Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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114 views

Definition of “solution” [closed]

In my textbook “solutions” are defined as follows: Homogenous mixtures of two or more substances are known as solutions. Should the two substances always be non-reacting? The definition has no ...
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1answer
60 views

Order of activating ability in electrophilic aromatic substitutions

From A Guidebook to mechanism in organic chemistry by P. Sykes [1, p. 155]: The activating effect of $\ce{Y}$ on the nucleus is found to increase, i.e. the overall rate of substitution increases, in ...
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Can ZrO2 be made fluoride resistant?

$\ce{ZrO2}$ has great properties, biocompatibility, chemical resistance, decent scratch resistance, great thermal resistance and refraction, but it could be better. It, like glass, will slowly react ...
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1answer
416 views

Is silicon dioxide decomposition possible?

I was thinking about this, I made Gibbs free energy calculations and I can't figure out if $$\ce{SiO2(s) -> Si(s) + O2(g)}$$ is actually possible, even at a ridiculous high temperature.
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1answer
910 views

Acidic strength of diethyl malonate vs ethyl acetoacetate [duplicate]

Which would be more acidic, diethyl malonate $\left(\ce{CH2(CO2Et)2}\right)$ or ethyl acetoacetate $(\ce{CH3COCH2OOC2H5})$ In the above compounds, I have marked the hydrogen which I think will be the ...
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Methyl group and acidic nature [duplicate]

After reading various answers here on StackExchange (like Why is the methyl group electron-donating via the inductive effect? and Strongest negative inductive effect group between trimethylammonium, ...
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26 views

Is there any elemental molecule which does not react well with anything but oxygen? [closed]

For example, phosphor reacts with oxygen but it also easily reacts with many halogens, metals, etc. Is there any elemental molecule that doesn't react well with almost anything but oxygen?
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1answer
34 views

Do alkylhydroxylamines form N-nitrosamines?

Usual secondary amines can form N-nitrosamines with nitrosating agents, e.g., $\ce{KNO2}$, and are therefore forbidden in metalworking fluids. But can alkylhydroxylamines form N-nitrosamines with ...
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2answers
379 views

Reaction between Copper nitrate and ascorbic acid

I am confused on the products of reaction between copper nitrate and ascorbic acid. When I searched this online, one of the reactions I got was: $$\ce{2Cu(NO3)2 + C6H8O6 <=> 2CuO + 4H2O + CO2}$$ ...
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1answer
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Can iodine replace other halogen as well?

While reading about halogen family I encountered the reaction: $$\ce{NaClO3 + I2 -> NaIO3 + Cl2}$$ I know that that the oxidizing tendency of halogens decreases down the group, so I think that the ...
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258 views

Reactivity of alkyl halides

I am unable to understand how to decide reactivity of alkyl halides based on inductive effect in a nucleophilic substitution reaction. I have 2 explanation for deciding. Consider 2 alkyl halides: (A)...
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1answer
891 views

Reactivity of Ammonium

I was going through some displacement reactions when this struck me: What is the position of the ammonium cation in the metal reactivity series? I can find other positive ions like carbon and ...
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1answer
415 views

Reaction of 1,2-diketones with periodic acid [closed]

$\ce{HIO4}$ can oxidise alcohols. But does $\ce{HIO4}$ undergo any reaction/act as oxidant with 1,2-diketones?
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Metalation of thiophene

So lately I've been studying the concerted metalation-deprotonation of thiophene and I came to the conclusion that the alpha positions of thiophene are the most reactive, which is why one of those ...
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2answers
36 views

How much sodium hydroxide would it take to dissolve one tonne of bauxite? [closed]

Generally speaking what proportion of NaOH would be typically required to dissolve one tonne of crushed bauxite of average purity? Also are varying quantities required for gibbsite, böhmite and ...
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466 views

Why are Friedel Crafts reaction not possible for molecules less activated than benzene?

I know that Friedel Crafts alkylation reaction are not possible for aniline and phenol since they form complexes with Lewis Acids. But our teacher told us that Friedel Crafts reactions aren't possible ...
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3answers
2k views

Which is the most reactive metal: Caesium or Francium? [duplicate]

I searched on Wikipedia for reactivity series but it showed me Caesium as the most reactive metal. I know and have studied that reactivity increases as we go down the first group. Then shouldn’t it be ...
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1answer
738 views

Reactivity of different alcohols with NaNH2 and CH3I

Identify the final product (B) in the following reaction: I'm not sure how $\ce{NaNH2}$ and $\ce{CH3I}$ will react with the different types of alcohol present here. According to my solution,ether was ...
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105 views

Why is the top SN2 reaction faster? (Molecular Orbital Theory)

I'm having trouble understanding why the top SN2 reaction proceeds faster. I know that benzylic and allylic halides react faster in SN2 reactions than non-conjugated halides. I think it's because the ...
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1answer
45 views

Reason behind more Reactivity of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons [closed]

My textbook says that unsaturated hydrocarbons are more reactive than saturated ones. But double and triple bonds are stronger than single bonds. What is the explanation for this?
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Is the speed of sound the fastest rate that a chemical reaction can progress through a substance?

I read that a martensitic transformation can travel at the speed of sound in that material. Is that confirmed as being the fastest speed of a chemical reaction (transformation)?
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Is Gibbs energy minimized for processes at constant temperature are pressure only?

I've had this doubt for quite a while, This link https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Map%3A_Physical_Chemistry_for_the_Biosciences_(Chang)/04%...
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137 views

Is the activation energy always inversely proportional to the reaction rate?

When I obtained the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation for a 10-minute glowstick (rapid, rigorous reaction), it was almost 4 times that of a 12-hour glowstick (slow, mild reaction). ...
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When aluminium is ignited in atmosphere, will it form only aluminium oxide or also aluminium nitride?

We know when lithium is burnt in air, it forms lithium nitride and lithium oxide. I am wondering if this applies to aluminium (other metals) also?
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1answer
648 views

What are the properties of COₓ where x ≥ 3?

$\ce{CO_x}$ are part of the oxocarbon molecule class. Commonly known are $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}.$ However, there are molecules in which $x$ is equal to or larger than $3.$ Those molecules are barely ...
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1answer
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Selectivity of diazo-coupling with p-amino phenol

I came across this question and I've been thinking about it since, without being able to find a convincing major product. This question is related to one I found on this site, Diazo Coupling reaction ...
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What is the order of acidity for hydrogens in primary, secondary and tertiary alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkanes [duplicate]

The bond dissociation energies of C-H bonds in alkanes, alkenes and aromatic compounds decrease in the following order: primary > secondary > tertiary > allylic > benzylic. The weaker the bond, the ...
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3answers
293 views

Why cobalt reacts favorably with nitrogen?

I used also iron, nickel, zinc, copper. However, cobalt gives the easiest and straight forward yield of nitrides (XPS and SAED verified). It is so easy to get cobalt nitride that I don't even have to ...
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1answer
83 views

Why does the rusting process start from the bent/squeezed portion of iron?

I have noticed that the rusting of iron starts from the squeezed or bent parts of iron piece. I want to know what is the peculiar reason for the observation that rusting starts from bent or irregular ...
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53 views

How to increase the conversion for the reaction between 2-acetylpyridine and diamine?

I tried refluxing in toluene using activated molecular sieves to absorb any water produced (didn't use Dean-Stark trap as it's a very small scale reaction). This reaction isn't going by changing the ...
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150 views

Why is the bottom white in a lucas test?

Consider this positive result from the Lucas test (adding $\ce{ZnCl2/HCl}$ to a tertiary alcohol): My question is quite straightforward but I can't find the answer. What is in the top layer (thin and ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do bubbles form when a reactive metal is placed in a less reactive metal's salt solution?

What is the gas that if formed when a reactive metal is placed in a salt solution of a less reactive metal? Theoretically, it should just be a simple displacement. I know that this question has been ...
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81 views

What happened to the Klopman - Salem equation?

I am relatively new and interested in the field of theoretical chemistry. I just stumpled across the Klopman - Salem equation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klopman-Salem_equation). In daily life, ...
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1answer
2k views

Reaction of aqueous sodium carbonate with aluminum foil

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is known to react with aluminum foil in an exothermic, hydrogen-gas releasing reaction like $$\ce{2NaOH(aq) + 2Al(s) + 2H2O(\ell) → 2NaAlO2(aq) + 3H2(g)}$$ However, on ...
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1answer
54 views

Does bicarbonation require water?

In an aqueous solution of $\ce{NaOH}$ exposed to the atmosphere one can probably expect some degree of $$\ce{NaOH(aq) + CO2(g) -> NaHCO3 (aq)}$$ But, what would happen if just a solid block of $\...
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1answer
2k views

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole [duplicate]

I thought that I already know how the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EArs) for Aromatic rings work but then this reaction was shown to me and I was really sure that my professors didn't bothered ...
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0answers
36 views

Reaction between chlorine gas and oxygen at 600 degrees Centigrade

Chlorine gas will not normally react with oxygen gas directly at STP. However, would the two react at standard pressure and 600 degrees Centigrade?
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Will Chlorodifluoromethane (R22 refrigerant) react with calcium metal?

I am attempting to recycle or find a use for chlorodifluoromethane, however I do not want to risk venting it into the atmosphere or exposing myself to hydrofluoric acid. Ideally, I would like to ...
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73 views

NaOH vs Polypropylene

This source lists polypropylene as suitable for use with NaOH. However, this paper seems to demonstrate that NaOH slowly degrades polypropylene (even at fairly moderate temperatures). Does anyone ...
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388 views

Mechanism of Bis-decarboxylation of α,β-dicarboxylic acid

According to an internal test series in FIITJEE, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating, I know that β-keto acids undergo decarboxylation on heating, but I was not sure ...
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255 views

Highly concentrated NaOH solution at high temperature vs borosilicate glassware and cellulose?

I've read here on stack-exchange that NaOH will react with glass through the following reaction: 4 NaOH + SiO2 ⤑ Na4SiO4 + 2 H2O I would like to briefly heat a highly concentrated NaOH solution to ...
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1answer
63 views

What effect does a quaternary ammonium compound have on uric acid (urine)

What effect does an Amine based quaternary ammonium compound have on urea/uric acid? Will an amine based quaternary ammonium product react with uric acid and get rid of the smell?
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Why do the induction effects of fluorobenzene decrease electrophilic addition reactivity, conjugation effects increase selectivity?

Fluorobenzene shows signs of both the electron withdrawing and electron donating groups on benzene. Electrophilic substitution to the ring is less reactive because the fluorine is very electronegative ...
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1answer
5k views

Will silicon dioxide react with hydrochloric acid?

I have the following equation, based on the reaction of $\ce{SiO2}$ with $\ce{HF}:$ $$\ce{SiO2 + HCl -> SiCl4 + 2 H2O}$$ I want to know if this reaction is indeed feasible, what conditions may be ...
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2k views

why lithium is less reactive than sodium? [duplicate]

Lithium lies above sodium in a group and is also smaller in size. According to periodic trend reactivity decreases from left to right in period and down the group.
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2answers
4k views

How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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518 views

Why is the HOMO always lower in energy than the LUMO?

We say that increasing the energy of the $\ce {HOMO}$ of molecules increases their reactivity towards electrophiles while decreasing the energy of the $\ce {LUMO}$ increases their reactivity towards ...
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1answer
781 views

At what acid concentration does potassium metabisulfite react?

I'm in the process of developing a well preserved food-stuff containing potassium metabisulfite and a number of acids (acetic, ascorbic, malic, tartaric, citric, lactic). Wine-making literature ...
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342 views

Why are “diene” structures in the C-ring of anthocyanins singled out for their singlet-oxygen quenching ability?

Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble vacuolar pigments. They are sensitive to pH, and can undergo a series of structural changes according to a pH-dependent equilibrium as illustrated in Figure 1....
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1answer
153 views

Why does nose grease knock down the head on beer and soda?

Freshman year, my first semester, I was taught many things. One important trick I learned was when I was passed a beer in a 12 oz. plastic cup, I could eliminate the fresh foamy head by wiping my ...

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