Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Understanding chemical reactions

I just got in 10th grade and the first chapter in Chemistry in our school curriculum is Chemical Reactions and Equations The chapter is littered with a lot of chemical reactions and their equations ...
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Can bond rotation take place in Pinacol-Pinacolon rearrangement

I was given a question of pinacol pinacolon rearrangement of butan-2,3-diol where the methyl groups were anti to the respective hydroxy groups. Can the C2-C3 bond be rotated to allow hydrogen to be ...
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How to add components in visual MINTEQ

I need to figure out speciation of a mixture of metal nitrates and chloroplatinic acid. I am using visual MINTEQ to do this. But platinum ion is not there in the visual MINTEQ component list. I need ...
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Mechanism of electron delocalisation from the other end of alicyclic chain

When one adds $\ce{Br2}$ and $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ to 5-Methylhex-5-enol, this mechanism follows; Also,in adding $\ce{Br2}$ to 2,2-Dimethylhexa-3,4-dienol, this follows; What is the mechanism here, in which ...
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Converting Chlorine Dioxide to Free Residual Chlorine

Our water treatment facility used Chlorine Dioxide to disinfect the produced drinking water. The analysis results indicate concentrations of 0.2 mg/l of chlorine dioxide at the source. Can we analys ...
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Could the Superoxide Radical Anion Be Responsible for the Removal of Chlorine Dioxide Used to Treat Natural Waters?

Some background facts: $\ce{ClO_2}$ is a gas that is highly soluble in water (some 8 g/L at 20 °C). However, per Wikipedia , to quote: It does not hydrolyze when it enters water, and is usually ...
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extract cellulose from CMC using cuoxam reagent (schweizer's reagent)

Good day, I am new in the field of chemestry. My question is, if it is possible to reverse or extract (I am not very sure how to say it), cellulose from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by the use of ...
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Meaning of chemical energy [duplicate]

I am trying to understand the meaning of chemical energy. I saw in my book that chemical energy is stored in the bonds of chemical compounds and when the bonds are untied the chemical energy increases....
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Mechanism of reduction of alkyl halides into alkanes by sodium borohydride with ethanol as solvent

From what I have studied, primary halides do not undergo this reaction whereas secondary and tertiary halides get converted into alkanes via this reaction. Since primary haldies do not show this ...
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Is an epoxide opening more favorable than a chloride leaving in the same molecule?

In general, we've learned that alkoxide groups are awful leaving groups, unless we're talking about epoxide rings whose ring strain allow the alkoxide to act as a leaving group in a ring-opening ...
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How does Gypsum Concrete work?

When mixed with water how does gypsum act as a binder in creating concrete?
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What happens to concrete if you add lye to the mix?

What happens if you’re mixing concrete and you add some lye to it? Does it make it weaker, stronger or does nothing at all? I’m guessing concrete is basic so adding lye to it might expedite the ...
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Is the activation energy always inversely proportional to the reaction rate?

When I obtained the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation for a 10-minute glowstick (rapid, rigorous reaction), it was almost 4 times that of a 12-hour glowstick (slow, mild reaction). ...
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Ozonolysis: mechanism for reductive workup of ozonide using Zn/Acetic Acid/Water

What is the mechanism for the reductive workup of an ozonide using zinc/acetic acid/water? Many sources online show the mechanism using DMS instead: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-...
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Substituted Diene Preparation from Aniline / Novel Cyclic Imine Preparation

I have recently been studying the following mechanism recommended by another user from the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2004.06.026. In this paper, the following mechanism is proposed (...
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How long does it take Freon refrigerant to disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage?

I would like to know please how long does it take Freon refrigerant to completely disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage? Does it stick to surfaces , clothes or walls? Does natural ...
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Plausible Mechanisms for Polyketide Formation from Phloroglucinol

I am working on modifying the reaction below. I am adding the sulfonate (ignore the sulfonic acid groups shown) groups so that polysubstitution of the phloroglucinol does not occur. In terms of the ...
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Which free radical is more stable, allyl free radical or benzyl free radical? [duplicate]

Can someone pls tell me which one is it? Benzyl free radical has 4 resonance structures compared to allyl free radical which has only 2. More the resonance structures should mean more stable the ...
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...
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Reaction of alkyl halides with potassium cyanide

Its given in my book that alkyl halides react with alcoholic potassium cyanide to give alkyl cyanide through $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism. But why do we need to use alcoholic $\ce{KCN}$ (potassium ...
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What factors affect the chemiluminesnence of a glow stick reaction?

I know that temperature affects the reaction rate of a glowstick, but are there any other factors? I was thinking the different color dye molecules would have an effect on the reaction rate, since ...
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Why do α- and β- Keto acids with Ph groups are generally not reduced,but other keto acids are reduced?

The reactions that I am thinking about: Ph here is for phenyl group I tried to do this by using the nakayabashi mechanism but could not find any resonance structure or anything special.I also thought ...
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Why Does Adding Catalyst Slow Down My Reaction?

I currently did a lab where I was meant to identify factors that increase the rate of the reaction. I reacted Glucose with Potassium Permanganate and used Sulfuric Acid as a catalyst. But in my ...
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Rate Equation of Chemical Traffic Light (NaOH + Glucose + H20 + Indigo Carmine)

I am trying to find the Rate Equation of the Chemical Traffic Light Experiment. Wikipedia says the Blue Bottle Experiment (similar, but uses a different dye) has the following orders: The reaction ...
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What is the function of toluene in this reaction?

I'm trying to find the mechanism for this reaction: My (tentative) thought for a possible mechanism is: EDIT: New thought for mechanism: But this leaves some loose ends that I haven't been able to ...
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What is the order of [H2SO4] with regards to the reaction H2SO4 + CaCO3?

What is the relationship between the concentration of sulfuric acid and the rate of reaction of $$\ce{H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) ⟶ H2O(l) + CO2(g) + CaSO4(aq)}$$ in the rate law: $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{...
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How do I judge which is the rate determining step in a combined reaction?

Let us say we have a combined reaction where there are two reactions taking place infact let us take an example. We assume that the reaction is $\ce{CO2(g) +C(s) -> 2CO(g)}$. Now predominantly ...
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Which is faster- SN1 or SN2?

We were studying about nucleophilic substitution reactions. My professor said that in general SN1 reactions are faster than SN2 reactions. I am unable to understand that how can we generalise the rate ...
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Coupling reaction with reagent Na / Dry Ether

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by assuming Wurtz reaction would take place. And hence, I came with the product shown in option A. I knew that ...
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Which reaction occurs first when 5-hexen-1-ol reacts with sulfuric acid?

I am trying to solve this question: Find the major product of the following reaction: Now we could either do electrophilic addition on the alkene or do dehydration of alcohol. These two ...
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How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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Diborane reduction

I am stuck at a step in reduction of alkene using $\ce{B2H6}.$ I assume that step 1 is the addition of borane to alkene. After that a water molecule attacks $\ce{-BH2},$ it being a Lewis acid. ...
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What effect does the dye color have on the kinetics of a commercial lightstick?

According to thoughtco: If fluorescent dyes weren't put in glow sticks, you wouldn't see any light at all. This is because the energy produced is usually invisible ultraviolet light. Fluorescent dyes ...
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Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
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What causes the duration of the amber periods of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction to first increase and then decrease as the reaction oscillates?

I was collecting experimental data on the Briggs Rauscher reaction and realized that the period of the amber oscillations initially decreased and then started to increase. While I understand the ...
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Difference between base-promoted and base-catalysed

Why is halogenation of ketones in base described as being "base-promoted" and not "base-catalysed"? If the reaction is not "catalyzed" then how is the base used up?
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Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction?

Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction? $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(g) -> 2HI(g)}$$ a. There are no collisions between the reactants in the reaction. ...
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intuitive explanation of Wegscheider condition and its violation

The Wegscheider condition restricts the values that rate constants in a set of chemical reactions can take on. can someone please explain intuitively why the condition has to be true, and give a ...
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Book Recommendations for Inorganic Chemistry Mechanisms [duplicate]

I am looking for a book which has details or basics to reaction mechanisms for inorganic chemistry for highschool level(preferably) or maybe undergrad level. Basically I am looking for a book which ...
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How to rationalise the difference in reactivity between alcoholic and aqueous KOH with alkyl bromides? [duplicate]

Why is it that when we use alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ with say $\ce{R-Br}$, E2 elimination occurs, whereas with aqueous $\ce{KOH}$, SN reaction takes place, as both have the same nucleophile, ie $\ce{OH^-}$?...
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Why does the following “Battery” experiment work?

I did the following experiment: Experimental setup: Two electrodes (one made out of Iron,the other made out of Copper) are put into a (bluish) Copper(ii) sulfate lotion. Then, one connect a ...
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Does a non-chiral substrate (2-bromo-2-methylpropane) also form two products via an SN1 mechanism?

If I have an alkyl halide, in which its tertiary carbon is non-chiral (for example 2-bromobutane), which reacts via an SN1 mechanism does it also produce 2 products? I am asking because I know that ...
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First order reaction

I am little bit confuse about relating the half life time period of a first order reaction something like $$\ce{2A -> B + C}$$ Here the rate of reaction will be half of the rate at which $\ce{A}$ ...
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Why doesn't solvent form the major product in SN1 reactions?

If in a reaction SN1 pathway is followed then after the formation of carbocation the reagent or the solvent molecule can attack to form the product. As the number of solvent molecules are ...
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Reaction of ketones with sodium amide

Find the product of the reaction of dimethyl ketone i.e. $\ce{CH3C(O)CH3}$ with $\ce{NaNH2}.$ Should I do nucleophilic addition and form the product in the picture?
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method to certify the number of chiral carbons in fischer and haworth projection of glucose

While reading some notes about Glucose and its various projections: Fischer Projection: 4 chiral centres Haworth Projection: 5 chiral centres My doubt is that is there any (specific) method (...
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Will hydrogen chloride dissolved in ethanol react with magnesium?

Magnesium will react with aqueous HCl to form magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Simple. But I've just read in my textbook that HCl in a solution of ethanol no reaction will take place. There is no ...
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348 views

Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol

In the last step in Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol, why do we need to add an alkali like NaOH? Isn't pseudo nitrolic acid that is formed already blue in colour? What would be the reaction of alkali ...
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Equilibrium Constant and Reaction Mechanism [duplicate]

How is it possible for the equilibrium constant to not depend on a reaction's mechanism? For the elementary reaction $$aA + bB \rightleftharpoons dD + eE$$ I understand that the rate of the ...

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