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Questions tagged [solid-state-chemistry]

Study of chemical species that are in solid phase, either in cases of their properties, or about ways of synthesizing them.

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Conversion of graphite into diamond [duplicate]

The standard state Gibbs free energies of formation of C(graphite) and C(diamond) at $T = \pu{298 K}$ are $\pu{0 kJ mol-1}$ and $\pu{2.9 kJ mol-1}$, respectively. The conversion of graphite [C(...
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1answer
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Is there any book or text where ionic radius of elements are given?

So my research has me looking for ionic radius characterization. If anyone could post any link or give the name of any book where ionic radius of all elements are given that would be really great?
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Packing fractions of HCP and FCC

The packing fractions of hexagonal close packed unit cell and face centred cubic unit cell come out to be same when calculated geometrically. Is it just a coincidence? Differently put, could it be ...
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charge transfer between layers of graphite with stacking fault

As a general rule, we only expect two parts of a system to have the exact same amount of charge if they are symmetry-related to each other. How much charge transfer would occur in graphite with a ...
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Why does alpha alumina have less surface area than gamma alumina?

Its been documented extensively that when gamma alumina (cubic) changes into alpha alumina (hexagonal) at temperatures around 1200 °C the specific surface area reduces considerably. What are exact ...
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1answer
25 views

Why does dielectric constant of crystal fluctuates in case of Frenkel defect in a crystal?

So I was studying Frenkel defect in crystal and came across this line that said The closeness of like charges tends to increase the dielectric constant of the crystal. I'm not able to understand ...
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Calculating the strength of an ionic bond that contains poly-atomic ions

So the bond association enthalpy for ionic compounds like $\ce{NaCl}$ and $\ce{NaBr}$ can be easily calculated from a Born-Haber cycle. But the way a Born-Haber cycle is constructed it uses info that ...
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2answers
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Chemical formula of fluoroapatite

My textbook says the formula for fluoroapatite is $\ce{CaF2 * 3Ca3(PO4)2}$, whereas according to Wikipedia it's $\ce{Ca5(PO4)3F}$. What is the correct chemical formula of fluoroapatite and why there ...
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171 views

What does x mean in (1-x)A – xB composite materials, molar ratio, weight ratio or volume fraction?

I've been collecting data about ceramic materials and often I get to see composite materials are described as $(1-x)\ce{A} - x\ce{B}$. I am confused what this $x$ means. And I haven't seen any of the ...
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1answer
54 views

Is there an element with no liquid state? [closed]

I know this question might be dumb but, is there an element that will go directly from solid to gas, with almost no visible or no liquid state? Just a random curious question.
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1answer
168 views

How does lime prevent soda lime glass from dissolving in water?

How does lime addition as an ingredient prevent soda lime glass from dissolving in water? Does it form calcium silicate in the process of melting?
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1answer
100 views

Influence of the neighbouring molecules in a crystal at the example of XeF4

For reasons of symmetry I (without deeper chemical knowledge) supposed, that $\ce{XeF4}$ has a shape like $\ce{CH4}$. But according to Wikipedia its crystalline structure was determined by both NMR ...
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1answer
45 views

Solid state and Bragg's Equation

A frst order reflection from (111) plane is observed for LiX with 2theta =24.6 degree (X-ray of wavelength 1.54 angstrom). Assuming LiX to be a cubic crystal system, calculate the length of the side ...
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3answers
204 views

How do I know crystal structures from formula?

Give an explanation why $\ce{MgF2}$ and $\ce{CaF2}$ adopt different structure types. For example, the structure of calcium fluoride is 'fluorite' and the structure of magnesium fluoride is 'rutile'. ...
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1answer
34 views

vapor pressure of one part of binary compound

Let's say we have a binary compound AB in an enclosed container, and let's say there's a tendency to form B-vacancies so that B atoms/molecules escape and form a vapor. Let's assume there's enough of ...
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Why do we need to add hydrogen to amorphous silicon?

I was recently studying about Staebler-Wronski effect observed in amorphous silicon (a-Si). I realised it was due to imperfections in the lattice structure and breaking of Si-Si bond to Si-H bonds. ...
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Putting high symmetry points labels to a band structure plot

So far I've got this plot using Quantum Espresso. I want to put gamma, X, L, etc labels to the k-path. Quantum Espresso's ouput states the following: ...
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1answer
147 views

Comparing the Lattice energy of different compounds

I am confused about some concepts related to Lattice energy. First of all,how to compare lattice energy between $2$ compounds belonging to different groups and periods? 1.Between $\ce{AlF3}$ and $\...
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1answer
31 views

Effective diffusion coefficient of a species in a heterogeneous mixture

I want to calculate the effective diffusion coefficient of hydrogen radical in a mixed-phase consisting of metal oxide, metal hydride and metal. I consider the interfaces to be diffuse. How can I ...
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1answer
28 views

Silver in defect chemistry

When talking about conductivity in combination with lattice defects you can often see that AgX is taken as an example for a Frenkel defect where the $\ce{Ag^+}$ moves to intersticial voids. I remember ...
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Diffusion equation I can't seem to find anywhere

So I was looking through some old lecture notes from a few years back when I stumbled upon a useful and simple equation that should, according to my former professor describe the diffusion in solid ...
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0answers
753 views

Number of octahedral and tetrahedral voids present in a HCP structure

The given image depicts the tetrahedral and octahedral voids in HCP structure. For the tetrahedral part I figured out that there would be 6 tetrahedral voids in total. My visualisation: In the ...
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1answer
40 views

How does a molecule find the lowest energy state? [closed]

I understand that in a crystal lattice the molecule will tend towards the structure that is the lowest in energy (fcc, hcp, ccp, etc.). How does the molecule find these lowest energy states? Is it ...
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1answer
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Does a molecule need to be placed symmetrically in the unit cell?

I was watching an OCW by MIT (3.091X) on solid state. My previous notion of lattice point and unit cell got shattered after this example. Where are the unit cell and lattice points in this picture? ...
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1answer
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Solid structures related question [closed]

In which of the following compounds are all tetrahedral voids vacant? $\ce{NaCl(s)}$ $\ce{CaF2(s)}$ $\ce{ZnS(s)}$ $\ce{Na2O(s)}$ Kindly explain what this question asks from me and provide a ...
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2answers
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Understanding Equivalent Wyckoff positions

I'm somewhat confused by the concept of Wyckoff positions in crystal structures. From Quantum Chemistry of Solids by Robert Evarestov, the definition of a Wyckoff position is "all the crystallographic ...
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1answer
180 views

Coordination number of spheres (all identical) in hexagonal close packing (HCP)

I was revising solid state chapter when I came across this question What is the maximum coordination number of an atom in a hcp crystal structure of an element? The word 'maximum' drew my ...
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1answer
533 views

ABC arrangement of FCC/CCP

I know that FCC shows ABC type but I am confused about it. For simple cubic and body centered, it is pretty easy to work out the packing arrangement but FCC is giving me a headache. What is this ...
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2answers
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Calculate the third and fourth nearest neighbours in bcc

My textbook has given data for third and fourth nearest neighbours to be 12 and 8 with distances $\sqrt{2}a$ and $\frac{\sqrt{11}a}{2}$. I have been able to calculate for the first and second ...
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2answers
176 views

In a copper wire, how many electrons does each atom give away?

As an ion, copper can give off 1, 2, 3 or 4 electrons. But it has 1 s electron in the last shell and 10 d electrons. So as a metal, how many of those are delocalised and free to move around, and how ...
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1answer
340 views

How can a vacancy defect be a stoichiometry defect?

NCERT (India) explain stoichiometric defects as those defects which do not disturb the stoichiometry of the solid. Vacancy defects are stated to be under the category of stoichiometric defects. When ...
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2answers
136 views

Formation of strontium peroxide

Wikipedia states: Strontium peroxide is produced by passing oxygen over heated strontium oxide. Upon heating in the absence of $\ce{O2}$, it degrades to $\ce{SrO}$ and $\ce{O2}$. I found some ...
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2answers
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Is there an equivalent unit cell that can describe a bcc unit cell where all points are the same element?

Similar to how an NaCl-structure can be described as just a primitive cubic structure if all the lattice points were the same element or ion. I'm asking if there any such alternative for the CsCl-...
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1answer
133 views

Will ice be cold or not when formed using pressure? [closed]

We know that ice can be formed either by lowering the temperature of water or by applying more pressure. If we lower the temperature of water the ice so formed will be cool which is obvious. If ice ...
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331 views

Body centered cubic lattice vs Primitive cubic unit cell

I was reading about Bravias lattices(cubic crystal system) when got confused about an article in my book. Please refer to Counting body center as lattice point when basis consists of 2 atoms. The ...
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2answers
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Counting body centre as lattice point when the basis consists of 2 atoms

An article in my book gives the following informatiom :- I understood part a) and b) but faced problems with c). It says that here the basis consists of 2 atoms which doesnt seem to be very ...
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1answer
63 views

How do phase transitions occur in the solid phase? [closed]

For example, how does graphite transform into diamond as pressure increases at a certain (adequate) temperature? I'm not sure if this is a great example to look at the bigger picture, so another ...
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1answer
32 views

Polyhedron with four capping ions

Let's say I have a trigonal prism in my crystal structure and this is further capped by two ions it's called a bicapped trigonal prism. If I have three ions it's called a tricapped trigonal prism. But ...
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What does this chemical formula mean?

Wikipedia says the formula of aluminum oxynitride is this $\ce{(AlN)_x·(Al2O3)_{1−x}}$, $0.30 \leq x \leq 0.37$ . What does this formula mean?
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Comparison between Boron Nitride and Graphite: Interlayer distance

Boron-nitrogen chemistry has attracted significant attention, partly because a B–N unit is isoelectronic with C–C. Furthermore, the radius of carbon and its electronegativity are roughly the average ...
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Defects in crystalline structure

Starting from a perfect $\ce{MgO}$ crystal a solid solution of $\ce{Al2O3}$ and $\ce{MgO}$ is prepared with an atomic proportion of $15:85$ of $\ce{Al}:\ce{Mg}$. Knowing the number of vacancies per $\...
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1answer
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How to determine the edge length of the aluminium unit cell?

I'm having trouble understanding why I can't get the correct answer from this homework problem: Solid aluminum forms a face-centered cubic unit cell. Aluminum has a density of $\pu{2.70 g/cm^3}$. ...
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2answers
264 views

Does titanium(II) oxide conduct electricity? [duplicate]

In my book, it is given that $\ce{TiO(s)}$ is an electrical conductor. But I'd think that since $\ce{TiO(s)}$ is ionic and in solid state, it shouldn't conduct electricity. So, why does it conduct ...
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Compound metal oxide stoichiometries

When certain oxides are combined in a pre-determined stoichiometry and synthesized with a ceramic-like synthesis process(power-in-tube), multiple phases may be obtained which not necessarily is same ...
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0answers
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Synthesis of compound metal oxides [closed]

When certain oxides are combined in a pre-determined stoichiometry and synthesized with a ceramic-like synthesis process(power-in-tube), multiple phases may be obtained which not necessarily is same ...
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1answer
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Concentration of electrons in silicon sample with a phosphorus dopant

I'm studying electrical and computer engineering and all I remember from chemistry is from high school. We have a $\ce{Si}$ sample and we want to replace one in every million atoms with a phosphorus ...
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1answer
713 views

Let us say that height of HCP is h then what is the distance of tetrahedral voids [closed]

In a hexaoal cose-packedstructue et $h$ be the spacing between equivalent basal planes. Then what are the "heights" of the tetrahedral voids lying between any two adjacent, equivalent basal planes, ...
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why lattice energy have to be greater than IE and EA? [closed]

Why is lowering effect of the lattice energy not able to be greater than the combined net energy raising effects of the IE &EA?
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1answer
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Calculating nearest neighbor distances

For cubic materials, there are equations in which to calculate nearest neighbor (NN), second nearest neighbor, etc. Can this be done with tetragonal crystal structures? I want to calculate NN, 2NN, ...
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1answer
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Which is the suitable process for ball milling?

Why do we mainly choose the wet ball milling process in spite of dry ball milling process? Both processes are used to make a homogeneous mixture of different compounds.