Questions tagged [reactivity]

Applied to a chemical species, the term expresses a kinetic property in reference to another species. The tag should be applied to questions seeking answers with respect to the reactivity (or unreactivity) of a certain chemical compound, species, molecular entity and/or functional groups. It must not be applied to questions about the stability of certain chemical species.

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34
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2answers
38k views

How can I predict if a reaction will occur between any two (or more) substances?

I am new to chemistry and I find it fascinating. I am trying to learn about chemical reactions and I was wondering if there was an easy way to quickly tell if any combination of chemical substances ...
23
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3answers
46k views

Rationalising the order of reactivity of carbonyl compounds towards nucleophiles

This is immediately following ron's answer from Why is a ketone more nucleophilic than an ester? One of the most simplest questions you can ask, how can you rationalise the order of reactivity ...
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3answers
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Why doesn't copper react with hydrochloric acid while the other metals do?

5) Which one of the following metals does not react with hydrochloric acid? A. zinc B. magnesium C. iron D. copper E. aluminium The right answer must be copper, but why ...
8
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3answers
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Friedel–Crafts reaction of phenol

Does phenol undergo Friedel–Crafts reactions or does it react with Lewis acids like aniline does?
21
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4answers
5k views

Why do Organolithium or Grignard reagents act as nucleophiles and not as bases with aldehydes and ketones

I've read entire Chapter 14: Organometallic Compounds of Francis Carey's "Organic Chemistry" but I still didn't get an answer to my question. Quote from the book: Because of their basicity ...
16
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6answers
7k views

Will bridged compounds the undergo SN1 reaction?

$\mathrm{S}_{\mathrm{N}}1$ reaction involves only one molecule in the rate determining step. So, the molecule which undergoes $\mathrm{S}_{\mathrm{N}}1$ reaction should be stable when it forms a ...
7
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2answers
10k views

Order of electrophilic substitution

What will be the order of reactivity towards electrophilic substitution in case of the following compounds: benzene, ethyl benzene, isopropyl benzene, tert-butyl benzene The answer at the end of the ...
32
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2answers
27k views

Why is gold unreactive when only one electron is in the outer shell?

I've been trying to answer my (high school) daughter's questions about the periodic table, and the reactivity series, but we keep hitting gaps in my knowledge. So I showed that the noble gases have a ...
13
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3answers
15k views

Why is a hydroxyl group more activating than a methoxy group in electrophilic aromatic substitution?

Why is phenol more reactive towards electrophilic substitution than methoxybenzene? Isn't the lone pair on the methoxy group oxygen more available for participating in resonance into the ring than the ...
5
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1answer
149 views

Do epoxide rings react with bases?

We've learned in class that epoxide ring openings can be catalyized with acids, and I seem to recall either the professor or a classmate mentioning that they also react with bases, but some quick ...
3
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2answers
299 views

Determination of products in reactions involving carbocation rearrangement?

How do you determine the migratory "aptitude" of various groups during carbocation rearrangements? Is there a experimentally determined order? For example, what will be the product in case of the ...
13
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2answers
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Why does N₂ react with O₂ to Form NO at high temperatures?

This also raises questions that I have about the Haber Process which produces ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) from molecular nitrogen ($\ce{N2}$) and hydrogen ($\ce{H2}$). I have heard multiple times that bond ...
9
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1answer
5k views

Why does potassium form peroxides but sodium does not?

As we go down the periodic table, Group 1 alkali metals hold their single outer valence electron more loosely, and so reactivity increases. Below potassium (Na, Li), we can store the metal in oil with ...
8
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1answer
2k views

Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or delta?

My book claims that beta-ketoacids and beta-dicarboxylic acids are better at decarboxylating than their gamma and delta counterparts. Why is that? I would assume that since gamma and delta keto-acids ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Why do Grignard reagents or Organolithium compounds not displace halides as easily as acetylide ions do?

This is a snapshot from LG Wade Organic Chemistry. I have a doubt with a particular statement in the book. It says that Grignard reagents do not displace halides as easily as acetylide ions do. But ...
3
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3answers
3k views

Why is oxygen an oxidizing agent?

Why are diatomic oxygen molecules STILL reactive especially with metallic elements like sodium and copper even at room temperature? You would think that since the two oxygen atoms already have the ...
2
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1answer
1k views

Why are free radicals so reactive?

Why are free radicals are so reactive? They can break almost any bond, including $\ce{C-H}$ bonds, which are fairly stable. Don’t they have an activation energy or something? Do they not also ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Phenol or ethanol as a nucleophile for ether formation?

If we react phenol with $\ce{C2H5I}$ in $\ce{C2H5O- Na+}$ (excess), $\ce{C2H5OH}$ (anhydrous) solutions . In this reaction why is diethyl ether not formed and the actual product is phenyl ethyl ...
0
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1answer
342 views

Can someone explain the unintuitive ordering in the metallic activity series?

I would understand it if the metallic activity series Li, Cs, Rb, ... Pt, Au corresponded to electronegativity or ionization energy. However, the way it is written, ...
-3
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2answers
3k views

Why is caesium considered the most reactive element and not fluorine? [closed]

Some people say caesium is most reactive element. I thought it to be fluorine as it is the element that reacts with almost all elements (except couple of inert gases). But caesium won't react many of ...
6
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1answer
1k views

Why is benzenediazonium fluoroborate water insoluble and stable at room temperature?

Benzenediazonium fluoroborate is water insoluble and stable at room temperature. Why is this salt, water insoluble? Also I am told that benzenediazonium salts are stable only at low temperature(<5°...
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2answers
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How do we know whether we will get a mono substituted or tri-substituted product during electrophilic aromatic substitution?

For example consider the bromination of phenol we get the tri-substituted product (even though bromine is deactivating so I suppose it should deactivate the ring with each addition) while sulphonation ...
4
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1answer
2k views

Why do Grignard reagents react with epoxides but not THF?

THF is used as a solvent for Grignard reagents, but epoxides react with Grignard reagents. There is only a small difference between epoxides and THF, what causes the difference in reactivity towards ...
0
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2answers
11k views

What determines whether a double displacement reaction will occur?

In normal displacement reactions, reactivity plays a large role and sometimes the reaction doesn't even happen. So is there anything limiting double displacement reactions? For example $\ce{2KI + Pb(...
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3answers
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Comparing SN2 reaction rates

I've read in a book that the main factor for determining SN2 reaction rate is steric hindrance. The lesser it is, the faster the reaction. So consider this question: $\ce{KI}$ in acetone undergoes ...
5
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1answer
333 views

Reactivity of propellanes

Why is [1.1.1]propellane considerably less reactive than either [2.2.1]propellane or [2.1.1]propellane as illustrated in the hydrogenation reactions pictured below?
10
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1answer
5k views

Why is phenyl weakly activating?

The susceptibility of a benzene ring to electrophilic attack depends on the type and number of groups bonded to the ring. Activating groups donate/release electrons and increase the electron density ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Can aluminum and hydrochloric acid be used to generate hydrogen gas?

I am looking to produce hydrogen gas in a small amount with supplies I currently have. Most of the methods I have seen involve reacting zinc or magnesium with $\ce{HCl}$ to obtain the gas, but I do ...
12
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2answers
13k views

Why is a ketone more nucleophilic than an ester?

I guess the ester is a weaker nucleophile because it does have an additional oxygen atom, unlike the ketone, that is pulling electrons from the C-O double bond towards the carbon atom (this happens ...
11
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1answer
230 views

Which electronic effects are responsible for the reduction of nucleophilicity of a hydroxy group orthogonal to an ester?

I am facing a similar synthetic problem as Boekman Jr. et al noted in their synthesis of Tetronolide.[1] I will quote their’s rather than disclosing my actual synthetic problem, but note that the key ...
8
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1answer
528 views

How does steric hindrance cause sulfur hexafluoride to have almost no reaction chemistry?

Sulfur hexafluoride ($\ce{SF6}$) is, according to the Wikipedia page, a hypervalent substance. However, according to the page in regards to $\ce{SF6}$ reactions: There is virtually no reaction ...
6
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1answer
7k views

Which allotrope of phosphorus is kinetically the most stable?

Which allotrope of phosphorus is kinetically the most stable? I ruled out white and yellow as being quite reactive. Red and black allotropes are both polymeric and comparitively less reactive. ...
6
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1answer
2k views

What makes R-MgX a more reactive Grignard reagent than R-Cu?

What makes $\ce{R-MgX}$ a more reactive Grignard reagent than $\ce{R-Cu}$? Has it to do with solvation, bond enthalpy, electronegativity?
6
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4answers
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Why is zinc more reactive than copper?

In terms of electronegativity, from what I understand electronegativity increases going across the period, so surely this should mean that zinc less readily loses its outer shell electrons than copper?...
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2answers
11k views

Rate of EAS in chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene

In both chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene, both the halogens show a −I effect where fluorine has more electron withdrawing effect than chlorine. Now, if we consider the mesomeric/resonance effect, ...
10
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1answer
2k views

What does nutella add to the Coke+Mentos reaction?

Inspired by this question on SFF.SE. The Diet Coke + Mentos experiment has been a popular one for a while now, and I've read a little bit about the science behind it. I recently discovered this ...
9
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2answers
3k views

Is there a way to contain fluorine gas for long term so that it can be visually observed?

Bromine, chlorine and iodine can all be sealed in a glass container for display without the elements reacting with the glass. But if you try to seal fluorine in glass I believe it will react and fog ...
9
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1answer
14k views

How does HF dissolve glass?

By what mechanism does HF proceed in dissolving glass? Why is it the only acid that has this capability? Is it because of the small size and high electronegativity of fluorine?
5
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2answers
970 views

If glucose can react with phenyl hydrazine to form osazone why can't it react with 2,4-DNP to give positive test?

If glucose can react with form phenyl hydrazine to form osazone why can't it react with 2,4-DNP? Yes I know about cyclic form of glucose and its equilibrium with straight chain and all … I read ...
4
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2answers
40k views

How can I relate the reactivity series to electronegativity and ionization energy?

I am trying to figure out how the reactivity series comes about. My understanding is that elements with a higher electronegativity will be more reactive than elements with a lower electronegativity, ...
4
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1answer
942 views

Grignard reagents react with epoxides but dissolve in THF, what happens in oxetane (four membered ether ring)?

Ring strain causes the epoxides to react and THF does not react because the ring strain is not large enough. Does the four membered ring react or not? Does it favor reaction with the harder or softer ...
3
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1answer
544 views

How is fluorine gas contained and transported, why aren't the metal cylinder and tube in this video attacked?

I included the GIF below as part of an answer to Can paper burn without oxygen or air?. It was made from the video Fluorine - Periodic Table of Videos. I noticed that the cylinder containing the ...
3
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2answers
3k views

Why is chlorine and not fluorine labelled as the most reactive halogen for halogenation?

The reactivity of halogenation in sunlight is as follows: $$\ce{F2}>\ce{Cl2}>\ce{Br2}>\ce{I2}$$ So why does we often label chlorine as most reactive halogen towards halogenation reaction?
3
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1answer
4k views

Does anisole react with concentrated nitric or sulfuric acid

Can we add concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ and concentrated $\ce{HNO3}$ to anisole? I heard that we can't add acids into phenol and aniline which make them blast.
2
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1answer
605 views

Why are silyl chlorides more readily hydrolysed than alkyl chlorides?

I know that the $\ce{Si-Cl}$ bond has a slightly higher energy, but silyl chlorides are much more readily hydrolyzed compared to alkyl chlorides. I do not fully understand why that is. My thoughts so ...
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1answer
120 views

Predicting reaction among compounds [closed]

Suppose I have a group of organic compounds say A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. I know their chemical formula and their names. Now there exists a reaction among these compounds but we do not know which ...
1
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1answer
105 views

Can formaldehyde be stored at a higher temperature than room temperature?

I have studied that formaldehyde stored at temperature lower than room temperature convert into 1,3,5-oxane. So, it's not stored at colder temperatures. But my question is - Can a similar degrading ...
1
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2answers
929 views

Grignards do transmetallation?

Grignards don't add to alkyl halides to create linear carbon extensions because Grignards do transmetallation rather than SN2 displacement of halide. Is this correct? I thought transmetallation a) ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Is the variation in carbonation of soft drinks the variable that affects the effectiveness of the mentos reaction?

I went and bought a bottle of Fanta and some Mentos to replicate the famous youtube videos of the big fizzy reaction. The result was dismal, it weakly foamed up and dribbled over the edge. I tried ...
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2answers
1k views

How can you predict a double displacement reaction with no precipitate?

Is it possible to predict a double displacement reaction between two ions where the products remain in aqueous solution? I see how you can predict precipitation reactions if you know whether the ...