Questions tagged [separation-techniques]

For questions about the separation of mixtures and solutions into pure compounds

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1answer
106 views

Separation of methanol–water mix in a plate distillation column

I conducted an experiment to separate methanol and water. I am trying to determine the mole fraction of the distillate collected but having a little trouble with the calculation. The flow rate was $\...
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1answer
4k views

How to remove sugar from juice

My son has autism and we noticed that blueberries make him feel much better. The problem is blueberries contain sugars which interfere with diet he has (low carbohydrate). How do I filter out the ...
3
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1answer
545 views

What is the state of stationery phase in paper chromatography?

As per my textbook: Partition Chromatography: Partition chromatography is based on continuous differential partiotioning of components of a mixture between stationary and mobile phases. Paper ...
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1answer
869 views

How to choose a proper chromatography method to separate substrates?

I'm a freshman and I recently learned how to do TLC and column chromatography. I also know a little about other ways to separate things by chromatography, such as affinity chromatography, gel ...
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2answers
571 views

What is the principle of “scrubbing” in liquid extraction or solvent extraction?

There are many steps in solvent extraction: Extraction Scrubbing Back extraction I understand the 1st and the 3rd. What is the principle of scrubbing? Is it just washing the organic phase? How ...
3
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2answers
4k views

What does all chromatography have in common?

We're learning about chromatography in class, and I'm confused about all the different types (e.g. those that separate liquid-liquid solutions vs. those that separate liquid-solid solutions vs. those ...
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1answer
92 views

How to store small amounts of gas

I need to store small amounts of gas. I already saw devices that look similar to the image below, but I don't know how they are called. Does someone here know how these devices are called? I am also ...
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1answer
111 views

Which process would separate the mixture of toluene, cyclohexane and water?

toluene: $\ce{C6H5-CH3}$ cyclohexane: $\ce{C6H12}$ I think that answer would be: Toluene and cyclohexane do not dissolve in water (since they are nonpolar), so I would first separate the water from ...
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1answer
90 views

How do you separate microcrystalline cellulose from amino acids in a powder mixture?

I am looking to separate out the microcrystalline cellulose that has been mixed in with amino acids in a powder mixture. I have tried suspending the powder mixture in water and then filtering out the ...
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2answers
147 views

How much does oxygen enrichment improve some combustion engines?

This question is about how much the combustion efficiency increases with oxygen enrichment in modern combustion engine designs. A desirable way to answer is to give the fuel efficiency dependency on ...
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1answer
37 views

Chromatography- why tM is separated from other peaks? [closed]

tM in Chromatography is the time of exist mobile phase. But, the mobile phase exist together with all the compunds that tasted in the process. So, why in the graph of signal to time we can see a peak ...
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45 views

Dynamic viscosity of gas mixture (appropriate estimation)

What estimation of the dynamic viscosity $\eta = f(T)$ $([\eta] = \pu{Pa·s})$ of the gas mixture components would you recommend during adsorption at a low temperature, approx. $\pu{293 K}$ to $\pu{333 ...
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2answers
530 views

how to separate a mixture of sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide

I recently did an double displacement reaction in that I have formed a solution of water with sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride are dissolved in it. now I want to separate both of them
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0answers
28 views

are refractometers generic?

I need to check the presence (and also purity approx) of a substance in solution. I have a very good reference (10mg/1ml - the substance in water). Can I use a refractometer to do this? I am trying to ...
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2answers
337 views

How to make acetic acid more volatile so that it can be removed by vigorous aeration of an acetic acid-water mixture? [closed]

I want to remove acetic acid from a mixture of acetic acid and water by aeration. The concentration of acetic acid is 200 ppm (mg/L). The pH of the water is more than 5. I want to reduce the acetic ...
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0answers
233 views

Purification of Red Phosphorus

The Boring Stuff I'm well acquainted with various fields of science & engineering, but my foray into the world of chemistry is relatively recent. I'm in a location (probably most of us are to some ...
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0answers
27 views

Solubility Product, and it's relation to solubility

In order to remove temporary hardness of water, it is boiled. On boiling, while Ca(HCO3)2 gives CaCo3(ppt.) , Mg(HCO3)2 gives Mg(OH)2(ppt.). According to my book precipitation of Mg(OH)2 occurs due to ...
2
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2answers
154 views

Ways to determine the concentration of alkyl halides in organic solvents

I have a volatile alkenyl bromide dissolved in hexanes. I have to use the halide in a Grignard reaction but separating it from hexanes is hard (the bromide is light sensitive and very volatile). I ...
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1answer
83 views

Separating sodium sulfate from chromium trioxide solution

I was looking at the industrial process for the production of chromium trioxide by treating sodium chromate or the corresponding sodium dichromate with sulfuric acid. This results in the formation of ...
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2answers
626 views

Shea Stearin Extraction by Dry Fractionation

I have been able fractionate palm oil and extract palm stearin using the following method: Melt the palm oil (over 80 °C) Keep the melted oil at 33.5 °C for 24 hours (using an immersion circulated ...
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2answers
4k views

Reaction of amines with diethyl oxalate (Hofmann amine separation method)

Why does only one molecule of secondary amine react with diethyl oxalate and two molecules of primary amine react with diethyl oxalate? I feel secondary amine also should have reacted similar to ...
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1answer
95 views

Theoretical plates in Plate theory of chromatography

In "Chromatography theory" by Scott and Cazes, The plate volume is given as ($v_m+Kv_s$) where $v_m$ and $v_s$ are the volume of stationary and mobile phase in the column and $K$ is the ...
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0answers
133 views

Distilling milligram quantities of oil like it's late 1970s

In a currently retracted* manuscript by Tomas Hudlicky [1, Retraction Watch] the following has been noted: Fifty years ago professors took an active part in all laboratory instructions and they ...
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2answers
320 views

Can separated and purified substances be obtained from a chromatogram?

I am studying chemistry, and I am learning about chromatography. But I am confused about how chromatography is used to ‘separate and purify’ substances. I have learnt about chromatography paper, ...
2
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1answer
271 views

Why does HgCl2 react with HCO3^- but not with CO3^2-?

I have started learning Qualitative Salt analysis recently. When I was reading about tests to distinguish $\ce{CO3^2-}$ and $\ce{HCO3-}$, I came across a line in a book which states $\ce{HgCl2}$ ...
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0answers
164 views

How can should one separate and purify benzophenone from salicylic acid?

I am working with two solids and I know that they are benzophenone (s)(ketone) and salicylic acid (s) (carboxylic acid). I am curious to know what is/are the best method of extraction and ...
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107 views

What are some Qualitative test/s that you can use for benzophenone? [duplicate]

I have determined one of my unknowns to be benzophenone and in a lab setting (but that isn't possible because of COVID-19) I would conducted the 2,4 DNP test which should yield a positive result. ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Separating lanthanides using ion-exchange method

Following statements are on Separation of rare earth metals (lanthanides) via in-exchange method The tripositive ions are strongly sorbed by cation exchange resin: $\ce{La^{3+}}$, the largest is ...
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1answer
67 views

Does the distillation of alcohol cause the fractioning of isotopes and carbon-12 enrichment?

In water, distillation causes fractioning of the $\ce{^{18}O}/\ce{^{16}O}$ oxygen isotopes (Wikipedia). Does something similar happen to the $\ce{^{13}C}/\ce{^{12}C}$ and possibly $\ce{^{14}C}$ ...
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1answer
168 views

What is the physical property used in choosing the separation techniques for CaCO3 and KCl and NH4Cl [closed]

I've been scrolling through a chemistry past question but when I came across this I tried to solve it but it keeps confusing me
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1answer
248 views

How to separate a racemic mixture of 1,2-diols

[upjohn dihydroxylation]2I want to ask that i synthesise R-substituted-1,2-Diol with (ee=1:1) ratio of R-, S- with the help of Upjohn Dihydroxylation. i try to seprate it by different mobile phasese ...
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2answers
132 views

How would I separate a solution of sodium iodide and water in order to obtain the sodium [closed]

I am an amateur in this field of science and I am trying to separate a solution of Sodium Iodide and water. How would I separate the solution so I can obtain sodium?
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36 views

method of separating product and conserving the catalyst

I'm looking for a way to separate reaction product of iodobenzene with ethyl 2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate in 1,4-dioxane (toluene is an alternative as a solvent). The catalyst being used is Pd2(dba)3 with ...
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1answer
3k views

What is the scientific term to describe the operation of a bong?

What is the scientific term for the separation of dust particles from air by suction through a specialized flask in a way similar to the operation of a bong? The thing that led me to this was a ...
2
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1answer
4k views

How to separate sodium carbonate from sodium hydroxide?

I got a drain cleaner in dust form, which consists of $\ce{Na2CO3}$ and $\ce{NaOH}$. I wanted to extract the $\ce{NaOH}$ so I tried to heat the mixture in order to just melt the sodium hydroxide, but ...
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1answer
372 views

Titration/ Separating Soluble Salts/ NaHSO4

When performing titration between NaOH and H2SO4, both Na2SO4 and NaHSO4 are formed (both are soluble in water), is there any method to obtain crystals of NaHSO4? (Maybe by separating two soluble ...
3
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1answer
102 views

Do companies recover carbon dioxide and water from the purification step of cryogenic air separation, and how?

In the 3rd step of cryogenic air separation, filtered air is purified to remove water, $\ce{CO2},$ and hydrocarbons from the $\ce{N2}$-$\ce{O2}$-$\ce{Ar}$ stream. Im interested in knowing what happens ...
2
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1answer
50 views

HPLC Columns For Compounds Not Soluble In Non- Or Low Polar Solvents [closed]

Can someone recommend HPLC columns for compounds which are not soluble in no- or low polar solvents (hexane, isopropanol, toluene, and dichloromethane)?
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2answers
84 views

How do you get contents of large flask into a smaller separatory funnel?

Separatory flasks that I use have a ground glass joint, but it is not clear how that joint is to be used. Videos I have seen just show people pouring stuff into the throat of the funnel. Normally the ...
3
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1answer
139 views

How to conveniently separate Cd impurities from ZnO without contaminating it?

How could I separate Cd impurities from ZnO without contaminating it and without using overly expensive equipment or extremely dangerous solvents? I don't want to contaminate it by introducing other ...
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0answers
32 views

coffee concentrate and water separated after 2 hours. How/why?

I'm asking because this makes no sense to me and making sure I'm not stupid. I brewed 10 gallons of cold brew concentrate(TDS 12.2) and mixed it with 10 gallons of water. I moved 10 gallons of the ...
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0answers
64 views

Protein purification pressure limits confusion, about the X-MPa limit for FPLC?

I have always been a bit confused about column pressure limits. I have to elaborate a bit on the problem to get to my question: In protein purification we use the äkta purification machines (e.g. ...
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1answer
3k views

Separating glucose and fructose

If I have a mixture of glucose and fructose in aqueous solution, what is the simplest method to separate them? Heating to 110 °C to melt only the fructose would probably work theoretically, but this ...
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5answers
31k views

Is it possible to separate/remove sugar from common drinks, such as juice?

Is it possible to remove sugar from a drink (for example, juice) using common household equipment?
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0answers
65 views

Is there a way to form only ortho product without using fractional distillation?

Using benzene and ethane as your only source of carbon in the final molecule, synthesize the following using any useful reagents. Reaction must form pure ortho compound. I have to form the product ...
3
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1answer
125 views

Using cryptands to make a negatively-charged solution?

In our discussion group, my friend mentioned that metal cations can be separated from other cations in solution using cryptands. After addition of the cryptands to the solution of the cations, ...
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2answers
1k views

How to separate two liquids with both having the same properties?

I was curious if it was possible to separate such liquids e.g. two vegetable oils that happened to have different ingredients, so it is a different liquid, but the same density etc.
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1answer
117 views

Reasoning about a separation problem [closed]

Describe exactly how you would go about separating a mixture of the three water-insoluble liquids, aniline (b.p. 184 °C), n-butylbenzene (b.p. 183 °C) and n-valeric acid (b.p. 187 °C), recovering each ...
2
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1answer
130 views

Separating specific components of a PUREX raffinate

The PUREX extraction in nuclear fuel reprocessing leaves behind a nitric acid raffinate full of (mainly) 'fission products', which are a diverse set of elements produced by fission in a nuclear ...
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1answer
697 views

Reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 [duplicate]

I want to know why in the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3, we have CO2 and H2O instead of H2CO3 ?