Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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Why do the nitrosonium and nitronium ions act as electrophiles in organic reactions?

Why does nitrosonium and nitronium ion act as electrophiles when each atom in them have a complete octet of electrons? Even if we consider that they are electrophile just because of the fact that ...
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Quantum mechanical (or QFT) description of mesomeric effect

This is rather a question about finding the right literature, since the answer would probably exceed a typical forum post. In organic reactions, mesomeric and inductive effects are of tremendous ...
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Can bromine water be used to compare the reactivity of liquid 1-heptene and liquid heptane?

Describe how you would carry out a lab test to compare the reactivity of liquid 1-heptene and liquid heptane. State clearly what the possible results of the test are and what they would indicate. ...
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What can be added to hydrochloric acid to make a gel or paste?

I have a bottle of brick cleaner containing 18-20% hydrochloric acid. What can I add to it to make a gel or paste without unwanted reactions? The application is still just cleaning bricks as the ...
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silicon nitride and sCO2

I want to use silicon nitride ball bearings with a reciprocating piston that will be powered by $\ce{CO2}$ liquid heated to $\mathrm{288^oC}$ becoming super critical. That temperature is the maximum ...
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Reactivity of magnetized materials

Does the magnetisation process affects the reactivity of a magnetic material? Does the electronegativity change if a metal is magnetised?
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Why is fluorine more reactive than chlorine?

Why is fluorine more reactive than chlorine despite chlorine having a higher electron affinity?
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Are there any Endothermic Pyrophoric Substances?

I've recently been reading about pyrophoric materials, specifically as they relate to rocketry, and this made me curious if there are any substances which are the complete opposite of pyrophoric. ...
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1answer
670 views

Carbylamine Reaction

In my lab manual, it is given that alcoholic KOH should be the base used in carbylamine test. However as it was not available, I used 10℅ NaOH. The test results came out positive. (Yes, it was ...
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How is the nucleophilicity of alkoxy groups related to acidity and +/- inductive effects due to substituents?

I found a nucleophilicity order as $\ce{HO-} > \ce{CH3-O-} > \ce{(CH3)2CH-O-} > \ce{(CH3)3C-O-}$ The reason was given that bulky groups reduce nucleophilicity. But why? The order of the $+...
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Comparing nucleophilicity

We have to compare the nucleophilicity of $\ce{OH-,NH2-,CH3CH2-}$ and $\ce{CH#C^{-}}$. I managed to find out that $\ce{CH3CH2-}>\ce{NH2-}>\ce{OH-}$ and that $\ce{CH3CH2-}>\ce{CH#C-}$. But I ...
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Water with Sodium VS Alcohols with Sodium

Why is the reaction between water and sodium more vigorous than that between ethanol and sodium? Also, why does the reaction between sodium and an alcohol becomes less vigorous the longer the ...
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Naphthalene v/s Anthracene reactivity

Both have similar resonance energy per ring, even Naphthalene has a little higher Resonance energy (127.5 KJ per mol per ring v/s 127 KJ per mol per ring ) Can we prove , why there is a small ...
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Is ruthenium really invulnerable to aqua regia?

Recently, I answered a question "What metals aren't dissolved in/attacked by aqua regia?" in which I finally concluded "ruthenium is resistant to aqua regia in any form at any concentration of ...
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Why is chlorine and not fluorine labelled as the most reactive halogen for halogenation?

The reactivity of halogenation in sunlight is as follows: $$\ce{F2}>\ce{Cl2}>\ce{Br2}>\ce{I2}$$ So why does we often label chlorine as most reactive halogen towards halogenation reaction?
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Can alkyl-substituted phenols be reduced to alkyl-substituted benzenes by zinc dust?

I know that phenol can be reduced to benzene by distilling it with zinc dust. But I want to know if that concept can be expanded. E.g., take chavicol or 4-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenol; could you still ...
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Comparing SN2 reaction rate for phenacyl chloride and methyl chloride

KI in acetone undergoes $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction with (1) and (2). Compare the rates of the reactions. Like many kinds of these questions there are many factors involved. One is the steric effect, ...
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Constructing a reactivity series, magnesium more reactive than sodium?

I reacted about $0.25 \,\mathrm{g}$ of magnesium, sodium and lithium in $20 \,\mathrm{ml}$ of $2 \,\mathrm{M} \,\ce{HCl}$ at room temperature. This was all done in a $100 \,\mathrm{mL}$ beaker. I ...
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1answer
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Why is Nitric Acid more reactive and caustic than Sulfuric or Hydrochloric?

Nitric acid reacts much more vigorously with living tissue and is a obviously more immediately hazardous on contact than sulfuric or hydrochloric. What is the reason for this? Is it due to the ...
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Stability of alkenes tri>di>mono, but how to explain tetra

When we tell students about the formation of alkenes (by elimination for example), we often tell them that reactions will favour the thermodynamically favourable most substituted alkene. Zaistev's ...
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1answer
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Hydroxide formation: reaction of group 13 elements with water

I was studying about 13th group elements and I found that in this group Al and Tl react water to form a hydroxide and oxide respectively, but the rest of the elements don't react to form hydroxides. ...
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1answer
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Why are free radicals so reactive?

Why are free radicals are so reactive? They can break almost any bond, including $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, which are fairly stable. Don’t they have an activation energy or something? Do they not also ...
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Reactivity of Alkanes

Does the tetrahedral structure of the alkanes contribute to their lower reactivity? I thought that because a tetrahedral structure suggests ${sp^3}$ hybridization, it should contribute to its lower ...
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Reactivity of nitrogen oxygen compounds [closed]

I am supposed to find the most reactive compound among the following: $\ce{NO, NO2, N2O, NO3-}$ Is $\ce{NO3-}$ the most reactive because it is an ion or doesn't it being an ion necessarily mean more ...
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Ketal formation of ethyl acetoacetate

Why does the ketone carbonyl group react in preference to the ester carbonyl? Is it something to do with the resonance occurring into the ester carbonyl from the oxygen? but how does this make the ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between activity and reactivity when discussing elements?

I screwed up on a true/false question that stated that lithium is the most active alkali metal. I answered false, because I remembered that the lower you go in this group, the more explosive the ...
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Should I expect any surprise when trying to shoot green fireballs like this?

I wanted to use flash cotton (nitrocellulose) to ignite fireballs with an electric trigger. In order to make green fireballs, my attempt will be to put some drops of boric acid solution on each (...
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1answer
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Deprotection of carboxybenzyl (Cbz) in the presence of Methyl ester?

Deprotection of carboxybenzyl and methyl ester can easily be achieved by using ammonium formate followed by addition of 10% Pd/C and LiOH/MeOH respectively. But how we can achieve deprotection of ...
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Why don't calcium chloride and sodium nitrate react?

$$\ce{CaCl2 + 2NaNO3 -> 2NaCl + Ca(NO3)2}$$ Why doesn't the above reaction occur? Does it have to do with the metal activity series or solubility rules?
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Why would the hydrogen sulfide ion be a better nucleophile than a bromide ion?

Why would the hydrogen sulfide ion be a better nucleophile than a bromide ion? My professor says that hydrogen sulfide ion is a better nucleophile. I thought I could determine the better ...
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2answers
804 views

Definition of Nucleophilicity

I have a rather quick question on the definition of Nucleophilicity. To get straight to the point, am I right in saying that the most appropriate definition of Nucleophilicity, regardless of whether ...
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1answer
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How to determine the reactivity of a set of compounds that may undergo nucleophilic substitution?

Which of the following compounds is most reactive under $\mathrm{S_N1}$ conditions? Arrange the following compounds in order of decreasing rate of $\mathrm{S_N1}$ hydrolysis: ...
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1answer
284 views

Which electronic effects are responsible for the reduction of nucleophilicity of a hydroxy group orthogonal to an ester?

I am facing a similar synthetic problem as Boekman Jr. et al noted in their synthesis of Tetronolide.[1] I will quote their’s rather than disclosing my actual synthetic problem, but note that the key ...
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1answer
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Why is benzenediazonium fluoroborate water insoluble and stable at room temperature?

Benzenediazonium fluoroborate is water insoluble and stable at room temperature. Why is this salt, water insoluble? Also I am told that benzenediazonium salts are stable only at low temperature(<5°...
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0answers
276 views

Electrophilic substitution in phenyl alkyl ether

Phenylalkyl ethers undergo usual halogenation in the benzene ring, e.g., anisole undergoes bromination with bromine in ethanoic acid even in the absence of iron (III) bromide catalyst. Why do we use ...
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1answer
832 views

Carbometalation of alkenes

Alkynes are capable of undergoing carbometalation, e.g. with organocopper reagents: Why don't the corresponding alkenes undergo analogous carbometalation reactions? Is β-elimination the issue?
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Dehalogenation of vicinal dihalides

Why, among different metals, only zinc is favourable for the dehalogenation of vicinal dihalides?
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1answer
2k views

What factors affect the chemical stability of a compound? [closed]

My question is essentially about the factors that make certain atoms in certain compounds leave the compound they are currently in in order to bond with another atom/compound. For example, I've been ...
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1answer
84 views

Is there anything that can react with molecular gaseous nitrogen? [closed]

I am looking for something to react with nitrogen in the air. Is there any substance that can react fast with molecular nitrogen at room temperature?
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Reactivity change of periodic table [closed]

How does reactivity change as you move from one side of the periodic table to the other or if you move from the top to the bottom?
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Why is allyl chloride more reactive towards substitution than alkyl chloride?

I can understand that the reactivity of alkyl halide is more than vinyl and aryl halides because the halogen atom in alkyl halide is connected to the sp3 carbon. Whereas in vinyl or aryl the halogen ...
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Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas?

Are there stronger oxidizing agents than fluorine gas, so it could oxidize fluoride to fluorine? Also, in case of oxygen, fluorine gas can oxidize oxygen gas to the exotic dioxygenyl ion. Can ...
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1answer
455 views

Can someone explain the unintuitive ordering in the metallic activity series?

I would understand it if the metallic activity series Li, Cs, Rb, ... Pt, Au corresponded to electronegativity or ionization energy. However, the way it is written, ...
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Why is there no Activity Series for general non-metals?

In school, for determining whether single displacement reactions occur, we use an activity series. There is one for metals, and one for halogens. Why is there none for non-metals in general? Are ...
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Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or delta?

My book claims that beta-ketoacids and beta-dicarboxylic acids are better at decarboxylating than their gamma and delta counterparts. Why is that? I would assume that since gamma and delta keto-acids ...
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Which is the most reactive element in the periodic table? [duplicate]

Which is the most reactive element in the periodic table? Is it francium, caesium, lithium or fluorine?
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Why is caesium considered the most reactive element and not fluorine? [closed]

Some people say caesium is most reactive element. I thought it to be fluorine as it is the element that reacts with almost all elements (except couple of inert gases). But caesium won't react many of ...
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Rate determining step

The formation of the cation is the rate-determining step. we can look at this in two ways. Either that a cation is an unstable species and so it will be formed slowly from a stable neutral organic ...
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Phenol or ethanol as a nucleophile for ether formation?

If we react phenol with $\ce{C2H5I}$ in $\ce{C2H5O- Na+}$ (excess), $\ce{C2H5OH}$ (anhydrous) solutions . In this reaction why is diethyl ether not formed and the actual product is phenyl ethyl ...
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1answer
506 views

Decomposing chemical compounds - Ease of Decomposition [closed]

Someone asked me a question, that which of the following can be decomposed chemically: Ammonia Iron Neon Hydrogen Fluorine My Analysis: At first attempt I answered Ammonia but changed it to 'I can'...

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