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Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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13k views

Is methoxide a better nucleophile than hydroxide?

What is more nucleophilic, $\ce{OH-}$ or $\ce{CH3O-}$? When I look it from the viewpoint of steric hindrance, the answer seems to be $\ce{OH-}$, but when I see it from the viewpoint of extra electron ...
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1answer
613 views

HOMO/LUMO and charge distribution

I am a little bit confused between charge distribution and HOMO/LUMO site in determining chemical reactivity. In charge distribution, the sites which are deficient and abundant in electrons are ...
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0answers
1k views

How to compare the oxidizing power of perhalate ions

In my book the oxidizing power in descending order of the following is given as: $\ce{BrO4-} > \ce{IO4-} > \ce{ClO4-}$ My doubt is regarding their order of oxidizing tendency. I thought that ...
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0answers
83 views

Why doesn't 1-cyclopropylethyne give a positive reaction in the bromine-water unsaturation test?

1-cyclopropylethyne has a triple bond: Hence it seems like it should yield a positive unsaturation test with bromine water. But, my book states that the opposite is true. I guess this may be due to ...
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3answers
3k views

Why is oxygen an oxidizing agent?

Why are diatomic oxygen molecules STILL reactive especially with metallic elements like sodium and copper even at room temperature? You would think that since the two oxygen atoms already have the ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Acid chlorides and reduction by hydrogenation

An acid chloride being reduced through catalytic hydrogenation is an "unobserved" event in the context of our class, according to my professor. Nonetheless, we are expected to predict that the ...
3
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1answer
742 views

How is fluorine gas contained and transported, why aren't the metal cylinder and tube in this video attacked?

I included the GIF below as part of an answer to Can paper burn without oxygen or air?. It was made from the video Fluorine - Periodic Table of Videos. I noticed that the cylinder containing the ...
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1answer
1k views

Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas?

Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas, so it could oxidize fluoride to fluorine? Also, in case of oxygen, fluorine gas can oxidize oxygen gas to the exotic dioxygenyl ion. Can ...
3
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1answer
2k views

How to turn acetaldehyde into acetic acid using one of the five chemicals on the list?

From the Russian State Chemistry Test: It's easy to see $X$ is $\ce{H2O}$: water turns acetylene into acetaldehyde. But what can turn acetaldehyde into acetic acid? I checked: $\ce{NaOH}$ ...
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2answers
1k views

Does pressure affect non-gaseous reactions?

Pressure holds a great significance when it comes to reactions involving gaseous species. Changing pressure can affect the kinetics and even mechanisms of such reactions. However, does pressure hold ...
3
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1answer
166 views

How do I decide whether ring will expand in this reaction or not?

Attempt: After forming the carbocation adjacent to the cyclopropyl ring I had two options, $\ce{Cl-}$ then and there without any changes Expand ring, form a new carbocation and add $\ce{Cl-}$ ...
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1answer
420 views

What changes does zinc chloride undergo when ‘fusing’ on an atomic level? How does this influence reactivity?

I have been using a reaction with an organozincate starting material. This zincate is freshly prepared from zinc chloride and a Grignard reagent. The experimental procedure ‘handed down’ from more ...
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2answers
4k views

Why is chlorine and not fluorine labelled as the most reactive halogen for halogenation?

The reactivity of halogenation in sunlight is as follows: $$\ce{F2}>\ce{Cl2}>\ce{Br2}>\ce{I2}$$ So why does we often label chlorine as most reactive halogen towards halogenation reaction?
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1answer
4k views

Does anisole react with concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid

Can we add concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ and concentrated $\ce{HNO3}$ to anisole? I heard that we can't add acids into phenol and aniline which make them blast.
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2answers
303 views

Determination of products in reactions involving carbocation rearrangement?

How do you determine the migratory "aptitude" of various groups during carbocation rearrangements? Is there a experimentally determined order? For example, what will be the product in case of the ...
3
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1answer
750 views

Formation of halohydrin vs alkyl dihalide

For the electrophilic addition of $\ce{X2}$ to alkene in $\ce{CCl4}$ solvent, a dihaloalkane is formed. This is a halogen addition reaction, with the intermediate being a halonium ion. However, if ...
3
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1answer
397 views

What is the Chemical Compound that has a NFPA 704 (Fire Diamond) of 2-2-1-ox?

I recently saw this fire diamond configuration of: 2 - Flammability; 2 - Health; 1 - Reactivity; OX - Extra Information I have been attempting to find a database of terms, but after turning up with ...
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1answer
1k views

Deprotection of carboxybenzyl (Cbz) in the presence of Methyl ester?

Deprotection of carboxybenzyl and methyl ester can easily be achieved by using ammonium formate followed by addition of 10% Pd/C and LiOH/MeOH respectively. But how we can achieve deprotection of ...
3
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1answer
2k views

How to determine the reactivity of a set of compounds that may undergo nucleophilic substitution?

Which of the following compounds is most reactive under $\mathrm{S_N1}$ conditions? Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing rate of $\mathrm{S_N1}$ hydrolysis: ...
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1answer
136 views

Why does only one reaction occur when so many are possible?

Why does only one reaction take place, although so many would be possible? I'm more of a physics and math guy, so simply "accepting" it without a proper explanation is kind of hard for me. For example:...
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1answer
1k views

Reactivity of Aluminium Oxide

I know that Aluminium Oxide is an amphoteric substance meaning that it reacts with both acids and bases. I recently learned that Aluminium has very good corrosion resistance due to the "Aluminium ...
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0answers
88 views

Why are “diene” structures in the C-ring of anthocyanins singled out for their singlet-oxygen quenching ability?

Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble vacuolar pigments. They are sensitive to pH, and can undergo a series of structural changes according to a pH-dependent equilibrium as illustrated in Figure 1....
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603 views

Why is the silver nitrate chemical test more favorable than that of sodium iodide?

Two tests to determine the presence of alkyl chlorides are the silver nitrate in 1% ethanol and sodium iodide in 15% acetone tests. These two tests both produce a precipitate when added to chloride ...
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0answers
127 views

Constructing a reactivity series, magnesium more reactive than sodium?

I reacted about $0.25 \,\mathrm{g}$ of magnesium, sodium and lithium in $20 \,\mathrm{ml}$ of $2 \,\mathrm{M} \,\ce{HCl}$ at room temperature. This was all done in a $100 \,\mathrm{mL}$ beaker. I ...
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0answers
139 views

Could any constituent of normal human urine produce a false positive in a Kastle-Meyer test for presence of blood?

From my understanding, one forensic test for the presence of traces of blood at a crime scene is (or was) the Kastle-Meyer test. Doing some research, I understand that in the test, hemoglobin reacts ...
3
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0answers
83 views

Grignard reaction - exchange of groups

Why is this reaction successful: Why doesn't metal-halide exchange occur easily to get Ar-MgCl and R-Br?
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1answer
629 views

Reaction of aqueous sodium carbonate with aluminum foil

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is known to react with aluminum foil in an exothermic, hydrogen-gas releasing reaction like $$\ce{2NaOH(aq) + 2Al(s) + 2H2O(\ell) → 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)}$$ However, on ...
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3answers
6k views

Reactivity order of electrophilic addition

Find the order of the ease of electrophilic addition of the following: $\ce{H3C-O-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{ F-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{Cl-CH=CH2}$ $\ce{NO2-CH=CH2}$ According to me, it should be 1 > 4 > ...
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1answer
142 views

How can nucleophilicity be estimated accurately?

Given the following: $\ce{CN-,OH-,SH-,I-}$. Determine the relative order of nucleophilicity in a protic solvent. I know that, more the nucleophile is solvated by hydrogen bonding in a protic solvent,...
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1answer
48 views

Why does nose grease knock down the head on beer and soda?

Freshman year, my first semester, I was taught many things. One important trick I learned was when I was passed a beer in a 12 oz. plastic cup, I could eliminate the fresh foamy head by wiping my ...
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2answers
436 views

Reactivity of primary and tertiary alkyl halides

From USNCO 2004, Q58: The reaction between which pair of reactants occurs the fastest for $[\ce{OH-}] = \pu{0.010 M}$? (A) $\ce{CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl + OH-}$ (B) $\ce{(CH3)3CCl + OH-}$ (C) $...
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2answers
979 views

Stability of carbanion

I am confused about how one can determine the stability of carbanions using pKa-values. I know that the stability of carbanions can be determined by the inductive effect, hybridization of the charged-...
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1answer
2k views

Why are free radicals so reactive?

Why are free radicals are so reactive? They can break almost any bond, including $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, which are fairly stable. Don’t they have an activation energy or something? Do they not also ...
2
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1answer
637 views

Why are silyl chlorides more readily hydrolysed than alkyl chlorides?

I know that the $\ce{Si-Cl}$ bond has a slightly higher energy, but silyl chlorides are much more readily hydrolyzed compared to alkyl chlorides. I do not fully understand why that is. My thoughts so ...
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2answers
7k views

Do Grignard reagents react with amides?

Clearly the amide will be unreactive given the poor quality of the leaving group and poor electrophilcity due to delocalization. However, does it react with organolithiums for example?
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1answer
3k views

Relation between acidity and reactivity?

Up till high school, I've been taught that reactivity and acidity of a substance in a relation that if a substance is acidic and if it's acidity is higher (comparatively to some other substance) than ...
2
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2answers
642 views

Definition of Nucleophilicity

I have a rather quick question on the definition of Nucleophilicity. To get straight to the point, am I right in saying that the most appropriate definition of Nucleophilicity, regardless of whether ...
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1answer
1k views

Is there any reaction between amines and AgNO3?

I found a question in a book about the reaction between $\ce{AgNO3}$ and aromatic/aliphatic amines, but I couldn't find any information about it.
2
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1answer
144 views

Which factor should I take into priority to determine reactivity of of Halides?

Such as in the attached question I was taking into account the stability of the carbocations (by the number of resonating structures) formed after removal of Chlorine from and concluded to be the ...
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1answer
1k views

Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions?

Why do only unsaturated hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions? For example, ethene or ethyne will undergo an addition reaction with chlorine, whereas ethane will not. Furthermore, why does benzene ...
2
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1answer
48 views

Why do bubbles form when a reactive metal is placed in a less reactive metal's salt solution?

What is the gas that if formed when a reactive metal is placed in a salt solution of a less reactive metal? Theoretically, it should just be a simple displacement. I know that this question has been ...
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1answer
149 views

At what acid concentration does potassium metabisulfite react?

I'm in the process of developing a well preserved food-stuff containing potassium metabisulfite and a number of acids (acetic, ascorbic, malic, tartaric, citric, lactic). Wine-making literature ...
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1answer
1k views

What noble metal is most oxidation resistant? [closed]

To clarify,by noble metals in this case I mean all platinum metals + gold,no copper,silver or rhenium.These noble metals are described as having low reactivity,but which one is least reactive or most "...
2
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1answer
47 views

silicon nitride and sCO2

I want to use silicon nitride ball bearings with a reciprocating piston that will be powered by $\ce{CO2}$ liquid heated to $\mathrm{288^oC}$ becoming super critical. That temperature is the maximum ...
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1answer
1k views

Hydroxide formation: reaction of group 13 elements with water

I was studying about 13th group elements and I found that in this group Al and Tl react water to form a hydroxide and oxide respectively, but the rest of the elements don't react to form hydroxides. ...
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3answers
6k views

How does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals acting on it?

There are a few experiments comparing the reactivity of alkali metals with cold water. Is there any purpose to use cold water? Does the temperature of water affect the reactivity of alkali metals?
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1answer
50 views

Rationalising the reactivity of phosphoryl chloride

$\ce {POCl3}$ is a reagent well-known for enacting various functions in organic synthesis. For example, together with pyridine, it is able to dehydrate alcohols to give alkenes. Also, reacting it with ...
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1answer
2k views

Reactivities: interhalogen compounds versus halogens

My textbook says that interhalogen compounds are more reactive than halogens, because the $\ce{X-X}$ bond in halogens (for example, dichlorine or $\ce{Cl2}$) is stronger than the $\ce{X-X'}$ bond in ...
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1answer
663 views

What is more reactive towards a cyanohydrin formation an aldehyde or an Ketone?

Which is more reactive—aldehydes or ketones—towards the nucleophilic addition by cyanide to form cyanohydrins?
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1answer
5k views

Organic Chemistry - Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

What order of reactivity do you predict will be observed when each alkyl halide is mixed with sodium iodide in acetone? 1-Chlorobutane 1-Bromobutane 2-Chloro-2-methylpropane Bromobenzene ...