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Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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What exactly is an “electron-sponge”?

What exactly an "electron-sponge" [behavior/action/property/system] nickname is, and what makes a material an "electron-sponge" (preferably, quantitatively)? From what I found, it's typically a ...
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581 views

Finding theoretical mechanism of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

In class we conducted an experiment where we timed reactions between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. We kept the concentration of the $\ce{HCl}$ constant, while changing the concentrations ...
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252 views

Lemieux-Johnson oxidation on cycles

Consider 5-cyano-2,2-dimethylpentyl 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonate: What would it yield by a Lemieux-Johonson oxydation ($\ce{OsO4}$, $\ce{NaIO4}$)? My first guess would have been that $\ce{OsO4}$ was ...
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219 views

Reduction of vanadyl ion

I want to reduce vanadyl to vanadium (III), can somebody please suggest some appropriate methods for it? I am trying to make a redox flow battery for a project but I have only vanadyl sulfate.
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2k views

Oxidation of naphthalene with KMnO4

What is the product when naphthalene is oxidized by alkaline (or acidic) solutions of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Some possible reactions show up in a google search, but they have no references: Naphthalene to ...
5
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250 views

What are the factors that affect the redox reactions?

In my work, I used $\ce{Co(OH)2}$ and $\ce{Ni(OH)2}$ as an active materials to fabricate as symmetric supercapacitors in which I used 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide as an electrolyte. From ...
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0answers
105 views

What makes “Color-Safe Bleach” color safe?

The ability of bleach ($\ce{NaOCl}$) to change the color of garments and introduce "bleach stains" is a well-known issue. In this question: Does bleach turn a substance white or colorless?, the ...
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152 views

Comparing two oxidizing agents using electron configuration

Which oxidizing agent from the pair $\ce{K_2IrCl_6/K_2PtCl_6}$ is stronger? Explain your answer using their electron configurations. We write the electron configurations for $\ce{Ir/Ir^{4+}}$ and $\...
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48 views

Mechanisms of Birch and Bouveault-Blanc Reductions

The question is all about the sequence of a possible Birch- and Bouvault-Blanc-Reduction in this exemplary substrate. With which reduction the mechanism begin? My first attempt was to classify the ...
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62 views

Kinetics of nitric oxide production

Several articles affirm that NO can enhance the glutamate release from the presynaptic site; moreover, glutamate has been recognized as a major brain neurotransmitter and is considered to mediate ...
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0answers
80 views

Can a nitro compound be reduced to an amine by electrolysis?

Several methods are known for the reduction of a nitro compound to an amine, including catalyctic hydrogenation. I am wondering if this can be done by electrolysis. If we take the simplest ...
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128 views

Why does the electrolyte used in Lechlanché cell turn blue?

In my school there are jars which are turned into Lechlanché cells. Basically the cell has aqueous ammonium chloride solution as the electrolyte which is obviously transparent in the beginning. The ...
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263 views

How do thiol groups act as reducing agents?

In my biochemistry practicals, we used reducing agents such as beta mercaptoethanol: and dithiothreitol (DTT) Both of these have S-H groups, and I am sure that these are involved in the reduction ...
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872 views

Why does reduction of naphthalene with nickel/hydrogen lead to trans-decalin?

Is there any reason why $\ce{H2/Ni}$ leads to trans-decalin? I knew from high school that catalytic hydrogenations are always syn.
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0answers
293 views

Use of [H] to denote a reducing agent

In the reduction of an aldehyde (e.g. ethanal) to a primary alcohol, a reducing agent is needed: $$\ce{CH3CHO + 2[H] -> CH3CH2OH}$$ My book states that one hydrogen (the $\ce{H-}$ ion) is from the ...
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438 views

Can oxidation of ethanol by copper(II) oxide yield copper(I) oxide as one of the products?

We know that ethanol is oxidised by copper(II) oxide to an aldehyde. Copper is reduced from $\ce{Cu^2+}$ to $\ce{Cu}$. Can this reaction, with some specific condition, yield $\ce{Cu2O}$ instead? That ...
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0answers
5k views

Determining iron content in spinach from titration

I used titration to find the mass of iron in a $5~\mathrm{g}$ sample of spinach after leaving the spinach to soak in tap water for 5 different amount of times. I added $\ce{H2SO4}$ to the solution and ...
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0answers
136 views

Where do the rate laws for the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid reaction come from?

After reading a section on this particular oscillatory reaction, something started bugging me about it. However, let me lay out the basis of my question. From what I've researched, Lengyel and ...
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0answers
53 views

Abnormal reaction of grignard reagent

My book states that: When isopropyl magnesium bromide is added to diisopropyl ketone, the expected tertiary alcohol is not obtained; instead the secondary alcohol; diisopropyl carbinol is obtained ...
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0answers
39 views

Why does standard reduction potential get multiplied by the change in oxidation state and not by the number of electrons transferred?

The whole basis of Frost diagrams is to have a graphical representation of the Gibbs free energy of formation ($\Delta{G}_{f}$) of different oxidation states of an element using the proportional ...
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38 views

Can hydrogen plasma reduce carbon dioxide?

There are several studies describing usage of hydrogen plasma to reduce metal oxides. This is not yet widely adopted in industry, but it is of interest for environmental reasons (such as desrcibed in ...
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0answers
64 views

Rationalise the Relative Reactivity of Borane and DIBAL as Reductants

In Clayden's Organic Chemistry (Second Edition) it is written that borane is useful in chemoselectively reducing the most nucleophilic carbonyl to its corresponding alcohol. It is later said that ...
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0answers
93 views

Why do lower oxygen concentrations lead to an increase the rate of corrosion?

Is this only the case in pitting corrosion? Is it because metal which has access to the oxygen becomes cathodic leading to the inaccessible parts of the metal becoming anodic?
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0answers
50 views

What would an ecosystem based on reducing atmospheres be like?

I was wondering, what would it be like if instead of an oxidizing atmosphere like earth has, if an ecosystem had a reducing atmosphere instead? My professor told us that a system like that could be ...
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156 views

Oxidation of alkenes and alkynes by Chromic Oxide?

As far as I know, $\ce{CrO3}$ doesn't effect the $\mathrm{\pi}$ bonds in an inert medium like pyridine. Would $\ce{CrO3}$ in acidic medium reduce alkynes to have the same products as acidified, warm $\...
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115 views

Do amino groups need to be protected during a Clemmensen reduction?

In class, we learned about the Clemmensen reduction of carbonyl groups to the corresponding hydrocarbon. This is all well and good, except that it would also seem that the conditions used in the ...
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0answers
1k views

Predicting the products of a redox reaction

How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? I would like to be able to do this without being given an ...
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0answers
160 views

Is it possible to react Rb + Al2O3?

I am wondering if the Rubidium ($\ce{Rb}$) in gas form can react naturally with Sapphire crystal ($\ce{Al2O3}$)? The temperature is $500\ \mathrm{K}$ and the pressure is around $1\ \mathrm{Pa}$ to $10\...
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0answers
361 views

Why does the OAc group leave in the first step of Oxymercuration?

The above picture shows the first step of Oxymercuration. The electrons attack the Mercury atom but the OAc group leaves. Why is this? Hg is a transition metal with a number of available oxidation ...
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0answers
62 views

Results of mixing HSbF6 and O2F2

I'm an amateur writer and one of the topics I deal with is what happens when a slightly-mad scientist and engineer is given an opportunity to work with full-on “magic.” So there are situations where ...
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0answers
62 views

Problem regarding failure of equivalence concept

Chile salt peter, a source of $\ce{NaNO3}$ also contains $\ce{NaIO3}$. The $\ce{NaIO3}$ can be used as a source of iodine, produced in the following reactions. \begin{align} \ce{IO3- + 3 HSO3- &...
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156 views

Acidified sodium sulfite in the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II)

Why does sodium sulfite have to be acidified in the reduction of $\ce{Fe^{3+}}$ to $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$? Does the acid act simply as a catalyst or is it necessary for the reduction process?
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57 views

Name for reaction producing carbon from CO2

Some years ago I heard of a reaction where hydrogen could be used to reduce $\ce{CO2}$ to carbon and water, similar to the Sabatier reaction. I believe it also used iron as a catalyst at high ...
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0answers
52 views

Reducing strength of (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride

Hi Im trying to figure out which of the following is the stronger reducing agent. (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride From my understanding, the Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride ...
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0answers
73 views

HCl and chrome plated plastic

I was trying to use $\ce{HCl}$ (muriatic acid) to remove chrome plating from plastic chrome plated shower parts (shower head holder) in order to make chromium chloride. I understand that in chrome ...
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0answers
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Thermal decomposition results: repeatable in ordinary temperatures?

In thermal decomposition studies where very high temperatures are used (see below for four reactions and their respective temperatures, coming from one paper), can I directly relate these ...
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0answers
98 views

Removing Rust with Coke

I've seen a few videos on cola being used to remove rust, I've tried it myself too so I know that it works. Now the thing that's bothering me is that this apparently contradicts what I've learnt ...
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0answers
76 views

understanding redox reaction

I am a total noob in chemistry, so sorry in advance if this is a very stupid question... I am trying to solve this redox reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ $$\ce{K^{+1}Cl^{...
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206 views

Amide from acyl azide

There are several reports of synthesis of amines from acyl azides via Staudinger reaction with triphenylphosphine. Are there any reports of Staudinger reactions of acyl azides to amides? If not, are ...
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0answers
330 views

Why does Devarda's alloy include copper?

Devarda's alloy is used in the detection of nitrates. However, judging by the reaction equation, only aluminium plays the role of reducer: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(...
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Electrolysis of molten sodium iodide

Electrodes: Zinc electrodes Electrolyte: molten sodium iodide I know that at the cathode, sodium metal will be formed because only sodium ions are present for reduction. At the anode, originally ...
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4k views

Why do NaNO3 + Al + NaOH yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al ...
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658 views

How to calculate n factor for salts in this reaction?

My source says : For salts which react such that no atom undergoes change in oxidation state , n-factor for such salt is the total moles of cationic /anionic species replaced in 1 mole of the salt . ...
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Will bases typically precipitate silver atoms from silver ions?

In class I learnt that one can dissolve many substances using acid and that this can be predicted using standard electrode potentials. For example, $$\begin{align} \ce{Zn &-> Zn^{2+} + 2e^-} ...
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163 views

Why do we need sulfuric acid in reducing nitric acid?

From Wikipedia: Why do we need sulfuric acid in the left part of the formula? Wouldn't FeSO4 reduce nitric acid without the sulfuric acid taking part? P.S. I was answered that a milder form ...
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0answers
70 views

What are the chemical formulae for galvanic corrosion of iron (rusting)?

The conditions for corrosion, I am searching equations are as follows: The other metal is copper The temperature is $25~\mathrm{^\circ C}$ The electrolyte is $\ce{NaCl}$ pH 7 A limited amount of ...
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0answers
2k views

Why does ozone reduce to oxygen?

The O's in ozone and in dioxygen all have oxidation states of 0. If this is the case, why is ozone considered to be reduced to form dioxygen (since there's no change in oxidation state)? Would the ...
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0answers
316 views

Complete Oxidation and Redox Equations for Sacrificial Galvanic Anode

I'm trying to get a more complete picture of how the chemistry works within a typical marine setup including a sacrificial anode. The setup consists of an aluminum hull, another metal (say a stainless ...
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0answers
100 views

Determining Overall Equation and Oxidation Potential

Cell 1 is composed of a reference chloranil half-cell (standardised against SHE as $+0.680 \mathrm{V}$) connected to an $\ce{Ag/AgCl}$ half-cell containing saturated ($0.125\ \mathrm{mol\ L^{−1}}$) $\...
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0answers
734 views

Does Temperature Affect Rate of Reaction of Electrolytic Cell

I completed an electrolysis experiment. I used copper electrodes and a copper sulphate solution, and my independant variable was the temperature of the electrolyte. I was just wondering if increasing ...