Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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Electrophilic substitution on Borazole

As Borazole ($\ce{B3N3H6}$) is aromatic, it shows electrophilic aromatic substitution. Now, my question is when borazole undergoes electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, on which atom does the ...
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1answer
198 views

Priority order of attack of grignard reagents on functional groups

Recently I was solving carbonyl compounds and I came across this. Is there some priority order, or logic behind why alcohol reacts first with Grignard reagent and then ketone. Whereas ester could've ...
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Selectivity of diazo-coupling with p-amino phenol

I came across this question and I've been thinking about it since, without being able to find a convincing major product. This question is related to one I found on this site, Diazo Coupling reaction ...
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1answer
187 views

How can nucleophilicity be estimated accurately?

Given the following: $\ce{CN-,OH-,SH-,I-}$. Determine the relative order of nucleophilicity in a protic solvent. I know that, more the nucleophile is solvated by hydrogen bonding in a protic solvent,...
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1answer
78 views

Is the speed of sound the fastest rate that a chemical reaction can progress through a substance?

I read that a martensitic transformation can travel at the speed of sound in that material. Is that confirmed as being the fastest speed of a chemical reaction (transformation)?
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Why does nose grease knock down the head on beer and soda?

Freshman year, my first semester, I was taught many things. One important trick I learned was when I was passed a beer in a 12 oz. plastic cup, I could eliminate the fresh foamy head by wiping my ...
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881 views

Reactivity of primary and tertiary alkyl halides

From USNCO 2004, Q58: The reaction between which pair of reactants occurs the fastest for $[\ce{OH-}] = \pu{0.010 M}$? (A) $\ce{CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl + OH-}$ (B) $\ce{(CH3)3CCl + OH-}$ (C) $...
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Stability of carbanion

I am confused about how one can determine the stability of carbanions using pKa-values. I know that the stability of carbanions can be determined by the inductive effect, hybridization of the charged-...
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1answer
694 views

Why are silyl chlorides more readily hydrolysed than alkyl chlorides?

I know that the $\ce{Si-Cl}$ bond has a slightly higher energy, but silyl chlorides are much more readily hydrolyzed compared to alkyl chlorides. I do not fully understand why that is. My thoughts so ...
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Do Grignard reagents react with amides?

Clearly the amide will be unreactive given the poor quality of the leaving group and poor electrophilcity due to delocalization. However, does it react with organolithiums for example?
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Does K2CO3 react in minute amounts with glassware at higher temperatures?

At a temperature of $\pu{750 ^\circ C}$, $\ce{K2CO3}$ and $\ce{SiO2}$ react with each other in substantial proportions, forming $\ce{K2SiO3}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ in the process$\ce{^{[1]}}$. We all know as ...
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486 views

Reactivity of Ammonium

I was going through some displacement reactions when this struck me: What is the position of the ammonium cation in the metal reactivity series? I can find other positive ions like carbon and ...
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788 views

Definition of Nucleophilicity

I have a rather quick question on the definition of Nucleophilicity. To get straight to the point, am I right in saying that the most appropriate definition of Nucleophilicity, regardless of whether ...
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Is there any reaction between amines and AgNO3?

I found a question in a book about the reaction between $\ce{AgNO3}$ and aromatic/aliphatic amines, but I couldn't find any information about it. What should be the expected reaction mechanism and ...
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224 views

Which factor should I take into priority to determine reactivity of of Halides?

Such as in the attached question I was taking into account the stability of the carbocations (by the number of resonating structures) formed after removal of Chlorine from and concluded to be the ...
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Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions?

Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions? For example, ethene or ethyne will undergo an addition reaction with chlorine, whereas ethane will not. Furthermore, why does benzene ...
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1answer
48 views

Does CH3COOH + H2O (vinegar) lose its antibacterial and antiviral properties when exposed to air?

I have been reading about using CH3COOH + H2O (vinegar) as a mild antibacterial and antiviral agent. For example: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15698693/ Note, before anyone gets confused (or ...
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624 views

At what acid concentration does potassium metabisulfite react?

I'm in the process of developing a well preserved food-stuff containing potassium metabisulfite and a number of acids (acetic, ascorbic, malic, tartaric, citric, lactic). Wine-making literature ...
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48 views

silicon nitride and sCO2

I want to use silicon nitride ball bearings with a reciprocating piston that will be powered by $\ce{CO2}$ liquid heated to $\mathrm{288^oC}$ becoming super critical. That temperature is the maximum ...
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Hydroxide formation: reaction of group 13 elements with water

I was studying about 13th group elements and I found that in this group Al and Tl react water to form a hydroxide and oxide respectively, but the rest of the elements don't react to form hydroxides. ...
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3answers
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How does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals acting on it?

There are a few experiments comparing the reactivity of alkali metals with cold water. Is there any purpose to use cold water? Does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals?
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Order of Reactivity of Halogens in Electrophilic Addition

What is the order of reactivity of halogens in electrophilic addition reaction via formation of cyclohalonium intermediate? (A) $\ce{F2}$> $\ce{Cl2}$> $\ce{Br2}$> $\ce{I2}$ (B) $\ce{I2}$> $...
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Reactivities: interhalogen compounds versus halogens

My textbook says that interhalogen compounds are more reactive than halogens, because the $\ce{X-X}$ bond in halogens (for example, dichlorine or $\ce{Cl2}$) is stronger than the $\ce{X-X'}$ bond in ...
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954 views

What is more reactive towards a cyanohydrin formation an aldehyde or an Ketone?

Which is more reactive—aldehydes or ketones—towards the nucleophilic addition by cyanide to form cyanohydrins?
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Organic Chemistry - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

What order of reactivity do you predict will be observed when each alkyl halide is mixed with sodium iodide in acetone? 1-Chlorobutane 1-Bromobutane 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane Bromobenzene ...
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1answer
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What is a barrier-less reaction in Quantum Chemistry?

After finding a reaction "Transitional State" by GAMESS, and finding Hessian Eigenvalues, my project instructor said: seems your imaginary frequency (negative eigenvalue) is not that big (it is ...
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Reactivity comparison between benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde [duplicate]

One of my teacher says that $\ce{Ph-CHO}$ is more reactive than $\ce{CH3-CHO}$ in performing nucleophillic addition reaction because $\ce{—Ph}$ is planar and thus offers less steric hindrance as ...
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NaOH vs Polypropylene

This source lists polypropylene as suitable for use with NaOH. However, this paper seems to demonstrate that NaOH slowly degrades polypropylene (even at fairly moderate temperatures). Does anyone ...
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232 views

Why do the induction effects of fluorobenzene decrease electrophilic addition reactivity, conjugation effects increase selectivity?

Fluorobenzene shows signs of both the electron withdrawing and electron donating groups on benzene. Electrophilic substitution to the ring is less reactive because the fluorine is very electronegative ...
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109 views

Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? [closed]

Where will a H+ attack on 6-hydroxyhexan-2-one? Protonation can take place either on the ketone or the alcohol. So where will it attack? In short, on which of the two oxygen atoms is electron density ...
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209 views

What is the most likely reaction between minocycline and tramadol in physiological conditions?

Minocyline (left) and Tramadol (right) are two commonly prescribed medications containing typical organic functional groups. What would an expert chemist surmise as the first or most-likely reaction ...
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478 views

Why are thioethers not better leaving groups than ethers?

Why are thioethers ($\ce{RSR}$) not better leaving groups than ethers ($\ce{ROR}$)? I learnt that better bases are poorer leaving groups. Here, clearly the poorer base is thioether, as the lone pair ...
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Can activated charcoal retain adsorbtion properties even when submerged in liquids?

This is following a question on Skeptics Stackexchange, where apparently medical science claims that activated charcoal can adsorb poison when ingested. One of the members posted a related question on ...
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Carbylamine Reaction

In my lab manual, it is given that alcoholic KOH should be the base used in carbylamine test. However as it was not available, I used 10℅ NaOH. The test results came out positive. (Yes, it was ...
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Naphthalene v/s Anthracene reactivity

Both have similar resonance energy per ring, even Naphthalene has a little higher Resonance energy (127.5 KJ per mol per ring v/s 127 KJ per mol per ring ) Can we prove , why there is a small ...
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364 views

Ketal formation of ethyl acetoacetate

Why does the ketone carbonyl group react in preference to the ester carbonyl? Is it something to do with the resonance occurring into the ester carbonyl from the oxygen? but how does this make the ...
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0answers
252 views

Electrophilic substitution in phenyl alkyl ether

Phenylalkyl ethers undergo usual halogenation in the benzene ring, e.g., anisole undergoes bromination with bromine in ethanoic acid even in the absence of iron (III) bromide catalyst. Why do we use ...
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0answers
343 views

How to calculate minimum temperature of a reaction?

For burning ethanol (its reaction with oxygen), we need a minimum activation energy (a minimum temperature) to start the reaction. Is it possible to calculate what are the minimum temperatures ...
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0answers
268 views

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable?

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable? Trifluoromethyl diazirines stability is well documented, however I am yet to find an explanation of why... Can it be homoaromatic or even aromatic? 2 pie ...
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268 views

Primary amine versus phosphoramidate reactivity with succinate esters

I have posted two reactions below. The top reaction is well known and occurs readily and near quantitatively (e.g. in protein modification), while the bottom reaction to my knowledge does not exist in ...
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1answer
374 views

Reactivity of different alcohols with NaNH2 and CH3I

Identify the final product (B) in the following reaction: I'm not sure how $\ce{NaNH2}$ and $\ce{CH3I}$ will react with the different types of alcohol present here. According to my solution,ether was ...
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16k views

Rate of EAS in chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene

In both chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene, both the halogens show a −I effect where fluorine has more electron withdrawing effect than chlorine. Now, if we consider the mesomeric/resonance effect, ...
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Graphical representation of reductive powers of NaBH4 and LiAlH4?

I don't know whether this is a valid question, I will delete it if it is inappropriate. I am looking for a graphical representation of the reductive powers of $\ce{NaBH4}$ and $\ce{LiAlH4}$. Such as ...
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3k views

How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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3answers
561 views

Arrange in order increasing reactivity towards nucleophilic substitution

Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing reactivity towards SN2 reaction According to me, the order should be P>Q>S>R as more hindrance should result in lesser reactivity but ...
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1answer
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Electrophilic addition of HX to 2,3-dimethylbut-2-ene

Generally, for the addition of dry HX to an alkene, it follows Markovnikov's rule. The hydrogen atom adds to the carbon with the most hydrogen atoms. However, in the case of an alkene which does not ...
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1answer
140 views

Can formaldehyde be stored at a higher temperature than room temperature?

I have studied that formaldehyde stored at temperature lower than room temperature convert into 1,3,5-oxane. So, it's not stored at colder temperatures. But my question is - Can a similar degrading ...
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1k views

Reactivity of Alkanes

Does the tetrahedral structure of the alkanes contribute to their lower reactivity? I thought that because a tetrahedral structure suggests ${sp^3}$ hybridization, it should contribute to its lower ...
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Is there a reaction between ethanol and aluminum?

Is there a potential reaction that would occur between ethanol and aluminum? If so, would it potentially create anything toxic?
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Why does silicon not react with dioxygen?

Why does silicon not react with dioxygen? I'm doing an organic lab experiment. I'm heating up silicon, carbon, and sulfur individually then placing them in pure $\ce{O2}$. I don't really know about ...

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