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Questions tagged [redox]

Redox is the portmanteau of reduction and oxidation. This tag should be used in questions where both the reduction and the oxidation process are under focus. This tag is not limited to inorganic chemistry. If the question is specifically about either reduction or oxidation (not both) of an organic compound, use [organic-reduction] or [organic-oxidation] instead.

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315 views

pH Changes in primary cells

Primary Cells - pH changes during discharge Alkaline Cell: Manganese Dioxide Zinc Alkaline Cell Anode (-) $\ce {Zn(s) + 2OH^{−}(aq) → ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e^{−}}$ ...
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Fuel Cell Chart - Anode, Cathode, Electrolyte

Can someone please check my table to make sure I have the correct information. I am especially unsure of the parts highlighted in yellow:
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How to get sodium from sodium aluminate?

The sodium aluminate is formed when aluminium or aluminium hydroxide reacts with water solution of lye. After drying the water you'll end up with white crystals - sodium aluminate. I was wondering if ...
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Why are metal oxides generally more stable than their corresponding elemental forms?

Why is the oxidation of certain metals such as iron favorable from a thermodynamic standpoint? What is it about these metal oxides that makes them inherently more thermodynamically stable than their ...
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163 views

In acidic solution, what does ClO₃⁻ reduce into?

In acidic solution, what does $\ce{ClO3-}$ reduce into and, most importantly, why? It's $$\ce{6e- +ClO_{3}^- +6H^+ -> Cl^- + 3 H_2O}.$$ Now, with the gift of foresight, why was the equation for ...
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849 views

Corrosion of metals and observations in the agar medium?

I want to know which metals oxidize and which is reduced and changes in medium and observations? According to my knowledge more corrosion will take place in Zn and Fe also corrode. Then copper should ...
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115 views

In a mixture of ammonia and hydrogen hypochlorite, how do I determine the oxidising and reducing agent?

$$\ce{NH_3 + HOCl <=> NH_2Cl + H_2O}$$ How do I figure out what the oxidizing agent is and reducing agent? I know that the oxidizing state of $N$ in $\ce{NH_3}$ is $-3$, but I'm not sure how to ...
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Average Oxidation State - Utility?

What is the purpose of calculating an average oxidation state for a certain element in a compound? Hence the “average oxidation state” of carbon in acetic acid is 0. And the oxidation state ...
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315 views

Hydrogen Peroxide as an Oxidizer

Why is HOOH such a good oxidizer? I understand that the oxygens in HOOH are in a negative 1 oxidation state, and that oxygen generally adopts an oxidation state of negative 2. I also know that ...
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6k views

Why is CuSO4 used as electrolyte while purifying copper?

During the electrolytic purification of copper, the electrolyte is taken as copper(II) sulphate ($\ce{CuSO_4}$). Is there any particular reason for this? Could another salt of copper, say $\ce{CuCl_2}$...
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332 views

What makes sulfur-containing compounds such good antioxidants?

Many sulfur-containing compounds (like glutathione and cysteine groups) have high antioxidant activity. Why?
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329 views

In a redox reaction, why does more than one oxidation state of an element form?

Consider the reaction 100ml 10M $\ce{NaOH_{(aq)}} +$ 100ml 10M $\ce{NaHSO3_{(aq)} +}$ 100mL 0.01M $\ce{KMnO4_{(aq)}}$ In the picture posted here, the left columns give information on the Molarity of ...
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182 views

can sodium persulfate etch or damage a titanium heater?

I use Sodium Persulfate to etch copper on a PCB process. I have been using glass heater on the etching tank but the glass is too fragile; it breaks too easily. I read that titanium heater is used ...
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670 views

Reduction of Iron (III) to elemental Iron - How do I calculate the mass of carbon needed?

The equation for reducing iron (iii) oxide with heated carbon is: $\ce{Fe2O3 (s) + 3C (s) + 3CO (g)}$ The mass of carbon needed to produce $100~\mathrm{g}$ iron is? I honestly do not understand how ...
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1k views

How does a simple alkaline battery work?

The basic + - electrolyte set up. Modern batteries and the like. How exactly do they work?
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Why do acids favor the oxidizer? And bases the reducer?

Simply put, why does adding acid to the cathode up the cell voltage? From what I understand, acids are proton donors. Do these positive protons attract electrons toward the cathode compartment of the ...
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277 views

Any possible additives to a drain cleaner I use as a source of NaOH?

It is in pellets. And the box says main ingredient $\ce{NaOH}$ at least $30\%$ (I hope it's more). The box also says "aluminium catalyst". My goal was to take these pellets and dissolve them in water ...
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556 views

Reduction and Oxidation - Alternate definitions

Why is reduction defined as the gain of hydrogen? Is it because hydrogen has a very low electronegativity and easily donates its electrons to other elements? From what I understand reduction is ...
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140 views

Redox properties of methyl radical

The methyl radical, $\ce{.CH3}$, is a strong oxidant and a strong reductant according to Wikipedia. Why is this so? Any additional reasons to the ones below? I know that an oxidant itself is ...
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What are the oxidation states in Borohydride (BH4-)

The CRC Elecrochemical Series and the solution to our exercise suggest that the oxidation states of borohydride are -V for Boron and +I for Hydrogen. Since H (2.2) is more electronegativ than B (2.0),...
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Kinetic validity; redox reactions

What's the kinetic validity of the following way of balancing the above redox reaction? I've done some searching of the literature; I've never come across oxide anions being mentioned in redox ...
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Why is the water reduction of oxygen favored in acidic conditions?

The standard reduction potential of diatomic oxygen in acidic conditions is +1.23 volts. However, the standard reduction potential of diatomic oxygen in basic conditions is only +0.40 volts. Why is ...
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Can redox reactions involve only non metals?

When non metal react they form molecule, and whether the bond is polar or not, the elements in the molecular compound will not have charges what so ever, because they are not ionic. But can non metals ...
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331 views

Balancing redox equation

So I had these two reactions that confused me .. I tried the standard way of balancing it (Putting oxygen number everywhere, +1,+2,-2 etc.) and then go on with it but it didn't work So anyways here ...
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What are the products for the redox reaction HCl + SnCl₂ + KMnO₄?

In the redox reaction, where $\ce{HCl}$ is the excess reactant do these reactions produce following half reactions? \begin{aligned} (1)&&\ce{SnCl2 &-> Sn^{4+} + 2e-}\\ (2)&&\ce{...
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Calculating Redox Potential; Coupled Reactions

For the reaction of silver and hydrochloric acid to form silver chloride: would the following be the correct way to couple the below two half reactions? $\ce{2Ag(s) + 2Cl^- ->2AgCl(s) + 2e^-} ~~E^...
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562 views

What exactly is the “oxygen reduction reaction”?

Is it $\ce{O2(g) + 4H^+(aq) + 4e^- \rightarrow 2H_2O(l)}$ and are there multiple types of ORR? See here for context: http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140122/srep03821/full/srep03821.html
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Electrolysis of Strongly Basic Water

What happens when strongly basic water is electrolyzed? I know that the electrolysis of water in strongly acidic solution involves hydrogen protons; will these protons still be involved in strongly ...
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324 views

How does oxygen fight odors? (Deodorant ad)

I saw an ad on tv last night for Mitchum deodorant that showed big text on the screen that said "OXYGEN eliminates all odors!" or something similar. Their website indeed claims "Our exclusive formula ...
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233 views

Conjugate Theory and Redox

I'm trying to apply conjugate theory, which I can apply very well to acids/bases, to redox. Can you verify my logic, which I have broken down below? 1) I know that solid sodium is a strong reducer. ...
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Balancing Redox Equations

I was taught to balance redox equations with acid/base considerations. Instead of arbitrarily adding $\ce{H^+}$ and $\ce{HO^-}$ ions and memorizing separate rules for acidic and basic solutions, I was ...
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897 views

Does a patina on a knife prevent rust?

Before I begin, I think it's worth mentioning that I know little about chemistry and even less about knives. My question is this, having seen many people talk about how patinas work and the best ...
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What are the mechanisms for the reduction of organic compounds employing red phosphorus and iodine?

I was recently studying oxidation and reduction reactions. I found red phosphorus and iodine reduce many different organic compounds. Out of interest I would like to know the mechanism for these ...
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Mechanism of oxidation by dichlorotriazenetrione

How does dichlorotriazenetrione supply chlorine to a swimming pool and how does it oxidize organic material?
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Questions concerning redox reactions [closed]

What does it mean for an element to be reduced? What does it mean for an element to be oxidized? What is an oxidizing agent? What is a reducing agent? How do you identify oxidizing and reducing ...
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200 views

Confused with oxidation numbers

If -2 is a oxidation number and 2- is the charge, then what is - by itself, is it a oxidation number or charge? As in $\ce{Ag+}$. Also do you see $\ce{Cu + 2Ag+ -> Cu^{2+} + 2Ag}$ as a redox ...
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Vycor + hydrogen at 750°C - reduction? [closed]

Does anybody have experience with Vycor 96% silica tubing in hydrogen at bright red heat, around 750°C, regarding its reduction to silicon monoxide or elemental silicon?
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What is the oxidizing agent for Fe in the following redox reaction?

Redox: $\ce{Fe + 2HCl -> FeCl2 + H2}$ Oxidation: $\ce{Fe -> Fe^{2+} + 2e-}$ Reduction: $\ce{2H+ + 2e- -> H2}$ The $\ce{HCl}$ and $\ce{H2}$ are formed by covalent bonds. The $\ce{FeCl2}$ ...
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1answer
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Which two substances react spontaneously?

Which two substances react spontaneously? (A) $\ce{Ag}$ and $\ce{Cu}$ (B) $\ce{Ag+}$ and $\ce{Cu}$ (C) $\ce{Ag}$ and $\ce{Cu^2+}$ (D) $\ce{Ag+}$ and $\ce{Cu^2+}$ $\tiny{\...
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Why can we disregard stoichiometric coefficients when computing reduction potentials?

Example: A $Cd // Cr$ Galvanic cell has redox half reactions: $\ce{Cd^{2+} + 2e^- -> Cd}$ $E_{cell}$ = -0.4 $\ce{Cr^{3+} + 3e- -> Cr}$ $E_{cell}$ = -0.7 Balanced equation of reaction ...
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what are reduction oxidation reactions?

in the picture, the product is a neutral material, but in the illustration of the molecular structure, the compound is shown in its ions, why we can't show it in its ions even in the equation or if we ...
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Would it be possible to produce a non-toxic atmosphere using a coal fire and frozen oxygen?

A Pail of Air is a classic science fiction short story by Fritz Leiber from 1951 describing how a family survives on an Earth that has left its orbit around the sun, using desparate low-tech methods: ...
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How does iron rust in basic conditions?

I performed an experiment about the corrosion of iron. I used acid and base in the experiment. I understand that the acid speeds up the corrosion of iron. But I don't understand why the base also ...
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Can bromide ion reduce ferric ion?

Can bromide ion reduce ferric ion ? Just a query. In my opinion it can since bromide ion can undergo oxidation. Is my answer correct?
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Why are more easily oxidized elements more reactive than less easily oxidized elements?

Why do the more easily oxidized elements displace the less easily oxidized elements? Question inspired by Activity Series of Metals
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Explaining redox reactions to a 6 year old?

In a similar vein and for pretty much the same reason as I post this question on the Physics.SE site, what would be a an effective means to promote understanding about redox reactions to a 6 year old? ...
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Electrolysis Anode equation

In the electrolysis of $\ce{Na2SO4}$, is it valid to write the anode half-reaction (oxidation) as $$ \ce{OH-} \rightarrow \ce{H+} + \frac{1}{2}\ce{O2} + 2\ce{e-} $$? My book says it's $$ \ce{H2O} \...
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Why is it hard to reduce titanium dioxide?

Titanium is expensive, although it is not rare and titanium dioxide is a ubiquitous component, it's part of such mundane articles as toothpaste, paper or plastics. The reason for that is that the ...
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Are these two reactions equivalent?

I'm supposed to balance a redox equation. I arrive at $$ \ce{H2O} + \ce{NH4+} + 2\ce{S^{2-}} + \ce{O2} \rightarrow \ce{NH3} + 2\ce{S} + 3\ce{OH-} $$ The "official" solution is $$ 4 \ce{NH4+} + 2\ce{...
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Can a battery powered by iron and air really provide a feasible power source for automobiles?

I'm referring to the Shuttle Battery recently announced (read more on it here) that suggests that: The energy density of the device is up to 7,700 Wh/L. It is more than 5 times higher than state-...