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Questions tagged [solubility]

For questions related to the solubility of compounds in various solvents, especially in water. Do not confuse with [solutions] or [aqueous-solution].

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effect of overpressure on lowering viscosity of polysaccharide solution

it has been reported that agarose dissolved at 110C under slight over-pressure has a viscosity at least 10X smaller than dissolved at atmospheric pressure at 90C (ref:https://doi.org/10.1016/j....
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How can the CO2 released from sodium bicarbonate reacted with HCl lift an alginic raft if the sodium bicarbonate acts first?

In the antacid Gaviscon, sodium alginate reacts with hydrochloric acid and then calcium carbonate to form an alginic raft that is supposed to be lifted to the top of the stomach by the carbon dioxide ...
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What's the identity of the crystalline solid in the following reaction? [closed]

A mixture of toluene, benzoic acid, aniline and phenol was dissolved in diethyl ether and extracted with 5% $\ce{NaHCO3}$ solution? This extract was acidified until a white crystalline compound ...
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Which has a greater dominance: hydration enthalpy or lattice energy?

When I was reading my notes I came up with a problem. I read that for the s block element salts, when checking the solubility, we consider the hydration enthalpy so we decide their stability in water. ...
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957 views

Why are magnesium chloride and calcium chloride more soluble than sodium chloride?

I read that $\ce{MgCl2}$ and $\ce{CaCl2}$ are more soluble than $\ce{NaCl}$. I think that $\ce{NaCl}$ should be more soluble due to more ionic nature. $\ce{Mg^{2+}}$ and $\ce{Ca^{2+}}$ are more ...
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If i keep adding sulfuric acid into water, will it keep dissolving forever?

If i keep adding sulfuric acid into water, will it keep dissolving forever?
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574 views

Is Biotin water-soluble or fat soluble?

Vitamin $\ce{B_7}$ or Biotin is a member of the vitamin B complex. Members of the vitamin B complex are usually known to be water soluble. However, this webpage mentions that biotin is water soluble. ...
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The Salt Effect stops working in extreme cases?

I and three friends did an experiment where we investigate the salt effect, also known as the uncommon ion effect. The specifics are that we made a $\pu{1L}$ solution saturated with $\ce{CaCO3}$ and $...
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Why isn't orthoboric acid soluble in cold water even though it has polar B-OH bonds?

This is the information I found regarding orthoboric acid's solubility: Textbook (NCERT India): Sparingly soluble in water (didn't say what temperature - presumably cold) and highly soluble in hot ...
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Is there a methodology for calculating the co-solubility of two salts with different components?

Is there a methodology for calculating the co-solubility of two salts with different components? For example, say I mix $\pu{200 g}$ of $\ce{MgSO4}$ into $\pu{1L}$ of water (solubility = $\pu{350g/L}$...
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Precipitation of CaCl2 and FeCl3 in Na2CO3 [closed]

Why does $\ce{CaCl2}$ gives precipitation of $\ce{CaCO3}$ when $\ce{Na2CO3}$ is added, but $\ce{FeCl3}$ does not give the precipitation of $\ce{Fe2(CO3)3}$ in $\ce{Na_2CO_3}$ ?
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Can there be two precipitates in a double displacement reaction?

On one of my chemistry homework's, I am doing a double displacement reaction and the question is having me predict the products and make a net ionic equation for copper(|I) sulfate and barium acetate ...
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Can CaF2 exist in solution (aq) or only as a solid? [closed]

One man says that Calcium Fluoride solution can not exist, because it is only hydrated cations (N+) and anions (F-) surrounded by water molecules and that CaF2 can exist only in solid State,...
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is syringaldazine soluble in water?

Would it be better to use water or ethanol as a solvent for syringaldazine? Why? Would water interfere with the oxidation of syringaldazine if laccase enzyme was added?
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Why are some smells so hard to get rid of? [closed]

What may seem to be a silly question could actually have roots in some core chemistry principles. The other day, I was cooking fish when I noticed that I'd forgotten to use a fork, and touched the ...
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Is there a simple way to memorize/reason out the solubility rules?

Normally, to determine if a compound is soluble, I would just apply the solubility rules, which can be found here. The problem is, these are not fun to memorize as there are often loads of exceptions ...
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Why ether dissolves water to extent of 1.2% and water dissolves ether upto extent of 6.5%?

Why solubilities of these partially miscible liquids are different when in one case ether act as solvant and in other case water act as solvant
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What is the stability of Pregnenolone in various mediums? [closed]

I have some pregnenolone powder that I want to dissolve it in to a liquid medium for later human ingestion, some potential medium choices would be: alcohol, fruit juice, water, olive oil. I am trying ...
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Crystallisation problem

I have an aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride and I need to crystallise it as a salt. I'm afraid of increasing the temperature or the concentration of acid due to ...
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Effect of stereoisomerism and racemization on solubility

I was on the Wikipedia page of Tartaric Acid, and I noticed that its solubility in water varies depending on whether the solution is racemic, meso, or optically active: $$\begin{array}{|c|c|} \hline &...
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Flaw in my logic on Henry's Law?

It states mathematically $ p=Kx $ where $x$ is mole fraction of dissolved gas and $p$ is partial pressure of the gas. Dissolution of gases is exothermic, so with increase in temperature, solubility $x$...
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Why do bicarbonates tend to be more soluble in water than carbonates, for Group 1 and Group 2 elements?

In Group 1 and Group 2, it is usually found that bicarbonates tend to be more soluble in water than carbonates. For example: $\ce{NaHCO3}$ has higher solubility than $\ce{Na2CO3}$ As most of the ...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...
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Will ferric nitrate or nitric acid dissolve polylactic acid?

Will ferric nitrate dissolve 3D printed items? I wish to etch some sterling silver, for which we use either ferric nitrate or nitric acid, and wonder about 3d printing the design straight onto the ...
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Predicting Ka/Kb values using values for solubility in water

Given that $K_\mathrm{a}$ values are determined by the position of equilibrium for a species such as $\ce{HCl}$ where $K_\mathrm{a} = \ce{\frac{{[H^{+}]}{[Cl^{-}]}}{[HCl]}}$, I was wondering whether ...
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What is the difference between dissolution and absorption?

Let us first look at the definitions from Gold Book: Absorption: The process of one material (absorbate) being retained by another (absorbent); this may be the physical solution of a gas, liquid, ...
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How does a mostly non-polar molecule prevent a polar head from being pulled off by other polar molecules?

Linear-shaped molecules of a solute with a large non-polar section and a small polar head are not soluble in a polar solvent. Why is this? Why don't the attractive forces between a molecule of polar ...
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602 views

Why does adding water to a saturated solution increase the number of ions present in the solution?

In my book, it is stated that when some water is added to a test tube having a saturated $\ce{Ag2SO4}$ solution, with its solid at equilibrium, the number of $\ce{Ag}$ ions in the solution increases. ...
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Is is possible to Generate ~1ppm Copper in Solution from Elemental Copper? [closed]

I am designing a hydroponic system and need to control algae. Copper is a known algaecide and lettuce actually needs some copper to grow well. I had read stories about people using copper pennies in ...
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How does recrystallization work to purify if compounds have equal solubilities, but one is present in a greater quantity?

Every article or text I've read on crystallization states that it works by taking advantage primarily of differences in solubilities, but I've also been told that it can purify compounds with ...
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Solubility equilibrium [closed]

This is a worked example about solubility equilbrium I am new to this subject and I am really confused first of all I know that Q is the product of concentration of Ag and Cl in the solution and ksp ...
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Why is this scintillator component turning into a milky-white emulsion?

I am a chemistry and physics double major doing some chemistry work in a nuclear physics lab. My mentor is a physicist, so his area of expertise is occasionally mismatched with what I need for my ...
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701 views

Why are nitro compounds with at least one alpha-H soluble in NaOH?

Are all the nitro-compounds having at least one alpha-$\ce{H}$ soluble in $\ce{NaOH}$? And what does solubility has to do with alpha-$\ce{H}$? I was reading about tautomerism today and got stuck on ...
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Difference between Codeine Phosphate and Codeine Sulphate

I am concerned about Codeine medication. What are the differences between the two medications Codeine Phosphate and Codeine Sulphate and why are these two different types available as medication? Are ...
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How to evenly mix NaCl and Lactose

Q: You have 10 g NaCl (s) and 90 g Lactose (s) (both easily soluble in water.) You want to achieve a 100 g mixture of these two compounds in solid form where they are completely evenly mixed. (A 1 mg ...
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Transfer of odor molecules from oil to water

I brew beer, I'm not a chemist. I want to add natural peanut aroma to a beer. The most common way this is being done by brewers is the addition of peanut powder, which is essentially the product ...
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655 views

Sodium Carbonate saturation curve [closed]

Where can I find the saturation curve for Na2CO3 (Sodium Carbonate) versus temperature? Thanks, ECD40
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380 views

How to choose alcohol solvent for organic extraction?

Assuming I have an organic substance that is known to be "soluble in alcohol" (e.g. capsaicin) I want to extract, which alcohol should/can I use? I know that both ethanol and methanol are commonly ...
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What does pO2 of blood mean and why do we use it?

I understand the basic Dalton's law of partial pressures in gases. Also, Henry's law of diffusion, says, the concentration of gas dissolved in a fluid is proportional to the partial pressure above it. ...
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Flory-Huggins interaction parameters

The quality of the solvent can be determined by finding the interaction parameter. It is a theta solution at χ = 0.5, a poor solvent for χ > 0.5 (but near 0.5) and good solvent for χ < 0.5. And I ...
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Will the solubility product constant differ in this case? [closed]

I am considering the solubility product of sodium citrate. I need this value, I do not have it. However, I do know that the solubility product of calcium citrate is (7±2)×10^−14. Is it safe to ...
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Calculating the density of a saturated salt solution

Is there a way to calculate the density of a saturated salt solution from the solubility limits or does it have to be experimentally determined? First instinct, is to add the mass of the salt to ...
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Why are copper salts less soluble than zinc salts?

Compounds with cations having pseudo-inert gas electron configurations have more covalent character than those that don't, therefore they should be less soluble. Here are some solubility products: $$...
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Potassium citrate in water

I take potassium as a supplement in the form of potassium citrate. I dissolve a small amount in tap water and I drink it. Usually, I need to stir a lot, and sometimes I warm the water a little to make ...
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How much calcium hydroxide will precipitate after addition of sodium hydroxide into saturated calcium hydroxide solution?

Below was question 34 in the USNCO 2017 exam: If $\pu{0.10 mol}$ of solid $\ce{NaOH}$ is added to $\pu{1.00 L}$ of a saturated solution of $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ $(K_\mathrm{sp} = \pu{8.0 \times 10^-6})$, ...
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Polarity of Acetic Acid, Ethanol and 1-Propanol

In order to compare acetic acid, ethanol and 1-propanol in terms of solubility in hexane, I would like to order them in terms of (a)polarity. By looking up the dipole moments, I found that these ...
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Varying data about solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate

I recently looked up the solubility of sodium acetate trihydrate in water at 20°C and found surprisingly diverse values such as: 613g/l (GESTIS-Stoffdatenbank) 762g/l (TU Freiberg) 1250g/l (applichem, ...
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228 views

What is the logic behind the division into groups of anions and cations in qualitative inorganic analysis? [closed]

I find it very confusing and hard to memorize. Is there a way I can deduce it, like understand how it came or is it just one of a lot of ways you can do it but is the standard one? Also, how does one ...
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534 views

How to dissolve white dextrin in water?

Dextrin is labelled as highly soluble in water. I have white dextrin (analytical from Sigma Aldrich). When I mix it in water, no matter how long I stir and how little dextrin I put, I get a suspension....
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How to make pyramid-shaped NaCl salt crystals

I'm attempting to make sea salt pyramids like the one below. I understand this needs to be evaporated at a reasonable speed to stop the crystals forming a cube, as the when formed quickly, the edges ...