Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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How to compare the oxidizing power of perhalate ions

In my book the oxidizing power in descending order of the following is given as: $\ce{BrO4-} > \ce{IO4-} > \ce{ClO4-}$ My doubt is regarding their order of oxidizing tendency. I thought that ...
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Why doesn't 1-cyclopropylethyne give a positive reaction in the bromine-water unsaturation test?

1-cyclopropylethyne has a triple bond: Hence it seems like it should yield a positive unsaturation test with bromine water. But, my book states that the opposite is true. I guess this may be due to ...
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Nucleic Acids Bonds

In a paper I am reading regarding instability and decay of DNA, the author says: "The chemical price paid for the greatly increased resistance of the nucleic acid phosphodiester bond (gained by ...
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Which is easier, the nitration of toluene or the nitration of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)?

Does the toluene can undergo nitration easier than mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), due to the high repulsion that will occur between $\ce{NO2}$ and the two adjacent methyl groups (in mesitylene ...
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Why is oxygen an oxidizing agent?

Why are diatomic oxygen molecules STILL reactive especially with metallic elements like sodium and copper even at room temperature? You would think that since the two oxygen atoms already have the ...
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Acid chlorides and reduction by hydrogenation

An acid chloride being reduced through catalytic hydrogenation is an "unobserved" event in the context of our class, according to my professor. Nonetheless, we are expected to predict that the ...
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How is fluorine gas contained and transported, why aren't the metal cylinder and tube in this video attacked?

I included the GIF below as part of an answer to Can paper burn without oxygen or air?. It was made from the video Fluorine - Periodic Table of Videos. I noticed that the cylinder containing the ...
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Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas?

Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas, so it could oxidize fluoride to fluorine? Also, in case of oxygen, fluorine gas can oxidize oxygen gas to the exotic dioxygenyl ion. Can ...
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How to turn acetaldehyde into acetic acid using one of the five chemicals on the list?

From the Russian State Chemistry Test: It's easy to see $X$ is $\ce{H2O}$: water turns acetylene into acetaldehyde. But what can turn acetaldehyde into acetic acid? I checked: $\ce{NaOH}$ ...
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Does pressure affect non-gaseous reactions?

Pressure holds a great significance when it comes to reactions involving gaseous species. Changing pressure can affect the kinetics and even mechanisms of such reactions. However, does pressure hold ...
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How do I decide whether ring will expand in this reaction or not?

Attempt: After forming the carbocation adjacent to the cyclopropyl ring I had two options, $\ce{Cl-}$ then and there without any changes Expand ring, form a new carbocation and add $\ce{Cl-}$ ...
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What changes does zinc chloride undergo when ‘fusing’ on an atomic level? How does this influence reactivity?

I have been using a reaction with an organozincate starting material. This zincate is freshly prepared from zinc chloride and a Grignard reagent. The experimental procedure ‘handed down’ from more ...
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Why is chlorine and not fluorine labelled as the most reactive halogen for halogenation?

The reactivity of halogenation in sunlight is as follows: $$\ce{F2}>\ce{Cl2}>\ce{Br2}>\ce{I2}$$ So why does we often label chlorine as most reactive halogen towards halogenation reaction?
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Does anisole react with concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid

Can we add concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ and concentrated $\ce{HNO3}$ to anisole? I heard that we can't add acids into phenol and aniline which make them blast.
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Determination of products in reactions involving carbocation rearrangement?

How do you determine the migratory "aptitude" of various groups during carbocation rearrangements? Is there a experimentally determined order? For example, what will be the product in case of the ...
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Formation of halohydrin vs alkyl dihalide

For the electrophilic addition of $\ce{X2}$ to alkene in $\ce{CCl4}$ solvent, a dihaloalkane is formed. This is a halogen addition reaction, with the intermediate being a halonium ion. However, if ...
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What is the Chemical Compound that has a NFPA 704 (Fire Diamond) of 2-2-1-ox?

I recently saw this fire diamond configuration of: 2 - Flammability; 2 - Health; 1 - Reactivity; OX - Extra Information I have been attempting to find a database of terms, but after turning up with ...
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Deprotection of carboxybenzyl (Cbz) in the presence of Methyl ester?

Deprotection of carboxybenzyl and methyl ester can easily be achieved by using ammonium formate followed by addition of 10% Pd/C and LiOH/MeOH respectively. But how we can achieve deprotection of ...
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How to determine the reactivity of a set of compounds that may undergo nucleophilic substitution?

Which of the following compounds is most reactive under $\mathrm{S_N1}$ conditions? Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing rate of $\mathrm{S_N1}$ hydrolysis: ...
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Why does only one reaction occur when so many are possible?

Why does only one reaction take place, although so many would be possible? I'm more of a physics and math guy, so simply "accepting" it without a proper explanation is kind of hard for me. For example:...
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Reactivity of Aluminium Oxide

I know that Aluminium Oxide is an amphoteric substance meaning that it reacts with both acids and bases. I recently learned that Aluminium has very good corrosion resistance due to the "Aluminium ...
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Why are “diene” structures in the C-ring of anthocyanins singled out for their singlet-oxygen quenching ability?

Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble vacuolar pigments. They are sensitive to pH, and can undergo a series of structural changes according to a pH-dependent equilibrium as illustrated in Figure 1....
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Why is the silver nitrate chemical test more favorable than that of sodium iodide?

Two tests to determine the presence of alkyl chlorides are the silver nitrate in 1% ethanol and sodium iodide in 15% acetone tests. These two tests both produce a precipitate when added to chloride ...
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Constructing a reactivity series, magnesium more reactive than sodium?

I reacted about $0.25 \,\mathrm{g}$ of magnesium, sodium and lithium in $20 \,\mathrm{ml}$ of $2 \,\mathrm{M} \,\ce{HCl}$ at room temperature. This was all done in a $100 \,\mathrm{mL}$ beaker. I ...
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Could any constituent of normal human urine produce a false positive in a Kastle-Meyer test for presence of blood?

From my understanding, one forensic test for the presence of traces of blood at a crime scene is (or was) the Kastle-Meyer test. Doing some research, I understand that in the test, hemoglobin reacts ...
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Grignard reaction - exchange of groups

Why is this reaction successful: Why doesn't metal-halide exchange occur easily to get Ar-MgCl and R-Br?
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Reactivity order of electrophilic addition

Find the order of the ease of electrophilic addition of the following: $\ce{H3C-O-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{ F-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{Cl-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{NO2-CH=CH2}$ According to me, it should be 1 > 4 > ...
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How can nucleophilicity be estimated accurately?

Given the following: $\ce{CN-,OH-,SH-,I-}$. Determine the relative order of nucleophilicity in a protic solvent. I know that, more the nucleophile is solvated by hydrogen bonding in a protic solvent,...
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Why does nose grease knock down the head on beer and soda?

Freshman year, my first semester, I was taught many things. One important trick I learned was when I was passed a beer in a 12 oz. plastic cup, I could eliminate the fresh foamy head by wiping my ...
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Reactivity of primary and tertiary alkyl halides

From USNCO 2004, Q58: The reaction between which pair of reactants occurs the fastest for $[\ce{OH-}] = \pu{0.010 M}$? (A) $\ce{CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl + OH-}$ (B) $\ce{(CH3)3CCl + OH-}$ (C) $...
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Stability of carbanion

I am confused about how one can determine the stability of carbanions using pKa-values. I know that the stability of carbanions can be determined by the inductive effect, hybridization of the charged-...
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Why are free radicals so reactive?

Why are free radicals are so reactive? They can break almost any bond, including $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, which are fairly stable. Don’t they have an activation energy or something? Do they not also ...
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Why are silyl chlorides more readily hydrolysed than alkyl chlorides?

I know that the $\ce{Si-Cl}$ bond has a slightly higher energy, but silyl chlorides are much more readily hydrolyzed compared to alkyl chlorides. I do not fully understand why that is. My thoughts so ...
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Relation between acidity and reactivity?

Up till high school, I've been taught that reactivity and acidity of a substance in a relation that if a substance is acidic and if it's acidity is higher (comparatively to some other substance) than ...
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Definition of Nucleophilicity

I have a rather quick question on the definition of Nucleophilicity. To get straight to the point, am I right in saying that the most appropriate definition of Nucleophilicity, regardless of whether ...
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Is there any reaction between amines and AgNO3?

I found a question in a book about the reaction between $\ce{AgNO3}$ and aromatic/aliphatic amines, but I couldn't find any information about it.
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Which factor should I take into priority to determine reactivity of of Halides?

Such as in the attached question I was taking into account the stability of the carbocations (by the number of resonating structures) formed after removal of Chlorine from and concluded to be the ...
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1answer
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Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions?

Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions? For example, ethene or ethyne will undergo an addition reaction with chlorine, whereas ethane will not. Furthermore, why does benzene ...
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At what acid concentration does potassium metabisulfite react?

I'm in the process of developing a well preserved food-stuff containing potassium metabisulfite and a number of acids (acetic, ascorbic, malic, tartaric, citric, lactic). Wine-making literature ...
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What noble metal is most oxidation resistant? [closed]

To clarify,by noble metals in this case I mean all platinum metals + gold,no copper,silver or rhenium.These noble metals are described as having low reactivity,but which one is least reactive or most "...
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silicon nitride and sCO2

I want to use silicon nitride ball bearings with a reciprocating piston that will be powered by $\ce{CO2}$ liquid heated to $\mathrm{288^oC}$ becoming super critical. That temperature is the maximum ...
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Hydroxide formation: reaction of group 13 elements with water

I was studying about 13th group elements and I found that in this group Al and Tl react water to form a hydroxide and oxide respectively, but the rest of the elements don't react to form hydroxides. ...
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Do Grignard reagents react with amides?

Clearly the amide will be unreactive given the poor quality of the leaving group and poor electrophilcity due to delocalization. However, does it react with organolithiums for example?
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Rationalising the reactivity of phosphoryl chloride

$\ce {POCl3}$ is a reagent well-known for enacting various functions in organic synthesis. For example, together with pyridine, it is able to dehydrate alcohols to give alkenes. Also, reacting it with ...
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1answer
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Reactivities: interhalogen compounds versus halogens

My textbook says that interhalogen compounds are more reactive than halogens, because the $\ce{X-X}$ bond in halogens (for example, dichlorine or $\ce{Cl2}$) is stronger than the $\ce{X-X'}$ bond in ...
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What is more reactive towards a cyanohydrin formation an aldehyde or an Ketone?

Which is more reactive—aldehydes or ketones—towards the nucleophilic addition by cyanide to form cyanohydrins?
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How does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals acting on it?

There are a few experiments comparing the reactivity of alkali metals with cold water. Is there any purpose to use cold water? Does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals?
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Organic Chemistry - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

What order of reactivity do you predict will be observed when each alkyl halide is mixed with sodium iodide in acetone? 1-Chlorobutane 1-Bromobutane 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane Bromobenzene ...
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What is a barrier-less reaction in Quantum Chemistry?

After finding a reaction "Transitional State" by GAMESS, and finding Hessian Eigenvalues, my project instructor said: seems your imaginary frequency (negative eigenvalue) is not that big (it is ...
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NaOH vs Polypropylene

This source lists polypropylene as suitable for use with NaOH. However, this paper seems to demonstrate that NaOH slowly degrades polypropylene (even at fairly moderate temperatures). Does anyone ...