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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

373 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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What would be the correct mechanism for hydration of ethene?

Given above is the mechanism that I drew but my textbook puts it a bit differently. It says that the ethene is dissovled in the concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ to form ethyl hydrogen sulphate $\ce{CH3-...
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1answer
251 views

Alkoxide as a leaving group

In the reduction of esters to alcohols, the RO group is pushed off. However, the negative charge on the O atom is destabilized by the electron donating R group. Why is the RO group able to function as ...
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1answer
211 views

How does the proticity of an acid affect the enthalpy change of its reaction with a base?

For an experiment I've carried out a series of reactions between monoprotic bases (ammonia and potassium hydroxide) and several acids. Two of these acids were monoprotic (hydrochlori acid and ethanoic ...
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65 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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1answer
227 views

Which is more stable Ethyl carbocation or Neopentyl carbocation?

As per my knowledge, hyperconjugation is more dominating over inductive effect, so due to three alpha hydrogen ethyl carbocation should be more stable. In some books, while solving questions I ...
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846 views

Esterification with tertiary alcohol

I saw a different mechanism for esterification of tertiary alcohol in a book. They say that first the $\ce{OH}$ is protonated and it leaves to form the tertiary carbocation. Then the oxygen's lone ...
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0answers
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is Mg(OH)2 able to remove the free PO4 3- ions produced by the hydrolysis of phenolphthalein phosphate using phosphatase

I wanted to investigate the effects of magnesium ions on preventing the end production inhibition of phosphate ions on phosphatase enzymes (from splitting phenolphthalein phosphate, PPP). My idea was ...
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0answers
28 views

Does amide have to form in nitrile hydrolysis in basic condition? (mechanism)

Is this not a plausible mechanism? I did skip the formation of amide but does this not work at all?
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1answer
70 views

Method for removing CuO in an inert environment

Common oxides (i.e., CuO or Al2O3) are capable of removal via NaOH solution. However, I am interested in removing a copper oxide layer inside an inert (Ar glovebox) environment. Thus, the traditional ...
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1answer
37 views

Do all reactants have appear in the first mechanism of the rate law?

I have the following reaction, $$\ce{CO + NO2 -> CO2 +NO}$$ The "second" mechanism is given: $$\ce{NO3 + CO -> NO2 + CO2}$$ So when searching for the first mechanism, I found this one to work: ...
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1answer
152 views

Why is the carbanion resonance structure being used in the aldol condensation mechanism?

In the above mechanism's first step, what motivates the use of the carbanion resonance structure of the enolate ion if the negative charge is better localized on the more electronegative oxygen? Edit:...
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1answer
263 views

Friedel–Crafts with unsaturated halides

Which of the following compounds will not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction with benzene: vinyl chloride or allyl chloride? According to me vinyl chloride will be a better electrophile than allyl ...
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1answer
191 views

Stability order of methy benzyl cations?

I know that meta position shown no resonance effect and hyperconjugation effect . So According to the order given I guess Hyperconjugating effect is taken into account as -CH3 has no Resonance effects....
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1answer
209 views

Why is the Diels-Alder reaction a syn addition?

It is said that the Diels-Alder reaction is a syn-addition with respect to both the dienophile and the diene. Is there a reason for that!?
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1answer
34 views

Why is manganese oxide precipitated during the syn hydroxylation of alkenes with permanganate ion?

During the hydrolysis step, after the formation of the heterocyclic ring, hydrogen permanganate ion is formed but the final product is manganese oxide precipitate. My point - why would permanganate ...
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1answer
343 views

orgo- ketone derivatives

In the following reaction, I mix $\pu{0.25g}$ semicarbazide hydrochloride (M.M. $\pu{111.54 g/mol}$), $\pu{0.4g}$ sodium acetate ($\ce{CH3CO2Na}$), $\pu{3mL}$ of $\ce{H2O}$ (M.M of sodium acetate ...
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1answer
75 views

Why does the water become positively charged?

I'm a little confused studying reaction mechanics and I saw this, where does the water electrons go when the bond is formed I mean, the carbocation needs two more electrons to get its octect filled ...
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1answer
687 views

Why do SN1 reactions happen slowly?

'The first step where the carbonium ion forms is slow and because it contains only the halogen, the general speed of the reaction will be slow.' I don't understand why should SN1 reactions happen ...
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1answer
4k views

How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2?

How do we perform the isomerisation of 1-butyne to 2-butyne using NaNH2? As a first step, I think that $\ce{NH2^-}$ would remove $\ce{H^+}$ from the third carbon to give an allene intermediate. But I ...
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1answer
184 views

Why does halohydrin formation occur?

I am so confused with addition reactions. My book just gives random reagents and say this that happens without giving reason. For example, in halohydrin formation with $\ce{Br2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$, ...
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1answer
113 views

Is ethanol acidic enough to lead to elimination?

The question is asking for the reason of obtaining an acidic solution. The only reason can be when ethanol follows a substitution reaction approach to substitute the bromine atom and form HBr as a ...
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1answer
5k views

Why do these resonance structures explain meta-directing feature of Nitrobenzene but not other resosance structures?

Consider the following resonance structures of Nitro-benzene: It is written in the book that because the positive charge is always at $-o$ or $-p$ positions, Nitro group in benzene has meta directing ...
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1answer
2k views

Effect of Clemmensen reduction on carboxylic acids

Does the Clemmensen reduction have any effect on the carboxyl group $\ce{-COOH}$ if it is attached to some organic compound? If yes, what does it get reduced to?