Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

227 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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Possible side reactions in electrolysis of concentrated NaCl

This is a very basic question about which side reactions can take place if the electrodes are not shielded from each other during electrolysis of concentrated $\ce{NaCl}$. So, this is the desired net ...
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276 views

Colour of VO3^-?

To aquire the yellow colour of vanadium ion, it must be present in a 5+ oxdiation state. This can be acheived (according to my textbook) by adding dilute sulfuric acid to $\ce{NH4VO3}$, then followed ...
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Oxidative phosphorylation analogue

Does the salt bridge in galvanic cells resemble the ATP pump in the inner mitochondrial membrane? And if yes than did someone use this pH difference in harvesting this energy?
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26 views

Non-monotonic rank of oxidizing agents

"Which oxidizing agent is more powerful" seems to depend on what is getting oxidized. Consider for example oxygen vs chlorine. It is my understanding that chlorine is the more powerful agent for ...
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35 views

What's an appropriate ligand for Pd-Ag redox?

I want to reduce palladium with silver (in cellulose): $\ce{Pd^{2+} + 2Ag->2Ag+ +Pd}$. What is a good ligand and spectator ion for both metals? (The pH is not critical.) Ones I have considered: $\...
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387 views

eV and redox potential

I am trying to estimate the redox potential of an excited state as described in this reference. The paper says: The reduction potentials associated with the excited states cannot be directly ...
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1k views

OF2 vs O2F2 oxidising strength

My teacher said that OF2 is the third most powerful oxidising agent after F2 and atomic O, but I think O2F2 should be even more oxidising, since it less stable than OF2. I just read on quora that O2F2 ...
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40 views

Can catecholamines be quantified by HPLC-MS/MS at high pH?

It seems that most HPLC-MS/MS methods used for quantitation of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, specifically) operate at low pH (commonly 3.0), and therefore demand the ...
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58 views

Can hydrogen plasma reduce carbon dioxide?

There are several studies describing usage of hydrogen plasma to reduce metal oxides. This is not yet widely adopted in industry, but it is of interest for environmental reasons (such as desrcibed in ...
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225 views

Problem regarding failure of equivalence concept

Chile salt peter, a source of $\ce{NaNO3}$ also contains $\ce{NaIO3}$. The $\ce{NaIO3}$ can be used as a source of iodine, produced in the following reactions. \begin{align} \ce{IO3- + 3 HSO3- &...
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1answer
124 views

Replacement for Centrifuge in Calcium Content Determination

Basically, I'm performing a lab investigation to determine calcium content in different milk sorts. Since my school didn't have any EDTA, I'm using Sodium Oxalate to form a precipitate with Calcium ...
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367 views

Acidified sodium sulfite in the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II)

Why does sodium sulfite have to be acidified in the reduction of $\ce{Fe^{3+}}$ to $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$? Does the acid act simply as a catalyst or is it necessary for the reduction process?
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Name for reaction producing carbon from CO2

Some years ago I heard of a reaction where hydrogen could be used to reduce $\ce{CO2}$ to carbon and water, similar to the Sabatier reaction. I believe it also used iron as a catalyst at high ...
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87 views

Reducing strength of (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride

Hi Im trying to figure out which of the following is the stronger reducing agent. (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride From my understanding, the Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride ...
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120 views

Why do lower oxygen concentrations lead to an increase the rate of corrosion?

Is this only the case in pitting corrosion? Is it because metal which has access to the oxygen becomes cathodic leading to the inaccessible parts of the metal becoming anodic?
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53 views

What would an ecosystem based on reducing atmospheres be like?

I was wondering, what would it be like if instead of an oxidizing atmosphere like earth has, if an ecosystem had a reducing atmosphere instead? My professor told us that a system like that could be ...
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1k views

How to reduce Al2O3 in a H2 atmosphere on industrial scale?

As known, reducing $\ce{Al2O3}$, which is the main process of the aluminium production, isn't really cheap, mainly because its energy need. Its high energy need is coming from the high binding energy ...
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200 views

Reduction of copper oxide by hydrogen

In the concluding part of my previous question, wouldn't there be an explosion near the hole in the tube from where the excess hydrogen is coming out instead of a steadily burning flame?
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99 views

understanding redox reaction

I am a total noob in chemistry, so sorry in advance if this is a very stupid question... I am trying to solve this redox reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ $$\ce{K^{+1}Cl^{...
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767 views

Can a more electropositive metal replaced by a less electropositive one?

I read from this reference that rubidium is extracted by reduction of its chloride with calcium or sodium. How is it possible?. Their electronegativities are much higher than rubidium. I think ...
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3k views

Electrolysis of molten sodium iodide

Electrodes: Zinc electrodes Electrolyte: molten sodium iodide I know that at the cathode, sodium metal will be formed because only sodium ions are present for reduction. At the anode, originally ...
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661 views

Efficient oxidation of KCl to KClO3

I am trying to convert $\ce{KCl}$ to $\ce{KClO3}$ through an efficient process. I realize that I could electrolyze a solution of $\ce{KCl}$ to obtain some $\ce{KClO3}$ as a precipitate, however this ...
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125 views

Will bases typically precipitate silver atoms from silver ions?

In class I learnt that one can dissolve many substances using acid and that this can be predicted using standard electrode potentials. For example, $$\begin{align} \ce{Zn &-> Zn^{2+} + 2e^-} ...
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178 views

Why do we need sulfuric acid in reducing nitric acid?

From Wikipedia: Why do we need sulfuric acid in the left part of the formula? Wouldn't FeSO4 reduce nitric acid without the sulfuric acid taking part? P.S. I was answered that a milder form ...
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2k views

Predicting the products of a redox reaction

How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? I would like to be able to do this without being given an ...
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91 views

What are the chemical formulae for galvanic corrosion of iron (rusting)?

The conditions for corrosion, I am searching equations are as follows: The other metal is copper The temperature is $25~\mathrm{^\circ C}$ The electrolyte is $\ce{NaCl}$ pH 7 A limited amount of ...
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380 views

Complete Oxidation and Redox Equations for Sacrificial Galvanic Anode

I'm trying to get a more complete picture of how the chemistry works within a typical marine setup including a sacrificial anode. The setup consists of an aluminum hull, another metal (say a stainless ...
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105 views

Determining Overall Equation and Oxidation Potential

Cell 1 is composed of a reference chloranil half-cell (standardised against SHE as $+0.680 \mathrm{V}$) connected to an $\ce{Ag/AgCl}$ half-cell containing saturated ($0.125\ \mathrm{mol\ L^{−1}}$) $\...
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416 views

Carbon monoxide detector reaction

I have recently bought a carbon monoxide spot detector which is not working the way I intended for it. A carbon monoxide spot detector is an analog carbon-monoxide detecting patch that changes color ...
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87 views

Clean tin with aluminium

I've been using aluminium foil and table salt to clean my silverware for a long time without actually concerning myself with the chemistry behind it. A couple of days ago i started digging into the ...
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1k views

How does a redox reaction between NaClO and KBr take place? will bromide be oxidised to bromine?

How does a redox reaction between $\ce{NaClO}$ and $\ce{KBr}$ take place? will bromide be oxidised to bromine? $\ce{2Br^{−} + ClO^{−} + H2O ⟶ Cl^{−} + 2 OH^{−} + Br2}$ or will bromide be oxidised ...
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122 views

Shift of the null half-reaction potential

If we change the null half-potential, would it change half-potentials of other half-cell reactions by the same amount, so that voltages of net reactions stay the same?
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221 views

Finding one of the two unknown potentials with a given voltage of a net reaction

A half-cell consisting of palladium rod dipping into a $1\ M$ $\ce{Pd(NO_3)_2}$ solution is connected with a standard hydrogen half-cell. The cell voltage is $0.99\ volt$ and the platinum electrode in ...
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614 views

speeding up etching process of a copper board

Background: I use Sodium persulfate to etch a copper board to manufacture home made Printed Circuit Board (PCB). On the etching powder's plastic, it is written that: 1.5-2dl of etch powder in 1 ...
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1answer
39 views

Do I have to systematically show the protons in my reaction equation to find the Pourbaix diagram's line equations?

I was trying to get the line equation for the Pourbaix diagram for the couple $\ce{Ni(OH)2}/\ce{Ni}.$ I can write two chemical equations for basic and acidic conditions, respectively: $$ \begin{align} ...
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31 views

Electrode potential of Br2/HBr half cell

I am wondering if it is possible to find the electrode potential of such a half cell: $$\ce{Br2 (l) + 2 e- <=> 2Br-(g)}$$ The standard electrode potential is for $\ce{Br-(aq)}.$ However, is it ...
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2answers
60 views

What gives dilute/conc nitric acid/ conc sulfuric acid their oxidizing property?

I know that dilute sulfuric acid and very dilute nitric acid don't have any oxidizing tendency while dilute/conc $\ce{HNO3}$ and conc $\ce{H2SO4}$ do. Why do these more concentrated acids have this ...
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48 views

A problem on Intramolecular Cannizzaro's Reaction

My textbook has the following reaction given as a special case of Intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction: As far as I understand, here one Phenyl group migrates (instead of hydride ion) from the carbonyl ...
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72 views

Etard's reaction

My textbook says the following on Etard's reaction: Now, if the alkyl group attached to benzene is an unsymmetrical or branched alkyl group, such as this: What will be the reaction product(s)? Which ...
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29 views

Why does the application of external mechanical pressure increase the performance of lithium-ion batteries?

Many electric vehicle batteries - specifically lithium-ion ones considered for this query - can be subjected to external mechanical pressure because it increases battery performance. What components ...
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53 views

Comproportionation reactions

Is the following reaction a comproportionation reaction? $\ce{NH4NO3 -> N2O + H2O}$ The wikipedia definition says: Comproportionation or synproportionation is a chemical reaction where two ...
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46 views

What does the horizontal axis on cyclic voltammograms mean?

In cyclic voltammograms (like the one in the attached image) what exactly is the horizontal axis' voltage refering to? Is it the measured voltage between the reference electrode and working electrode? ...
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41 views

Understanding Pourbaix diagram

I am recently taking courses in environmental chemistry and I was introduced to Pourbaix diagram. I was taught that the lines in the Pourbaix diagrams are equilibrium lines. Lets take as an example ...
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35 views

In dative bond S→ S, why are the Oxidation state of donor S = +2 and recipient S= -2 although both of them have the same electronegativity?

We know that if the dative bond is directed towards less electronegative element, it is ignored while calculating the oxidations state and it is considered as +2 for donor and -2 for the recipient ...
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37 views

Driving force of Galvanic cell

Work can be extracted from galvanic cell which has a negative Gibb's free energy. I was wondering what is the driving force of it: I would naturally think its the Gibb's free energy, but the gaps ...
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45 views

Write half-cell reaction for a battery

A primary battery has the reaction: $$\ce{2MnO2 + Zn + 2NH4Cl -> Mn2O3 + Zn(NH3)2Cl2 + H2O}$$ Write the half-cell reactions for the given equation. I am having trouble understanding how you know ...
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70 views

Oxidation of ethanol upon heating in a test tube

The diagram shows an experimental set-up which can be used in several different experiments. Which processes could be demonstrate by using the above apparatus? 1. Oxidation of ethanol (liquid X) 2. ...
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49 views

Why is copper(II) used a catalyst here instead of as an intermediate?

Photochromic glass, used for sunglasses darkens when exposed to bright light and becomes more transparent again when the light is less bright. The depth of color of the glass is related to the ...
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351 views

Preparing Hypochlorous acid from salt water

I am a school student and I want help with a project My aim: Preparing Hypochlorous Acid (Suitable for sanitation). I searched across the internet and found an article at https://www.hypochlorousacid....
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56 views

Equilibrium cell potential question

In an attempt to wrap my head around the basics of electrochemistry I'm working my way through Wesley R. Browne's 'Electrochemistry' primer. With regards to the equilibrium potential of an ...