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Questions tagged [relativistic]

Atomic and chemical properties related to the relativistic properties of electrons in heavy elements.

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On the relativistic contraction of orbitals

In Platinum $\text{Pt}$, why do $\text{s}$ and $\text{p}$ orbitals contract when electrons start travelling at relativistic speeds $|v|\sim c$, while $\text{d}$ orbital expands? The way I reasoned ...
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Ambiguity on determining a relativistic Dirac orbital's "shape" when it has two angular components

Wikipedia says that a relativistic Dirac atomic orbital is a 4-component vector, with two angular parts and two spin parts. It also says, indirectly, that 'the top two components of a 2p(1/2) orbital ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
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Question on theoretical existence (or lack thereof) of spherical symmetry of flerovium and/or oganesson

It is known that flerovium, with a [core]7s²7p² configuration, is predicted to be noble-gas-like; this is due to the "7p²" part of flerovium actually being (7p(1/2))², i.e. mathematically ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
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Would there be 6p½ -> π* backbonding in oganesson tetracyanide?

It is known that oganesson, although a group 18 element, is more likely to behave like a group (1)4 element; i.e. with 4 valence electrons outside a flerovium core. This contributes to the fact that ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
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Why does tennessine have a larger (predicted) electron affinity than nihonium?

According to Wikipedia, tennessine has an electron affinity (EA) of $\pu{+166 kJ mol-1}$ and nihonium $\pu{+67 kJ mol-1}$. Normally this would make sense since tennessine is in group 17 and nihonium ...
Kanghun Kim's user avatar
3 votes
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129 views

Fluorescence quenching by palladium(II) vs. platinum(II) complexes

Why do we observe much stronger (in most cases complete) fluorescence quenching by $\ce{Pd^2+}$ than $\ce{Pt^2+}?$ I work with complexes of both metals and there is no real 100% explanation I can find ...
TheChemist's user avatar
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What common observations in chemistry were unexplainable by an early twentieth century chemistry who had no knowledge of relativity

I was reading quite a well-known paper titled 'Relativistic Effects in Structural Chemistry' by PEKKA PYYKKO, and in it, he states that 'it was not until the 1970s that the full relevance of ...
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Relativistic contraction of orbitals

I am confused about what seems to me two very different explanations for the relativistic contraction of orbitals for heavy elements. My teacher told me that since 1s electrons in heavy elements ...
Peter's user avatar
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3 answers
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Which is the most reactive metal: Caesium or Francium? [duplicate]

I searched on Wikipedia for reactivity series but it showed me Caesium as the most reactive metal. I know and have studied that reactivity increases as we go down the first group. Then shouldn’t it be ...
Aryan 's user avatar
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Is it possible to hold and rotate molecules to relativistic speeds around axis in observable way? [closed]

Also, is it possible to see frame-shortening effects on electrostatic forces/van der waals at the edges, or are molecules too weak or necessarily neutral to be manipulated this way?
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Implication of completely non relativistic Hamiltonian

I am studying the Application of perturbation theory to hydrogenic atoms subject to internal or external electromagnetic fields. The very first equation it uses is the hamiltonian of hydrogenic ...
fireball.1's user avatar
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Shape of the P1/2 Orbital

I always thought that p-orbitals had a dumbbell shape as pictured below. (image source) However, I was reading an article (see Table 1, item 2) that says, "...the spherical $\mathrm{p_{1/2}}$ ...
ron's user avatar
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How does the electron configuration of platinum relate to its stability?

Does platinum's electron configuration, [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1, influence its reactivity and stability? Is the electron configuration the primary contributing factor to platinum's relative inertness? ...
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Why does mercury form polycations?

For example, mercury (I) is $\ce{Hg2^2+}$ and not $\ce{Hg+}$. What causes the stability in covalently bonded $\ce{Hg}$ ions?
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Why are noble metals more electronegative then most metals?

I was researching about electronegativity when I looked up what a graph of electronegativity within the periodic table is. And, this appeared. I scanned it, matching up everything I knew about the ...
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Why replace c with v in Broglie hypothesis

I am in XI and I am currently studying atomic orbitals, I stumbled up and am stuck at the following step of de Broglie's hypothesis. I did a little search on-line and found almost same derivation ...
Aditya ultra's user avatar
14 votes
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Why is Astatine monoatomic?

I learnt that halogens always form covalent bonds to becoms diatomic molecules. So why is astatine monoatomic? I mean they have the same properties, why shouldn't they all be diatomic?
Simon-Nail-It's user avatar
15 votes
4 answers
23k views

How fast do electrons move around the nucleus?

Electrons, as we all know, are incredibly small. Smaller things do tend to move faster, right? So exactly how fast considering how small they are? Also, does the electonegativity difference between ...
David Johnson's user avatar
9 votes
2 answers
5k views

Relativistic effects and lanthanide contraction

So I understand than the lanthanide contraction is due to poor shielding of the 4f electrons which decreases the radius. However, if Im not mistaken the relativistic effects lead to a contraction of ...
Daniel AG's user avatar
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Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?

I know that for atoms with big values of Z, relativistic effects have to be applied. Why does electron velocity increase with the increase of atomic number?
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Why is gold golden?

Bulk gold has a very characteristic warm yellow shine to it, whereas almost all other metals have a grey or silvery color. Where does this come from? I have heard that this property arises from ...
tschoppi's user avatar
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38 votes
1 answer
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Relativistic effect: d-electrons in metallorganic complexes

With higher period the d-electrons of the metal are less strong bonded and therefore oxidative addition is easier for $\ce{Ir(I)}$ than for $\ce{Rh(I)}$ and much easier than for $\ce{Co(I)}$. For ...
laminin's user avatar
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24 votes
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Why does mercury have low melting and boiling points?

Many metals have relatively high melting and boiling points, but mercury has relatively low melting and boiling points. What are the possible reasons for this?
Naila Naveed's user avatar
8 votes
3 answers
9k views

Why do the trends in reactivity not apply for francium?

Why is francium not included in the reactivity series? Why is potassium considered more reactive than francium? I know that reactivity increases down the group, but why does it not apply here?
kusum's user avatar
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44 votes
3 answers
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What is the inert pair effect?

I was reading about the p-block elements and found that the inert pair effect is mentioned everywhere in this topic. However, the book does not explain it very well. So, what is the inert pair effect? ...
radiantshaw's user avatar
18 votes
3 answers
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Have there been no advances in the determination of effective nuclear charges since Clementi and Raimondi in the 60s?

Effective nuclear charge is a very important concept in chemistry, and is the basis for the qualitative explanation of many observed chemical and physical properties, including several periodic trends....
Nicolau Saker Neto's user avatar