Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Order of Reactivity of Halogens in Electrophilic Addition

Hello there. Here's a problem that appeared on one of my tests. What is the order of reactivity of halogens in electrophilic addition reaction via formation of cyclohalonium intermediate? I tried ...
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327 views

Major product of this Hoffman elimination?

1-methyl-1-quarternary ammonium cation(with methyl groups) cyclohexane is heated with hydroxyl ion. I want to find the major product. In the solution, it is given that a hydrogen attached to the ...
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Is OH + CO → CO2 + H an elementary reaction?

Is $$\rm OH + CO \longrightarrow CO_2 + H$$ an elementary reaction? How could I tell? I could break the reaction into $$\rm OH\ (+ M) \longrightarrow O + H\ (+ M)$$ $$\rm CO + O \longrightarrow ...
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831 views

Propose the mechanism of a hypothetical reaction

I was given a hypothetical reaction $\ce{A + 2B + 4C -> 2D + E}$ for which I have to propose the possible mechanism with a requirement, that the third step is rate determining. From the other ...
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230 views

Isomers through Nucleophillic substitution

If a single active optical isomer of 2-chlorobutane were to undergo a nucleophillic substitution reaction with iodide ions, how many optical isomers are present in the product? A mixture? Or just a ...
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739 views

Reaction of 3-Chloropyridine

I've given a question , 3-chloropyridine + NaNH2 gives out A . Compound A on further reaction with furan gives compound B. What I think now , First step is simple elimination addition reaction . So ...
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205 views

Relative reacting tendency of H2/Pd towards double bond and triple bond in straight carbon chain

If both double bond and triple bond is present in a straight carbon chain the which one (double bond or triple bond) will be reduced by $1$ equivalent of $\ce{H2(Pd)}$ ? My guess is that the ...
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936 views

The reaction which forms a pair of diastereomers

The reactions among the following which results in the formation of a pair of diastereomers are: I am aware of the fact that $\ce{HBr}$ gives anti addition product and $\ce{BH3}$ forms syn addition ...
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2k views

Steric factors greater than 1 or less than 0?

From my understanding, the steric factor accounts for the relative orientation required by reactants in order to react in collision theory. This implies that steric factors should probably always be ...
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200 views

Can thionyl chloride convert two equivalents of carboxylic acids to acyl chlorides?

Specifically, I've outlined the arrow pushing heuristic for getting from a carboxylic acid to an acyl chloride in red. Now the mechanism outlined in green is the standard route for what I'm told ...
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518 views

Why does K2ZnO2 + H2SO4 yield K2SO4 + ZnSO4?

$\ce{K2ZnO2 + 2H2SO4->ZnSO4 + K2SO4 + 2H2O}$ How does the ZnO2 ion disassemble here? Does it perform as a basic oxide, since we know that a basic oxide + an acid --> a salt + H2O? I'm not sure, ...
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56 views

How much energy is converted in light when you burn a candle?

When a candle burns the reaction is C25H52 + 38 O2 → 25 CO2 + 26 H2O. So it seems equal at both sides. But isn't there any light and heat (low elektromagnetic waves) produced. So how many Joule is ...
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26 views

Reverse of E1cB reaction

As we know that the first step of E1cB step is second of E1 and vice versa. So can we say that by reversing E1cB reaction we will get E1 reaction. In this the main problem which I am getting is in ...
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1answer
106 views

Calculating pH of reaction mixture of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid

I am designing an experiment but before I do, I wanted to understand if the following method is right to calculate the expected $\mathrm{pH}$ when I mix $\pu{0.736 M}$ $\ce{AgNO3}$ and $\ce{C6H8O6}$. ...
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1answer
300 views

Nucleophillic addition vs SN2

The following question came in Paper 2 of JEE Advanced 2014- Here we have $\ce{CH3-}$ as the nucleophile. There are 2 possible attacks: SN2 type attack on the chlorine group. Nucleophilic addition ...
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3k views

What would be the correct mechanism for hydration of ethene?

Given above is the mechanism that I drew but my textbook puts it a bit differently. It says that the ethene is dissovled in the concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ to form ethyl hydrogen sulphate $\ce{CH3-...
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1answer
286 views

Alkoxide as a leaving group

In the reduction of esters to alcohols, the RO group is pushed off. However, the negative charge on the O atom is destabilized by the electron donating R group. Why is the RO group able to function as ...
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1answer
506 views

How does the proticity of an acid affect the enthalpy change of its reaction with a base?

For an experiment I've carried out a series of reactions between monoprotic bases (ammonia and potassium hydroxide) and several acids. Two of these acids were monoprotic (hydrochlori acid and ethanoic ...
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1answer
166 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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2answers
1k views

Esterification with tertiary alcohol

I saw a different mechanism for esterification of tertiary alcohol in a book. They say that first the $\ce{OH}$ is protonated and it leaves to form the tertiary carbocation. Then the oxygen's lone ...
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35 views

Proton transfer in Claisen condensation mechanism

According to Wikipedia: In the second intermediate of the condensation, $\ce{OR-}$ act as a leaving group and reaction continue as expected. However, when forming the enolate in the first step, the ...
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1answer
46 views

Rate towards SN Ar reaction

In my organic chem notes,the following order for rate/ease of SN Ar reaction is given The reason given is The -I effect which stabilizes the carbanion so produced in the reaction. Turns out,my ...
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1answer
79 views

Method for removing CuO in an inert environment

Common oxides (i.e., CuO or Al2O3) are capable of removal via NaOH solution. However, I am interested in removing a copper oxide layer inside an inert (Ar glovebox) environment. Thus, the traditional ...
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1answer
39 views

Do all reactants have appear in the first mechanism of the rate law?

I have the following reaction, $$\ce{CO + NO2 -> CO2 +NO}$$ The "second" mechanism is given: $$\ce{NO3 + CO -> NO2 + CO2}$$ So when searching for the first mechanism, I found this one to work: ...
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329 views

Why is the carbanion resonance structure being used in the aldol condensation mechanism?

In the above mechanism's first step, what motivates the use of the carbanion resonance structure of the enolate ion if the negative charge is better localized on the more electronegative oxygen? Edit:...
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493 views

Friedel–Crafts with unsaturated halides

Which of the following compounds will not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction with benzene: vinyl chloride or allyl chloride? According to me vinyl chloride will be a better electrophile than allyl ...
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1answer
589 views

Stability order of methy benzyl cations?

I know that meta position shown no resonance effect and hyperconjugation effect . So According to the order given I guess Hyperconjugating effect is taken into account as -CH3 has no Resonance effects....
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1answer
280 views

Why is the Diels-Alder reaction a syn addition?

It is said that the Diels-Alder reaction is a syn-addition with respect to both the dienophile and the diene. Is there a reason for that!?
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1answer
38 views

Why is manganese oxide precipitated during the syn hydroxylation of alkenes with permanganate ion?

During the hydrolysis step, after the formation of the heterocyclic ring, hydrogen permanganate ion is formed but the final product is manganese oxide precipitate. My point - why would permanganate ...
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1answer
461 views

orgo- ketone derivatives

In the following reaction, I mix $\pu{0.25g}$ semicarbazide hydrochloride (M.M. $\pu{111.54 g/mol}$), $\pu{0.4g}$ sodium acetate ($\ce{CH3CO2Na}$), $\pu{3mL}$ of $\ce{H2O}$ (M.M of sodium acetate ...
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1answer
78 views

Why does the water become positively charged?

I'm a little confused studying reaction mechanics and I saw this, where does the water electrons go when the bond is formed I mean, the carbocation needs two more electrons to get its octect filled ...
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1answer
737 views

Why do SN1 reactions happen slowly?

'The first step where the carbonium ion forms is slow and because it contains only the halogen, the general speed of the reaction will be slow.' I don't understand why should SN1 reactions happen ...
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1answer
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How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2?

How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2? As a first step, I think that $\ce{NH2^-}$ would remove $\ce{H^+}$ from the third carbon to give an allene intermediate. But I ...
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Mechanism for sodium metal test for hydrogen isocyanide

Sodium metal test is done for detection for acidic hydrogen. In this test, the given compound is treated with Na metal with and tested for the evolution of hydrogen gas. Compounds containing H ...
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35 views

Dependance of stability for reaction rate

In our book, it is given: Organic compounds are generally less stable than inorganic compounds. Due to covalent bonding in them, their reaction rates are often slow. First, it is said that they are ...
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1answer
205 views

Why does halohydrin formation occur?

I am so confused with addition reactions. My book just gives random reagents and say this that happens without giving reason. For example, in halohydrin formation with $\ce{Br2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$, ...
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1answer
120 views

Is ethanol acidic enough to lead to elimination?

The question is asking for the reason of obtaining an acidic solution. The only reason can be when ethanol follows a substitution reaction approach to substitute the bromine atom and form HBr as a ...
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1answer
7k views

Why do these resonance structures explain meta-directing feature of Nitrobenzene but not other resosance structures?

Consider the following resonance structures of Nitro-benzene: It is written in the book that because the positive charge is always at $-o$ or $-p$ positions, Nitro group in benzene has meta directing ...
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How to choose between an SN1 and SN2 reaction?

If a compound and a solvent is given, how do we decide whether the reaction proceeds via SN1 or SN2? I am asking this question specifically for a case where the substrate has the leaving group ...
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1answer
2k views

Effect of Clemmensen reduction on carboxylic acids

Does the Clemmensen reduction have any effect on the carboxyl group $\ce{-COOH}$ if it is attached to some organic compound? If yes, what does it get reduced to?

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