Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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648 views

Why do SN1 reactions happen slowly?

'The first step where the carbonium ion forms is slow and because it contains only the halogen, the general speed of the reaction will be slow.' I don't understand why should SN1 reactions happen ...
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What would be the correct mechanism for hydration of ethene?

Given above is the mechanism that I drew but my textbook puts it a bit differently. It says that the ethene is dissovled in the concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ to form ethyl hydrogen sulphate $\ce{CH3-...
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2answers
192 views

Major product of addition reaction of substituted alkene when both carbons have same number of hydrogens and different substituents [duplicate]

What will be the major product in an addition reaction if a substituted alkene has same number of hydrogens in both carbons of the double bond and different groups attached to them? For example, What ...
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1answer
1k views

Where is the more reactive double bond? [closed]

I was thinking that the addition reaction would occur more easily in the double bond (marked with an arrow) where the carbons are less substituted, because they are more unstable.
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How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2?

How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2? As a first step, I think that $\ce{NH2^-}$ would remove $\ce{H^+}$ from the third carbon to give an allene intermediate. But I ...
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3answers
86 views

Shouldn't the “law of conservation of mass” prevent equations from being unbalanced in the first place? [closed]

How is it that a chemical reaction produces an equation, that is essentially an impossibility, according to the law of conservation of mass? If the law is true, shouldn't all chemical reactions ...
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1answer
407 views

Why is chromium involved in oxidation of alcohol? [closed]

Like what is it about chromium atom that make them able to oxidize atoms? Like can’t any other transition metal like manganese, mercury among several others do the same thing? I always see example of ...
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1answer
663 views

Functional Group compatibility in organic chemistry [closed]

As a continuation to the question: Predicting reaction among compounds I found the list of functional group on wikipaedia: https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Organic_Chemistry/...
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1answer
417 views

How to replace the 3 hydrogen atoms in phenylammomium with methyl groups [closed]

How would you replace those three hydrogens with methyl ($\ce{CH3}$) groups in its place to make trimethyl phenylammonim? It's been a real head stumper.
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3answers
105 views

In what circumstances and why do bonds break without an external energy source? [closed]

Edit: I've flagged my own question because it's too broad instead I'll split it up into more specific questions. So I'm trying to work out exactly how bonds are able to break when there is no ...
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1answer
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Why in SN1 reaction the order of reactivity of alkyl halides increases from fluorine to iodine?

In $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism alkyl halides need to be ionized, so wouldn't it make more sense if alkyl fluoride reactivity were the most, since it is the most electronegative element?
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57 views

Formation of α,β-unsaturated ketones

In Claisen-Schmidt condensation I've used $\ce{NaOH}$ catalyst. Can I use $\ce{KOH}$ instead of $\ce{NaOH}$?
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Rate determining step

The formation of the cation is the rate-determining step. we can look at this in two ways. Either that a cation is an unstable species and so it will be formed slowly from a stable neutral organic ...
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4answers
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How can one come to know how a catalyst affects a reaction when the reaction and the catalyst is known [closed]

How can I come to know how a catalyst affects a reaction when the reaction and the catalyst used is known. I searched the internet for an answer but could not find one.
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2answers
111 views

What is the major product of the reaction of a geminal dibromide with silver nitrate? [closed]

$\ce{Ag+/H2O}$ is used for peroxide formation, then followed by hydrolysis to yield an alcohol. But in the question it is a geminal dihalide and I don't know if the mechanism follows through a ...
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1answer
461 views

Does chlorine in tap water usually contain traces of cornstarch (or its derivatives)? [closed]

My online research has been challenging to separate out the corn starch or corn Derivatives that are obviously in chlorine weather in tap water or pools. There is medical support backing it but I ...
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1answer
1k views

On the molecular level, how do catalysts work? [closed]

I already know what catalysts do (lower activation energy requirement for a reaction), but how exactly are they able to do that on a molecular level?
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1answer
6k views

SN1 like reaction acid-cataylzed hydrolysis of epoxide [closed]

What would be the reaction mechanism for the reaction between epoxide and $\ce{H2SO4}$?
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1answer
42 views

Role of hcl gas in organic reactions [closed]

I encountered many questions in the competitive exam field of high school organic chemistry where we add some compounds and treat it in excess alcohol solutions in the presence of dry hcl gas, it is ...
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1answer
101 views

Mechanism for chloromethylation of Salicylaldehyde [closed]

Reaction mechanism for following reaction : Salicylaldehyde + formaldehyde +con. HCl $\ce{->}$ 5-(Chloromethyl)salicylaldehyde
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1answer
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Soda mixed with lemon juice [closed]

I mixed 1 tbsp of soda and 1 squeeze of lemon juice in a glass. There was strong reaction with a lot of foam. What caused such a reaction?
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1answer
91 views

Rearrangement of 8a-ethyl-1,3,4,8a-tetrahydronaphthalen-4a(2H)-ol [closed]

really sorry for that previous post. I was actually half-asleep when I posted that q, hence the q was unclear. I am again reposting that question The answer is given as A. Can anyone please explain ...
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0answers
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Mechanism of redox reaction between sulfur and nitric acid [closed]

Can someone describe the mechanism for the reaction between sulfur and concentrated nitric acid?
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0answers
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Gas reactions/Combustion [duplicate]

I have a project(not a school project, personal) where I am mixing Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen in a pressurized storage container. I am attempting to figure out that if those gases react/combust what ...
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1answer
731 views

hydrogenation using H2 + Ni2B [closed]

I am having trouble understanding why hydrogenation with $\ce{Ni2B}$ gives anti-addition. all my book says is this: Could someone explain the mechanism.
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2answers
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The compounds barium sulfate and potassium chloride are the products of a chemical equation. Write a balanced chemical equation for this reaction [closed]

I have been teaching my cousin grade 10 science. Unfortunately, I have never taken chemistry before and am unsure how to do these type of questions. How does one go about approaching this question?
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1answer
171 views

Why does halohydrin formation occur?

I am so confused with addition reactions. My book just gives random reagents and say this that happens without giving reason. For example, in halohydrin formation with $\ce{Br2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$, ...
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1answer
179 views

Safe pH levels for blood [closed]

What exactly happens to blood cells when a persons blood is to alkaline? I know that if your pH level goes below 6.8 or above 7.8 you will die. I have read that if you go below 6.8 your cells will ...
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1answer
112 views

Is ethanol acidic enough to lead to elimination?

The question is asking for the reason of obtaining an acidic solution. The only reason can be when ethanol follows a substitution reaction approach to substitute the bromine atom and form HBr as a ...
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1answer
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Why do these resonance structures explain meta-directing feature of Nitrobenzene but not other resosance structures?

Consider the following resonance structures of Nitro-benzene: It is written in the book that because the positive charge is always at $-o$ or $-p$ positions, Nitro group in benzene has meta directing ...
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1answer
2k views

Which is better leaving group [closed]

How can I compare the leaving group ability of $\ce{Br^+}$ and $\ce{Cl^+}$ ions for the electrophilic substitution reactions for aromatic compounds?
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1answer
610 views

In the reversible reactions of acyl substitution, how do backward reactions happen by being against the forward reaction drives?

Consider this mechanism for acyl substitution by nucleophilic addition-elimination: To start with, the nucleophile having a lone pair of electrons attacks carbon (because of oxygen being more ...
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2answers
18k views

Which is more reactive among alkane, alkene and alkyne? [closed]

Since there are two pi bonds in alkynes - are they more reactive? Is it correct? I heard that acetylene is less reactive than ethylene.
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1answer
140 views

What is meant by acid catalyzed hydration of alkene? [closed]

My teacher told me that acid catalyzed hydration needs acid because h20 is a weak acid and conjugate base of OH- is unstable.Can anyone tell me exactly how this is sure in terms of equilibrium?I don’t ...
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1answer
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Effect of Clemmensen reduction on carboxylic acids

Does the Clemmensen reduction have any effect on the carboxyl group $\ce{-COOH}$ if it is attached to some organic compound? If yes, what does it get reduced to?
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1answer
614 views

Synthesis of cycloserine: What is the mechanism of this step? [closed]

I want to know the mechanism or some explanation as to how the last step here (with hydroxylamine) works:
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4answers
662 views

How is the existence of carbon monoxide justified, in spite of the absence of mono-atomic oxygen in nature?

I have been taught that oxygen is found as $\ce{O2}$ in nature. Then, how does carbon monoxide form if oxygen cannot be found as $\ce{O1}$ in nature?
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1answer
264 views

Oxidation by DMSO

1,2-Butadiene is obtained by oxidation of which compound with DMSO? I thought that (A) will form a aldehyde and (D) a ketone. (C) will not react will DMSO, and so (B) should be the correct answer, ...
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1answer
62 views

Handling reactions in chemistry [closed]

Q:1 So far, after studying chemistry for two years I am unable to figure out any well-defined methodology of handling a particular reaction either in General or Organic chemistry. So I would ...
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1answer
68 views

Theoretically, How much HNO3 should we add to 0.21gr of Magnesium? [closed]

My class was recently given an assignment by our teacher which was to find the atomic weight of Magnesium by adding $\ce{HNO3}$ and heating it until it solidified. We did it in the laboratory as an ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is OH a good leaving group? [closed]

OH is a strong base which makes it a good nucleophile. Why then is it a good leaving group? Also, why are bad nucleophiles good leaving groups? What are the criteria a good leaving group should ...
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1answer
57 views

How to balance this equation? [closed]

Here is my problem $$\ce{2X + 16H^{+} + 10Cl^{-} \rightarrow 2Mn^{2+} + 8H_{2}O + 5Cl2}$$ I want to find the $X$ in this reaction. According to me $$Mn_{2}O_{3}$$ Also I see that the values of $...
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1answer
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What is the chemical equation for penicillin? [closed]

For our chemistry homework, we have to write the chemical equation for Penicillin.