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Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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Can a cation form a bond with only the oxygen in hydroxide ion?

$$\ce{Al2O3 + 2 NaOH → 2 NaAlO2 + H2O}$$ In this reaction between an amphoteric oxide and a base, I do not understand how $\ce{Al}$ makes a bond with oxygen atoms since the water is found in the ...
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Does reduction/ oxidation take place separately at a half cell electrode?

In the redox reaction chapter, we learn that oxidation and reduction go hand in hand. The oxidising agent oxidises by accepting the electron released by the reducing agent and gets reduced in the ...
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Why do Cu⁺ ions spontaneously form copper metal and Cu²⁺ ions in solution?

The standard electrode potentials for three reactions involving copper and copper ions are: $$ \begin{align} \ce{Cu^2+(aq) + e- &-> Cu+(aq)} &\quad E &= \pu{+0.15 V} \\ \ce{Cu^2+(...
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What is the strongest oxidising agent?

I searched for the strongest oxidising agent and I found different results: $\ce{ClF3}$, $\ce{HArF}$, $\ce{F2}$ were among them. Many said $\ce{ClF3}$ is the most powerful as it oxidises everything, ...
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Why does the following “Battery” experiment work?

I did the following experiment: Experimental setup: Two electrodes (one made out of Iron,the other made out of Copper) are put into a (bluish) Copper(ii) sulfate lotion. Then, one connect a ...
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372 views

What do the half-reactions need to be for balancing a redox reaction in an acidic medium?

Balance the following reaction: $$\ce{CuS + SO4^{2-} -> CuO + SO2}$$ Below, the number mentioned in the parenthesis is the oxidation number of sulfur. I have found out that the oxidation half-...
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Disproportionation of 2 KO₂ + 2 H₂O → 2 KOH + H₂O₂ + O₂

How is the following reaction a disproportionation reaction? $$\ce{2 K\overset{-1/2}{O}_2 + 2 H2\overset{-2}{O} ->2 KOH + H2\overset{-1}{O}_2 + \overset{0}{O}_2}$$ In this, the OS are $-1/2$, $-2$...
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Why is the reaction between potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide spontaneous?

When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with potassium permanganate, oxygen gas and water vapour are formed, according to the reaction (source): $$\ce{2MnO4- + 3H2O2 -> 2MnO2 + 2H2O + 3O2 + 2OH-}$$ This ...
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Nitrate reaction with iron minerals

I am trying to find literature or an answer to what happens to nitrate as it comes in contact with iron oxides. Does the nitrate get reduced to ammonium in all cases of iron(II/III) oxides? What is ...
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Can carbon dioxide be used as oxidant for iron?

Determine whether it is possible for $\ce{CO2}$ to be an oxidant for $\ce{Fe}$. Justify your choice by comparing the corresponding half reactions. I found the following half-reactions, both on ...
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How can I find the emf of a cell given the individual reduction and oxidation reactions and their respective potentials? [duplicate]

If I am given the individual oxidation and reduction half-equations, how can I find the emf of the combination? For example: $$ \begin{align} E^\circ(\ce{Fe^3+}/\ce{Fe^2+}) &= \pu{0.77 V}\\ E^\...
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What is the mechanism of the Clemmensen reduction?

I have learned that we can reduce a ketone to an alkane using the Clemmensen reduction, where we treat the ketone with amalgamated zinc in the presence of $\ce{HCl}$. My book didn't mention the ...
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In a galvanic cell, why do electrons move through the wire from zinc to copper?

I understand that there is aqueous $\ce{Cu^2+}$ in this scenario which pulls on the electrons from the zinc causing the electrons to move through the wire, but how does the electronegativity of $\ce{...
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1answer
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Reverse Cannizzaro reaction to make aldehydes?

Is it possible (and practicable) to reverse Cannizzaro reaction (disproportionation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids and alcohols) to produce aldehydes from carboxylic acid and alcohol without need to ...
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1answer
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Will heating of KClO3 be considered disproportionation?

In all examples of disproportionation I have seen, there is one particular atom whose oxidation state is both increasing and decreasing to give rise to different products For example, on heating ...
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1answer
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Why do alpha-hydroxy ketones respond positively to Tollens', Fehling's, Benedict's, Schiff's and HgCl2 tests?

I learnt from a certain textbook that aldehydes and formic acid respond positively to Tollens', Fehling's, Benedict's, Schiff's and HgCl2 tests. However, in another textbook I read that even alpha-...
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Why does temperature affect cell potential?

The Nernst equation describes the relationship between cell potential and temperature. But why does temperature affect cell potential? My understanding is that the collision model of kinetics is not ...
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1answer
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Corrosion of iron: no electron pushing mechanism?

Why does the oxidation-reduction reaction between iron, water, and $\ce{O2}$ gas to form rusts lack an electron pushing mechanism and a specific sequence of steps? $$\ce{4Fe^0(s) + 3 O2(g) + 2n H2O(l)...
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Experimental measurment of thiosulphuric acid decomposition kinetics

Problem I am trying to do a kinetics analysis on the following reaction: $$\ce{Na2S2O3 {(aq)} + 2 HCl {(aq)} -> S {(s)} + 2 NaCl {(aq)} + SO2 {(g)} + H2O {(l)}}$$ Suggested Method However, most ...
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1answer
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What is the balanced chemical equation for a redox reaction between a lithium-cobalt battery and a graphite electrode?

I'm doing a project for my last year of secondary school on lithium cobalt batteries and got confused about the equation. This is the only equation I can find (source: www.science.org.au): \begin{...
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Negative Voltage for Full Redox Reaction?

I have a question about voltages including redox reactions. I know that half equations may have negative voltages when choosing what is undergoing reduction, and what is undergoing oxidation in a ...
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How does calcium chloride act as a sequestrant (food science)?

This Wikipedia page lists common sequestrants (with respect to food science). As stated on the page: A sequestrant forms chelate complexes with polyvalent metal ions, especially copper, iron and ...
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Half equations for H2O2 for its reducing and oxidising nature in acidic and alkaline medium

Is there a complete list of all the half equations for $\ce{H2O2}$ - both oxidation and reduction, in acidic and alkaline conditions? I've looked on the internet but can't seem to find a list with all ...
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1answer
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Why does NaCl act as a catalyst for the reaction of CuSO4 + H2O + Al?

I am analyzing a reaction between water sulfate copper and aluminum. A chunk of $\ce{Al}$, e.g., aluminum foil. I realize that a layer of $\ce{Al2O3}$ forms on the surface of the $\ce{Al}$, ...
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1answer
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Does cathodic protection work for air oxidation?

I'm not expert in cathodic protection, but does it work with metals under air oxidation? Is it possible to protect a metal from air oxidation by applying an electrode to it? Or it has to be inside an ...
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1answer
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Oxidation of Sodium Hydroxide in Ethanol?

So I read recently that: Alcoholic solutions of sodium hydroxide will oxidize in air, turning brown. First is this true? And if so what is oxidizing? I can't think of what sodium hydroxide ...
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2answers
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Reduction of oximes with lithium aluminium hydride

I know that $\ce{LiAlH4}$ is good a reducing agent and it donates hydride ions but then I am not able to understand the mechanism of this reaction. I attempted this way I am not understanding what ...
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1answer
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Why does increasing the concentration of oxidizing agent decrease the E° in a galvanic cell?

In a galvanic cell, when we add ions of the oxidation agent (in this example, Zn2+) to the anode solution, it decreases the cell potential. However, if the Zn2+ ions aren't involved in the redox ...
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Replacement for Centrifuge in Calcium Content Determination

Basically, I'm performing a lab investigation to determine calcium content in different milk sorts. Since my school didn't have any EDTA, I'm using Sodium Oxalate to form a precipitate with Calcium ...
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What is the voltage dependence of the thickness of oxide coating through anodising?

In titanium anodising, solid titanium reacts with the oxygen formed at it's surface (to form titanium(IV) oxide or $\ce{TiO2}$) through the electrolysis of water. Experimentation and research has ...
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1answer
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How exactly does a battery work (specifically Pb/H2SO4/H2SO4/PbO2 lead acid battery)?

Specifically talking about the lead-acid battery, I understand (or think I understand) this much: The anode, in the presence of the electrolyte, $\ce{H2SO4}$ will be oxidised: $$\ce{Pb (s) + SO4^2- (...
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What type of acid (and how much) needed to generate Chlorine Dioxide gas when added to Sodium Chlorite (for odor removal)?

I have several lbs of Sodium Chlorite (flakes), which I would like to use to generate Chlorine Dioxide gas in order to remove odors from rooms, autos, boats, etc. There are commercial products sold ...
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The equivalent weight of HNO3 in the following reaction [closed]

The equivalent weight of HNO3 in the following reaction is ‘x’, then the value of x/21 is 3Cu+8HNO3⟶3Cu(NO3)2+2NO+4H2O in this I atempted by using redox formulas but my answer is comming 1 but ...
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1answer
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Redox Combustion Reactions

Consider a combustion reaction like the complete combustion of ethane. Here is what I have for the complete combustion as well as the oxidation and reduction: $$\ce{\overset{-3}{C}_2\overset{+1}{H}_6 ...
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Explaining the colour change in the potassium permanganate titration of Fe2+ ions

In the redox titration: $$\ce{MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe^2+ -> Mn^2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe^3+}$$ the colour change which occurs is purple to colourless, because of the decreased concentration of permanganate ions. ...
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1answer
111 views

Pourbaix diagram and the order of the species

Figure 1. Pourbaix diagram of iron (Source) The line between $\ce{Fe}$ and $\ce{Fe^2+}$ is there because the potential $\ce{Fe/Fe^2+}$ is $\pu{-0.44 V}$. The same applies for $\ce{Fe^2+/Fe^3+}$ with $...
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Painting metal, does it matter if all rust is removed before?

In the context of automobile repair work, assume a metal surface has rust over it. Does it matter if all of the rust is removed before the metal surface is painted? If it does matter, then why? It ...
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2answers
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Reduction of hydrogen sulfide by silver

Why can $\ce{H2S}$ be reduced by $\ce{Ag}$ when left in air: $$\ce{2 Ag + H2S -> Ag2S + H2}$$ If silver is a noble metal that should not reduce hydrogen?
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What defines a discharged battery?

In the case of an AA Alkaline battery, what actually happens inside the battery once it is fully discharged? What components of the battery change as we use it?
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1answer
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Electrolysis of water: Which equations to use? (IB Chem)

There is a list of standard electrode potentials at 298 K from the p. 23 of IB Data Booklet 2016. Which of the following equations (forward/backward reactions), from the two possible ones involving ...
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Which is anode and which is cathode?

A maybe (hopefully) simple question about the denotations of "anode" and "cathode". The below image is a schematic of a polymer solar cell (Source (WBM)). (The figure text is quoted as well for the ...
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1answer
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Why is the conjugate of a strong oxidizing agent a weak reducing agent?

I am a grade 12 student. While I was reviewing some electrochemistry, I had the following question. Take this reduction half-reaction: $$\ce{F2 (g) + 2e- <=> 2F- (aq) + $\pu{2.87V}$}$$ I know ...
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Cobalt Oxalate / Potassium Permanganate Titration

My class just did a lab today where we mixed cobalt oxalate with $40~\mathrm{mL}$ of $\ce{H2SO4}$ and then titrated it with $\ce{KMnO4}$ (potassium permanganate). I need the mole ratio of cobalt ...
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1answer
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How to convert micromolar concentrations into molar quantities, when the volume is also known

\begin{array}{c|cccccc} \text{Sample} & \text{Ammonia} & \text{Phosphate} & \text{Silicate} &\text{Nitrate + nitrite} & \text{Nitrite} & \text{Mn} \\ & (\pu{\mu M}) & (...
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3answers
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Why can wood burn all the way to charcoal instead of just creating a passivating charcoal layer?

I know burning to charcoal is actually incomplete combustion because charcoal can also burn. When a strike anywhere match burns, it burns all the way to charcoal but the charcoal doesn't further burn. ...
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1answer
49 views

Equation for reaction between chlorine fluoride and potassium bromide

The equation given in the answer key was $$\ce{ClF + 2KBr → KCl + KF + Br2}$$ However won't the $\ce{KCl}$ also react with $\ce{ClF}$ to form $\ce{KF}$ and $\ce{Cl2}$, resulting in the net reaction ...
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2answers
270 views

What happens to iron electrodes (attached to a battery) in copper(II) sulphate solution?

After a few hours, the following observations were made: The solution turns green. My guess: $\ce{FeSO4}$ is formed. There are reddish-brown and black powder deposits on both the electrodes. The ...
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0answers
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OF2 vs O2F2 oxidising strength

My teacher said that OF2 is the third most powerful oxidising agent after F2 and atomic O, but I think O2F2 should be even more oxidising, since it less stable than OF2. I just read on quora that O2F2 ...
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What is the flow of electrons, cations, and anions in a voltaic cell (please see image attached)?

This is an IB question. The mark scheme says that the correct answer is A and only A. But I believe B is also correct. The following is my thought process. Since A is more reactive, it undergoes ...