Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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104 views

What exactly is an “electron-sponge”?

What exactly an "electron-sponge" [behavior/action/property/system] nickname is, and what makes a material an "electron-sponge" (preferably, quantitatively)? From what I found, it's typically a ...
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742 views

Finding theoretical mechanism of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid

In class we conducted an experiment where we timed reactions between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. We kept the concentration of the $\ce{HCl}$ constant, while changing the concentrations ...
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291 views

Lemieux-Johnson oxidation on cycles

Consider 5-cyano-2,2-dimethylpentyl 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonate: What would it yield by a Lemieux-Johonson oxydation ($\ce{OsO4}$, $\ce{NaIO4}$)? My first guess would have been that $\ce{OsO4}$ was ...
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3k views

Oxidation of naphthalene with KMnO4

What is the product when naphthalene is oxidized by alkaline (or acidic) solutions of $\ce{KMnO4}$? Some possible reactions show up in a google search, but they have no references: Naphthalene to ...
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394 views

What are the factors that affect the redox reactions?

In my work, I used $\ce{Co(OH)2}$ and $\ce{Ni(OH)2}$ as an active materials to fabricate as symmetric supercapacitors in which I used 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide as an electrolyte. From ...
5
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128 views

What makes “Color-Safe Bleach” color safe?

The ability of bleach ($\ce{NaOCl}$) to change the color of garments and introduce "bleach stains" is a well-known issue. In this question: Does bleach turn a substance white or colorless?, the ...
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251 views

Reduction of vanadyl ion

I want to reduce vanadyl to vanadium (III), can somebody please suggest some appropriate methods for it? I am trying to make a redox flow battery for a project but I have only vanadyl sulfate.
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76 views

Mechanisms of Birch and Bouveault-Blanc Reductions

The question is all about the sequence of a possible Birch- and Bouvault-Blanc-Reduction in this exemplary substrate. With which reduction the mechanism begin? My first attempt was to classify the ...
4
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1answer
284 views

How does calcium chloride act as a sequestrant (food science)?

This Wikipedia page lists common sequestrants (with respect to food science). As stated on the page: A sequestrant forms chelate complexes with polyvalent metal ions, especially copper, iron and ...
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80 views

Rationalise the Relative Reactivity of Borane and DIBAL as Reductants

In Clayden's Organic Chemistry (Second Edition) it is written that borane is useful in chemoselectively reducing the most nucleophilic carbonyl to its corresponding alcohol. It is later said that ...
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69 views

Kinetics of nitric oxide production

Several articles affirm that NO can enhance the glutamate release from the presynaptic site; moreover, glutamate has been recognized as a major brain neurotransmitter and is considered to mediate ...
4
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112 views

Can a nitro compound be reduced to an amine by electrolysis?

Several methods are known for the reduction of a nitro compound to an amine, including catalyctic hydrogenation. I am wondering if this can be done by electrolysis. If we take the simplest ...
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164 views

Why does the electrolyte used in Lechlanché cell turn blue?

In my school there are jars which are turned into Lechlanché cells. Basically the cell has aqueous ammonium chloride solution as the electrolyte which is obviously transparent in the beginning. The ...
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1k views

Why does reduction of naphthalene with nickel/hydrogen lead to trans-decalin?

Is there any reason why $\ce{H2/Ni}$ leads to trans-decalin? I knew from high school that catalytic hydrogenations are always syn.
4
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514 views

Can oxidation of ethanol by copper(II) oxide yield copper(I) oxide as one of the products?

We know that ethanol is oxidised by copper(II) oxide to an aldehyde. Copper is reduced from $\ce{Cu^2+}$ to $\ce{Cu}$. Can this reaction, with some specific condition, yield $\ce{Cu2O}$ instead? That ...
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182 views

Comparing two oxidizing agents using electron configuration

Which oxidizing agent from the pair $\ce{K_2IrCl_6/K_2PtCl_6}$ is stronger? Explain your answer using their electron configurations. We write the electron configurations for $\ce{Ir/Ir^{4+}}$ and $\...
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6k views

How to determine the iron content in spinach from a titration with permanganate solution?

I used titration to find the mass of iron in a $5~\mathrm{g}$ sample of spinach after leaving the spinach to soak in tap water for 5 different amount of times. I added $\ce{H2SO4}$ to the solution and ...
4
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492 views

Cobalt Oxalate / Potassium Permanganate Titration

My class just did a lab today where we mixed cobalt oxalate with $40~\mathrm{mL}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ and then titrated it with $\ce{KMnO4}$ (potassium permanganate). I need the mole ratio of cobalt ...
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138 views

Where do the rate laws for the Chlorine Dioxide-Iodine-Malonic Acid reaction come from?

After reading a section on this particular oscillatory reaction, something started bugging me about it. However, let me lay out the basis of my question. From what I've researched, Lengyel and ...
4
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1answer
3k views

Why do the pennies in the pre/post 1982 penny experiment sometimes dissolve completely?

USA pennies were nearly pure copper pre-1982. Post 1982 they are copper clad zinc. A common experiment in US high schools is to notch pennies with a file and add them to an HCl solution. The old ...
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71 views

Kinetic model of proton reduction

One of my colleagues is working on a homogeneous catalyst ($\ce{X}$) for proton reduction. The simplified proposed mechanism for it is the following. $$\ce{X + 2 e^- ->[$k_1$] X^{2-}} \tag{1}$$ ...
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127 views

Abnormal reaction of grignard reagent

My book states that: When isopropyl magnesium bromide is added to diisopropyl ketone, the expected tertiary alcohol is not obtained; instead the secondary alcohol; diisopropyl carbinol is obtained ...
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57 views

Why does standard reduction potential get multiplied by the change in oxidation state and not by the number of electrons transferred?

The whole basis of Frost diagrams is to have a graphical representation of the Gibbs free energy of formation ($\Delta{G}_{f}$) of different oxidation states of an element using the proportional ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Explaining the colour change in the potassium permanganate titration of Fe2+ ions

In the redox titration: $$\ce{MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe^2+ -> Mn^2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe^3+}$$ the colour change which occurs is purple to colourless, because of the decreased concentration of permanganate ions. ...
3
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1answer
75 views

Experimental measurment of thiosulphuric acid decomposition kinetics

Problem I am trying to do a kinetics analysis on the following reaction: $$\ce{Na2S2O3 {(aq)} + 2 HCl {(aq)} -> S {(s)} + 2 NaCl {(aq)} + SO2 {(g)} + H2O {(l)}}$$ Suggested Method However, most ...
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343 views

How do thiol groups act as reducing agents?

In my biochemistry practicals, we used reducing agents such as beta mercaptoethanol: and dithiothreitol (DTT) Both of these have S-H groups, and I am sure that these are involved in the reduction ...
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198 views

Oxidation of alkenes and alkynes by Chromic Oxide?

As far as I know, $\ce{CrO3}$ doesn't effect the $\mathrm{\pi}$ bonds in an inert medium like pyridine. Would $\ce{CrO3}$ in acidic medium reduce alkynes to have the same products as acidified, warm $\...
3
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1answer
179 views

How to convert micromolar concentrations into molar quantities, when the volume is also known

\begin{array}{c|cccccc} \text{Sample} & \text{Ammonia} & \text{Phosphate} & \text{Silicate} &\text{Nitrate + nitrite} & \text{Nitrite} & \text{Mn} \\ & (\pu{\mu M}) & (...
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125 views

Do amino groups need to be protected during a Clemmensen reduction?

In class, we learned about the Clemmensen reduction of carbonyl groups to the corresponding hydrocarbon. This is all well and good, except that it would also seem that the conditions used in the ...
3
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425 views

Use of [H] to denote a reducing agent

In the reduction of an aldehyde (e.g. ethanal) to a primary alcohol, a reducing agent is needed: $$\ce{CH3CHO + 2[H] -> CH3CH2OH}$$ My book states that one hydrogen (the $\ce{H-}$ ion) is from the ...
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1k views

Predicting the products of a redox reaction

How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? How can you predict how a given reactant will be reduced/oxidized? I would like to be able to do this without being given an ...
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165 views

Is it possible to react Rb + Al2O3?

I am wondering if the Rubidium ($\ce{Rb}$) in gas form can react naturally with Sapphire crystal ($\ce{Al2O3}$)? The temperature is $500\ \mathrm{K}$ and the pressure is around $1\ \mathrm{Pa}$ to $10\...
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916 views

Does Temperature Affect Rate of Reaction of Electrolytic Cell

I completed an electrolysis experiment. I used copper electrodes and a copper sulphate solution, and my independant variable was the temperature of the electrolyte. I was just wondering if increasing ...
3
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61 views

What is the voltage dependence of the thickness of oxide coating through anodising?

In titanium anodising, solid titanium reacts with the oxygen formed at it's surface (to form titanium(IV) oxide or $\ce{TiO2}$) through the electrolysis of water. Experimentation and research has ...
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420 views

Why does the OAc group leave in the first step of Oxymercuration?

The above picture shows the first step of Oxymercuration. The electrons attack the Mercury atom but the OAc group leaves. Why is this? Hg is a transition metal with a number of available oxidation ...
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299 views

OF2 vs O2F2 oxidising strength

My teacher said that OF2 is the third most powerful oxidising agent after F2 and atomic O, but I think O2F2 should be even more oxidising, since it less stable than OF2. I just read on quora that O2F2 ...
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0answers
35 views

Can catecholamines be quantified by HPLC-MS/MS at high pH?

It seems that most HPLC-MS/MS methods used for quantitation of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, specifically) operate at low pH (commonly 3.0), and therefore demand the ...
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0answers
49 views

Can hydrogen plasma reduce carbon dioxide?

There are several studies describing usage of hydrogen plasma to reduce metal oxides. This is not yet widely adopted in industry, but it is of interest for environmental reasons (such as desrcibed in ...
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0answers
68 views

Results of mixing HSbF6 and O2F2

I'm an amateur writer and one of the topics I deal with is what happens when a slightly-mad scientist and engineer is given an opportunity to work with full-on “magic.” So there are situations where ...
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123 views

Problem regarding failure of equivalence concept

Chile salt peter, a source of $\ce{NaNO3}$ also contains $\ce{NaIO3}$. The $\ce{NaIO3}$ can be used as a source of iodine, produced in the following reactions. \begin{align} \ce{IO3- + 3 HSO3- &...
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231 views

Acidified sodium sulfite in the reduction of iron(III) to iron(II)

Why does sodium sulfite have to be acidified in the reduction of $\ce{Fe^{3+}}$ to $\ce{Fe^{2+}}$? Does the acid act simply as a catalyst or is it necessary for the reduction process?
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66 views

Name for reaction producing carbon from CO2

Some years ago I heard of a reaction where hydrogen could be used to reduce $\ce{CO2}$ to carbon and water, similar to the Sabatier reaction. I believe it also used iron as a catalyst at high ...
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72 views

Reducing strength of (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride

Hi Im trying to figure out which of the following is the stronger reducing agent. (i-Bu)2AlH vs Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride From my understanding, the Lithium aluminum tri(t-butoxy)hydride ...
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0answers
114 views

Why do lower oxygen concentrations lead to an increase the rate of corrosion?

Is this only the case in pitting corrosion? Is it because metal which has access to the oxygen becomes cathodic leading to the inaccessible parts of the metal becoming anodic?
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0answers
50 views

What would an ecosystem based on reducing atmospheres be like?

I was wondering, what would it be like if instead of an oxidizing atmosphere like earth has, if an ecosystem had a reducing atmosphere instead? My professor told us that a system like that could be ...
2
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1answer
718 views

How exactly does a battery work (specifically Pb/H2SO4/H2SO4/PbO2 lead acid battery)?

Specifically talking about the lead-acid battery, I understand (or think I understand) this much: The anode, in the presence of the electrolyte, $\ce{H2SO4}$ will be oxidised: $$\ce{Pb (s) + SO4^2- (...
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0answers
884 views

How to reduce Al2O3 in a H2 atmosphere on industrial scale?

As known, reducing $\ce{Al2O3}$, which is the main process of the aluminium production, isn't really cheap, mainly because its energy need. Its high energy need is coming from the high binding energy ...
2
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1answer
3k views

Why does NaCl act as a catalyst for the reaction of CuSO4 + H2O + Al?

I am analyzing a reaction between water sulfate copper and aluminum. A chunk of $\ce{Al}$, e.g., aluminum foil. I realize that a layer of $\ce{Al2O3}$ forms on the surface of the $\ce{Al}$, ...
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0answers
83 views

understanding redox reaction

I am a total noob in chemistry, so sorry in advance if this is a very stupid question... I am trying to solve this redox reaction: $$\ce{KClO3 + FeSO4 + H2SO4 -> Fe2(SO4)3 + KCl}$$ $$\ce{K^{+1}Cl^{...
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401 views

Why does Devarda's alloy include copper?

Devarda's alloy is used in the detection of nitrates. However, judging by the reaction equation, only aluminium plays the role of reducer: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(...