate have an unusual solubility-temperature curve?

For many salts there are solubility curves as a function of temperature that are smooth (don't have any kinks). Sodium sulfate, however, has a kink in the solubility-T curve at 30 degrees as shown ...
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Why aren't the copper(II) ions in CuSO4 precipitated by hydroxide ions from water?

From my own experience and literature, I know that $\ce{CuSO4}$ is well soluble in water and dissociates into $\ce{Cu^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. $\ce{Cu(OH)2}$, however, is not: $K_\mathrm{sp} = 2 \cdot ...
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Why do solutions become saturated?

Why can a solvent dissolve only a particular amount of solute? If we add more solute to the solution, the number of solute particles in contact with water increases. So rate of dissolution should ...
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Solubility of gold salt solution?

I was wondering what salts of gold are soluble and which are insoluble. From what I understand, silver is soluble as silver nitrate but insoluble as most other common salts like chlorides and ...
9
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1answer
3k views

How to determine which gas is more soluble

I have a chemistry homework problem that asks whether $Br_2$ or $O_2$ is more soluble in water in room temperature. However, I can't seem to find a way to figure it out, short of looking it up. Is ...
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1answer
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Mixing solvents, or how does paint thinner work?

I would like to understand how a mixture of solvents works together. For example, there are two solvents combined, and each one alone can dissolve some material, but one acts faster. How do they ...
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1answer
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How to make pyramid-shaped NaCl salt crystals

I'm attempting to make sea salt pyramids like the one below. I understand this needs to be evaporated at a reasonable speed to stop the crystals forming a cube, as the when formed quickly, the edges ...
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884 views

Ionic compound having highest solubility in water

Which ionic compound has highest solubility in water? I can find CsBr having highest solubility with 1230 g/L at 25 °C. Note: compounds like ethanol are soluble to any extent in water, but they are ...
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3answers
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Methane seems to dissolve more readily in cold water. Why?

When you are diluting air in the system and/or properly evacuating it, you must consider water temperature. Methane is completely dissolved in water at 42 degrees Fahrenheit (5.5 C) but can be ...
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1answer
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How are these compounds strong bases, when they are sparingly soluble in water?

How is it possible that some insoluble compounds in water, e.g. $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$, $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$, $\ce{Sr(OH)2}$ are considered strong bases? Are they even strong bases? How can I tell if a compound is ...
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How can we tell the particle size of solutes in solutions?

This is a general question in regard to solutes dissolving into solvents. I am interested in the reality of the particle size of the solute during dissolution. For example, take $\ce{NaCl}$ and ...
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Solubility of Calcium Fluoride in water

$\ce{CaF2}$ is insoluble in water, but $\ce{CaCl2}$, $\ce{CaBr2}$, $\ce{CaI2}$ are soluble. Why is this so?
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1answer
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Why is phenol soluble in sodium carbonate but not in sodium bicarbonate?

The original question was basically to predict which of sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate can be used to distinguish between phenol and benzene. I was sure that phenol neither reacts nor ...
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1answer
366 views

Caclulating the Solubility of Fluorite in River Water

Source: Chapter 4 of Brunlow's 1979 Geochemistry text. Calculate the solubility of fluorite in river water with the average composition given in table 4-1. Assume that no fluoride complexes form....
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Availabilty of magnesium ions in phosphate buffer

Phosphate buffer is a common buffer in biological applications, it's especially popular for NMR. Magnesium ions are necessary for many biological systems to work, though the amount of magnesium ions ...
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1answer
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Why is calcium fluoride insoluble in water?

Why is calcium fluoride insoluble in water? $\ce{NaCl}$ is soluble, but $\ce{CaF2}$ is not. Why is this?