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Questions tagged [relativistic]

Atomic and chemical properties related to the relativistic properties of electrons in heavy elements.

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55 views

Implication of completely non relativistic Hamiltonian

I am studying the Application of perturbation theory to hydrogenic atoms subject to internal or external electromagnetic fields. The very first equation it uses is the hamiltonian of hydrogenic ...
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2answers
3k views

Shape of the P1/2 Orbital

I always thought that p-orbitals had a dumbbell shape as pictured below. (image source) However, I was reading an article (see Table 1, item 2) that says, "...the spherical $\mathrm{p_{1/2}}$ ...
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0answers
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How does the electron configuration of platinum relate to its stability?

Does platinum's electron configuration, [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1, influence its reactivity and stability? Is the electron configuration the primary contributing factor to platinum's relative inertness? ...
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2answers
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Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
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2answers
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Why are noble metals more electronegative then most metals?

I was researching about electronegativity when I looked up what a graph of electronegativity within the periodic table is. And, this appeared. I scanned it, matching up everything I knew about the ...
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2answers
346 views

Why replace c with v in Broglie hypothesis

I am in XI and I am currently studying atomic orbitals, I stumbled up and am stuck at the following step of de Broglie's hypothesis. I did a little search on-line and found almost same derivation ...
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1answer
5k views

Why is Astatine monoatomic?

I learnt that halogens always form covalent bonds to becoms diatomic molecules. So why is astatine monoatomic? I mean they have the same properties, why shouldn't they all be diatomic?
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3answers
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How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity between two atoms ...
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2answers
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Relativistic effects and lanthanide contraction

So I understand than the lanthanide contraction is due to poor shielding of the 4f electrons which decreases the radius. However, if Im not mistaken the relativistic effects lead to a contraction of ...
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2answers
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Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
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3answers
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Why is gold golden?

Bulk gold has a very characteristic warm yellow shine to it, whereas almost all other metals have a grey or silvery color. Where does this come from? I have heard that this property arises from ...
38
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1answer
878 views

Relativistic effect: d-electrons in metallorganic complexes

With higher period the d-electrons of the metal are less strong bonded and therefore oxidative addition is easier for $\ce{Ir(I)}$ than for $\ce{Rh(I)}$ and much easier than for $\ce{Co(I)}$. For ...
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1answer
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Why does mercury have low melting and boiling points?

Many metals have relatively high melting and boiling points, but mercury has relatively low melting and boiling points. What are the possible reasons for this?
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3answers
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Why do the trends in reactivity not apply for francium?

Why is francium not included in the reactivity series? Why is potassium considered more reactive than francium? I know that reactivity increases down the group! But why does it not apply here?
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3answers
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What is the inert pair effect?

I was reading about the p-block elements and found that the inert pair effect is mentioned everywhere in this topic. However, the book does not explain it very well. So, what is the inert pair effect? ...
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3answers
777 views

Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic trends....