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Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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Why do alpha-hydroxy ketones respond positively to Tollens', Fehling's, Benedict's, Schiff's and HgCl2 tests?

I learnt from a certain textbook that aldehydes and formic acid respond positively to Tollens', Fehling's, Benedict's, Schiff's and HgCl2 tests. However, in another textbook I read that even alpha-...
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Why does the reaction of sodium nitrate, aluminium, and sodium hydroxide yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al and ...
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What exactly is an "electron-sponge"?

What exactly an "electron-sponge" [behavior/action/property/system] nickname is, and what makes a material an "electron-sponge" (preferably, quantitatively)? From what I found, it's typically a ...
andselisk's user avatar
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How to explain oxidizing power from Molecular Orbital Theory

I am trying to explain the oxidizing property of $\ce{Fe^3+}$ in $\ce{H2O}$ and $\ce{CN^-}$ which is $\ce{[Fe(H2O)6]^3+}$ and $\ce{[Fe(CN)6]^3-}$. The electrochemical reactions along with their ...
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Finding theoretical mechanism of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

In class we conducted an experiment where we timed reactions between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. We kept the concentration of the $\ce{HCl}$ constant, while changing the concentrations ...
2247382's user avatar
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How to determine the iron content in spinach from a titration with permanganate solution?

I used titration to find the mass of iron in a $5~\mathrm{g}$ sample of spinach after leaving the spinach to soak in tap water for five different lengths of times. I added $\ce{H2SO4}$ to the solution ...
SophieH's user avatar
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Lemieux-Johnson oxidation on cycles

Consider 5-cyano-2,2-dimethylpentyl 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonate: What would it yield by a Lemieux-Johonson oxydation ($\ce{OsO4}$, $\ce{NaIO4}$)? My first guess would have been that $\ce{OsO4}$ was ...
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5 votes
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Regarding the standard reduction potential and electrolyte/solid interface

I am modelling lithium-sulfur batteries ($\ce{LiS}$ batteries) and a strange phenomenom happens during charge, named infinite charging, which I show below: The factor $f_\mathrm{C}$ that appears in ...
Metal Storm's user avatar
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Oxygen tolerant RAFT polymerization using AIBN?

I want to do some RAFT polymerizations but don't have a nitrogen line at the moment. It seems that people have recently implemented oxygen scavenging strategies to enable open-air RAFT polymerization. ...
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Will charcoal (carbon) oxidize in the air?

Wikipedia — Carbon sequestration claims that burying charcoal into the soil offsets $\ce{CO2}$ and thus reduces the greenhouse effect: In the soil, the biochar carbon is unavailable for oxidation to $...
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What are the factors that affect the redox reactions?

In my work, I used $\ce{Co(OH)2}$ and $\ce{Ni(OH)2}$ as an active materials to fabricate as symmetric supercapacitors in which I used 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide as an electrolyte. From ...
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What makes "Color-Safe Bleach" color safe?

The ability of bleach ($\ce{NaOCl}$) to change the color of garments and introduce "bleach stains" is a well-known issue. In this question: Does bleach turn a substance white or colorless?, the ...
erfink's user avatar
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Oxidation of alkenes and alkynes by Chromic Oxide?

As far as I know, $\ce{CrO3}$ doesn't effect the $\mathrm{\pi}$ bonds in an inert medium like pyridine. Would $\ce{CrO3}$ in acidic medium reduce alkynes to have the same products as acidified, warm $\...
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Reduction of vanadyl ion

I want to reduce vanadyl to vanadium (III), can somebody please suggest some appropriate methods for it? I am trying to make a redox flow battery for a project but I have only vanadyl sulfate.
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2 answers
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Abnormal reaction of grignard reagent

My book states that: When isopropyl magnesium bromide is added to diisopropyl ketone, the expected tertiary alcohol is not obtained; instead the secondary alcohol; diisopropyl carbinol is obtained ...
Chemophilic's user avatar
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Does catechol give Tollens’ test?

Do hydroquinones like catechol or p-hydroxyphenol give Tollens’ test? I know that β-diketones can reduce Tollens’ reagent to give a “silver mirror”, so I would guess that due to tautomerization ...
KMT's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does a silver chloride electrode (Ag/AgCl) convert the potential in aqueous solution to the wire?

I am aware of the redox chemistry that happens at the electrode surface, but I'm not sure how exactly a change in electrical potential in the solution would change the potential in the electrode?
Anthony's user avatar
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Can hydrogen peroxide dissolve rust?

WD-40's "help page" on "How To Loosen Rusty Bolts, Screws And Nuts" states: Hydrogen peroxide can dissolve rust. Applying hydrogen peroxide to the fasteners and letting it sit is ...
jaimet's user avatar
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After neutralizing a free radical, why don't anti-oxidants become free radicals themselves?

This is my understanding: A free radical is a molecule with a single unpaired electron. This molecule is highly reactive because it wants to steal an electron from another molecule (oxidation). Anti-...
gardenhead's user avatar
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Reaction mechanism of thiol to disulfide oxidation under basic conditions?

I have been looking everywhere for an explanation to a reaction mechanism concerning the oxidation of DTT (or just thiols to disulfides in general) using oxygen as the oxidant. I'm aware that ...
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Mechanisms of Birch and Bouveault-Blanc Reductions

The question is all about the sequence of a possible Birch- and Bouvault-Blanc-Reduction in this exemplary substrate. With which reduction the mechanism begin? My first attempt was to classify the ...
Nilsfrank99's user avatar
4 votes
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Can hydrogen plasma reduce carbon dioxide?

There are several studies describing usage of hydrogen plasma to reduce metal oxides. This is not yet widely adopted in industry, but it is of interest for environmental reasons (such as described in ...
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Rationalise the Relative Reactivity of Borane and DIBAL as Reductants

In Clayden's Organic Chemistry (Second Edition) it is written that borane is useful in chemoselectively reducing the most nucleophilic carbonyl to its corresponding alcohol. It is later said that ...
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Kinetics of nitric oxide production

Several articles affirm that NO can enhance the glutamate release from the presynaptic site; moreover, glutamate has been recognized as a major brain neurotransmitter and is considered to mediate ...
Angelo Giuseppe Spinosa's user avatar
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277 views

Why does the electrolyte used in Lechlanché cell turn blue?

In my school there are jars which are turned into Lechlanché cells. Basically the cell has aqueous ammonium chloride solution as the electrolyte which is obviously transparent in the beginning. The ...
Kartikeya Badola's user avatar
4 votes
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Use of [H] to denote a reducing agent

In the reduction of an aldehyde (e.g. ethanal) to a primary alcohol, a reducing agent is needed: $$\ce{CH3CHO + 2[H] -> CH3CH2OH}$$ My book states that one hydrogen (the $\ce{H-}$ ion) is from the ...
Muhilarasan Aiyan's user avatar
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683 views

Can oxidation of ethanol by copper(II) oxide yield copper(I) oxide as one of the products?

We know that ethanol is oxidised by copper(II) oxide to an aldehyde. Copper is reduced from $\ce{Cu^2+}$ to $\ce{Cu}$. Can this reaction, with some specific condition, yield $\ce{Cu2O}$ instead? That ...
CowperKettle's user avatar
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Comparing two oxidizing agents using electron configuration

Which oxidizing agent from the pair $\ce{K_2IrCl_6/K_2PtCl_6}$ is stronger? Explain your answer using their electron configurations. We write the electron configurations for $\ce{Ir/Ir^{4+}}$ and $\...
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Cobalt Oxalate / Potassium Permanganate Titration

My class just did a lab today where we mixed cobalt oxalate with $40~\mathrm{mL}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ and then titrated it with $\ce{KMnO4}$ (potassium permanganate). I need the mole ratio of cobalt ...
Alec Crudele's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
789 views

Why does the OAc group leave in the first step of Oxymercuration?

The above picture shows the first step of Oxymercuration. The electrons attack the Mercury atom but the OAc group leaves. Why is this? Hg is a transition metal with a number of available oxidation ...
RobChem's user avatar
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4 votes
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151 views

Where do the rate laws for the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid reaction come from?

After reading a section on this particular oscillatory reaction, something started bugging me about it. However, let me lay out the basis of my question. From what I've researched, Lengyel and ...
Mlagma's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
120 views

Gold cyanidation process

My chemistry book says the following: In the metallurgy of silver and gold , the respective metal is leached with a dilute solution of $\ce{NaCN}$ in presence of $\ce{O2}$ as a result of which the ...
Arpan's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Why do the pennies in the pre/post 1982 penny experiment sometimes dissolve completely?

USA pennies were nearly pure copper pre-1982. Post 1982 they are copper clad zinc. A common experiment in US high schools is to notch pennies with a file and add them to an HCl solution. The old ...
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3 votes
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Copper reaction with nitric acid

According to this paper, the green colour from the reaction of copper and nitric acid could be explained: The color is greenish, probably as a result of a combination of the pale-blue color of the ...
Seiji's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
127 views

Why doesn't the Nernst Equation match my data at low values of Q?

I have formatted my data below in a table so my issue is more clear and asked this question again, I apologize for any confusion. I don't understand why the low values of Q are inaccurate while the ...
Student's user avatar
  • 31
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0 answers
141 views

Why the change of the position of the salt bridge or metal piece leads to different voltage value?

I am doing an experiment where I use salt bridge to create galvanic cell. The goal of my experiment is to find if there is some correlation between the amount of solvent being used and the voltage ...
James's user avatar
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Products formed on the reduction of KMnO4 in aqueous solution

The Latimer diagram for $\ce{MnO^-_4}$ is given below: $$ \ce{MnO^{-}_4 ->[0.56V] MnO^{2-}_4 ->[2.26V] MnO_2 ->[0.95V] Mn^{3+} ->[1.51V] Mn^{2+} ->[-1.18V] Mn}$$ Then I have calculated ...
Infinite's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
480 views

What reaction does happen when molten sodium hydroxide reacts with aluminium?

The reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide and aluminium follows this equation: $$\ce{2NaOH + 2H2O + 2Al = 2NaAlO2 + 3H2}$$ But it's obviously not possible to balance this equation without the ...
M D's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
405 views

What gives dilute/conc nitric acid/ conc sulfuric acid their oxidizing property?

I know that dilute sulfuric acid and very dilute nitric acid don't have any oxidizing tendency while dilute/conc $\ce{HNO3}$ and conc $\ce{H2SO4}$ do. Why do these more concentrated acids have this ...
cl the human's user avatar
3 votes
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What products are formed when KMnO4 and KI react with each other in "weakly basic" medium?

While solving JEE Advanced 2020 (Paper 2) questions, I came across this particular question: According to the final answer key, its answer is 6. In my chemistry book (NCERT Chemistry), the following ...
Pal's user avatar
  • 549
3 votes
0 answers
524 views

Why do nitrogen-containing organic compounds give N2 as the combustion product?

My teacher gave the explanation stating that consider that first the nitrogen in lower state is oxidised to $\ce{N2}$ and then the further oxidation would stop as the $\ce{N-N}$ bond energy of $\ce{N2}...
Govind's user avatar
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0 answers
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Number of moles of acidified potassium dichromate required to liberate 6 moles of iodine from an aqueous solution of iodate ions

I came across this question in a recent exam I had taken: How many moles of acidified $\ce{K2Cr2O7}$ is required to liberate 6 moles of $\ce{I2}$ from an aqueous solution of $\ce{I-}$ ? So this is ...
sai-kartik's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
40 views

Can pheophytin be converted back to chlorophyll?

Some fossil leaves are "greenish" when first exposed but rapidly darken to an "olive brown" color when they come into contact with air. If the fossil leaf contains pheophytin, can the addition of ...
Dale Greenwalt's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
175 views

Galvanic Cell Temperature Dependence

I'm currently studying the temperature dependence of the following cell: $\ce{Cu_{(s)} + 2Ag^{+}_{(aq)} <=> 2Ag_{(s)} + Cu^{2+}_{(aq)}}$ ($E^⦵ = \pu{+0.46 V}$) Experimentally, I recorded the ...
Kian Stevens's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
72 views

Why is NOₓ conversion low at fuel rich conditions in a three-way catalytic converter?

$$ \begin{align} &\text{Oxidation:} &\quad \ce{2 CO + O2 &-> 2 CO2}\\ & & \ce{``HC" + O2 &-> CO2 + H2O}\\ & & & \\ &\text{Reduction:} &\quad \ce{2 CO +...
Eddiee's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
0 answers
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Non-monotonic rank of oxidizing agents

"Which oxidizing agent is more powerful" seems to depend on what is getting oxidized. Consider for example oxygen vs chlorine. It is my understanding that chlorine is the more powerful agent for ...
Kevin Kostlan's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
39 views

What's an appropriate ligand for Pd-Ag redox?

I want to reduce palladium with silver (in cellulose): $\ce{Pd^{2+} + 2Ag->2Ag+ +Pd}$. What is a good ligand and spectator ion for both metals? (The pH is not critical.) Ones I have considered: $\...
Dan's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
78 views

Kinetic model of proton reduction

One of my colleagues is working on a homogeneous catalyst ($\ce{X}$) for proton reduction. The simplified proposed mechanism for it is the following. $$\ce{X + 2 e^- ->[$k_1$] X^{2-}} \tag{1}$$ ...
ralk912's user avatar
  • 1,538
3 votes
0 answers
311 views

Why does standard reduction potential get multiplied by the change in oxidation state and not by the number of electrons transferred?

The whole basis of Frost diagrams is to have a graphical representation of the Gibbs free energy of formation ($\Delta{G}_{f}$) of different oxidation states of an element using the proportional ...
Ethiopius's user avatar
  • 811
3 votes
0 answers
834 views

How do thiol groups act as reducing agents?

In my biochemistry practicals, we used reducing agents such as beta mercaptoethanol: and dithiothreitol (DTT) Both of these have S-H groups, and I am sure that these are involved in the reduction ...
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