Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Why do α- and β- Keto acids with Ph groups are generally not reduced,but other keto acids are reduced?

The reactions that I am thinking about: Ph here is for phenyl group I tried to do this by using the nakayabashi mechanism but could not find any resonance structure or anything special.I also thought ...
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44 views

Why Does Adding Catalyst Slow Down My Reaction?

I currently did a lab where I was meant to identify factors that increase the rate of the reaction. I reacted Glucose with Potassium Permanganate and used Sulfuric Acid as a catalyst. But in my ...
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41 views

Rate Equation of Chemical Traffic Light (NaOH + Glucose + H20 + Indigo Carmine)

I am trying to find the Rate Equation of the Chemical Traffic Light Experiment. Wikipedia says the Blue Bottle Experiment (similar, but uses a different dye) has the following orders: The reaction ...
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52 views

What is the function of toluene in this reaction?

I'm trying to find the mechanism for this reaction: My (tentative) thought for a possible mechanism is: EDIT: New thought for mechanism: But this leaves some loose ends that I haven't been able to ...
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55 views

What is the order of [H2SO4] with regards to the reaction H2SO4 + CaCO3?

What is the relationship between the concentration of sulfuric acid and the rate of reaction of $$\ce{H2SO4(aq) + CaCO3(s) ⟶ H2O(l) + CO2(g) + CaSO4(aq)}$$ in the rate law: $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{...
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25 views

How do I judge which is the rate determining step in a combined reaction?

Let us say we have a combined reaction where there are two reactions taking place infact let us take an example. We assume that the reaction is $\ce{CO2(g) +C(s) -> 2CO(g)}$. Now predominantly ...
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1k views

Which is faster- SN1 or SN2?

We were studying about nucleophilic substitution reactions. My professor said that in general SN1 reactions are faster than SN2 reactions. I am unable to understand that how can we generalise the rate ...
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133 views

Coupling reaction with reagent Na / Dry Ether

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by assuming Wurtz reaction would take place. And hence, I came with the product shown in option A. I knew that C wouldn'...
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19 views

How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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46 views

What effect does the dye color have on the kinetics of a commercial lightstick?

According to thoughtco: If fluorescent dyes weren't put in glow sticks, you wouldn't see any light at all. This is because the energy produced is usually invisible ultraviolet light. Fluorescent dyes ...
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Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
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What causes the duration of the amber periods of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction to first increase and then decrease as the reaction oscillates?

I was collecting experimental data on the Briggs Rauscher reaction and realized that the period of the amber oscillations initially decreased and then started to increase. While I understand the ...
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135 views

Difference between base-promoted and base-catalysed

Why is halogenation of ketones in base described as being "base-promoted" and not "base-catalysed"? If the reaction is not "catalyzed" then how is the base used up?
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685 views

Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction?

Which of the following statements is true if HI is formed in the following reaction? $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(g) -> 2HI(g)}$$ a. There are no collisions between the reactants in the reaction. ...
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45 views

intuitive explanation of Wegscheider condition and its violation

The Wegscheider condition restricts the values that rate constants in a set of chemical reactions can take on. can someone please explain intuitively why the condition has to be true, and give a ...
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125 views

Why does the following “Battery” experiment work?

I did the following experiment: Experimental setup: Two electrodes (one made out of Iron,the other made out of Copper) are put into a (bluish) Copper(ii) sulfate lotion. Then, one connect a voltmeter ...
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Does a non-chiral substrate (2-bromo-2-methylpropane) also form two products via an SN1 mechanism?

If I have an alkyl halide, in which its tertiary carbon is non-chiral (for example 2-bromobutane), which reacts via an SN1 mechanism does it also produce 2 products? I am asking because I know that ...
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38 views

First order reaction

I am little bit confuse about relating the half life time period of a first order reaction something like $$\ce{2A -> B + C}$$ Here the rate of reaction will be half of the rate at which $\ce{A}$ ...
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63 views

Why doesn't solvent form the major product in SN1 reactions?

If in a reaction SN1 pathway is followed then after the formation of carbocation the reagent or the solvent molecule can attack to form the product. As the number of solvent molecules are ...
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794 views

Reaction of ketones with sodium amide

Find the product of the reaction of dimethyl ketone i.e. $\ce{CH3C(O)CH3}$ with $\ce{NaNH2}.$ Should I do nucleophilic addition and form the product in the picture?
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357 views

method to certify the number of chiral carbons in fischer and haworth projection of glucose

While reading some notes about Glucose and its various projections: Fischer Projection: 4 chiral centres Haworth Projection: 5 chiral centres My doubt is that is there any (specific) method (...
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236 views

Will hydrogen chloride dissolved in ethanol react with magnesium?

Magnesium will react with aqueous HCl to form magnesium chloride and hydrogen gas. Simple. But I've just read in my textbook that HCl in a solution of ethanol no reaction will take place. There is no ...
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365 views

Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol

In the last step in Victor Mayer test for 2° alcohol, why do we need to add an alkali like NaOH? Isn't pseudo nitrolic acid that is formed already blue in colour? What would be the reaction of alkali ...
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218 views

Iodoform on acetone gives one product?

During the Iodoform reaction of acetone why does the second iodine addition happen on the carbon that already has undergone substitution instead of the other carbon?
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97 views

Alkylation of acetophenone

When the NaOH deprotonates the hydrogen off the carbon, I thought there would be a resonance structure, with the negative charge being on both the oxygen and carbon. Since the oxygen is more stable ...
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33 views

Improvement of the thermal stability of hydrous zirconia by post-synthesis treatment with NaOH and NH4OH solutions

I read a paper about how researchers improved the thermal stability of hydrous zirconia by post-synthesis treatment with $\ce{NaOH}$ and $\ce{NH4OH}$.[1] While the surface area of non-treated ...
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205 views

Markovnikov Rule of Alkenes

$$\ce{CH3CH(CH3)CHCHCH2CH3 + HBr ->}$$ According to Markovnikov Rule, "the rich get richer". But, as we can see the 2 carbons have the same amount of $\ce{H}$. So, what's probably the answer?
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130 views

Acid catalyzed enolization and alpha hydrogen

In acidic catalyzed enolization of butan-2-one: We have 2 alpha hydrogens available. From the mechanism of acid catalyzed enolization there is a certain carbocation character at the carbonyl carbon ...
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304 views

Steric Factors on reaction with grignard reagent

I was asked to find the products X and Y. For the product X,Here the grignard reagent and even the carbonyl substrate was too sterically hindered to approach the carbonyl center so no reaction would ...
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Should I use MCPBA here?

I came across a question that asked for a method to convert propene to glycerol. I used the method in the pic, but I'm worried about two steps- Step-2, This reaction is just made up by myself! I'm ...
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151 views

What is the Mechanism of hydrogenation of alkenes by Wilkinson's catalyst?

I've learnt that the Wilkinson's catalyst $[\ce{Rh(PPh3)3}]$ is used for hydrogenation of alkenes into alkanes. But I'm curious to know the mechanism. Could someone help me?
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Attack of 3-methylbutan-1-ol on benzene in acidic medium

That's how I proceeded with the question. However the answer is tert-butylbenzene. I can't figure out why do I have an extra carbon atom. SOURCE - JEE Advanced 1994
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50 views

Favorskii rearrangment

Why does the alkoxide anion dont act as a nucleophile in the fevorskii rearrangement? It can displace halide as halide is alpha to carbonyl and carbonyl decreses the energy of c-halide lumo
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51 views

First Order Chemical Kinetics

I have the following system of reactions: \begin{align} M & \xrightarrow{\lambda(M,W)}M+M \\ W & \xrightarrow{\lambda(M,W)}W+W \\ M & \xrightarrow{\mu} \emptyset \\ W & \xrightarrow{\...
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How to identify whether an electrophile will attack benzene ring when a deactivating group is attached to it?

I was asked to find out the major product formed when this molecule is subjected to nitration using $\ce{HNO3/H2SO4}$ mixture Here $\ce{NO2+}$ will be the electrophile. Lets call the benzene ring ...
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48 views

Why can't a quaternary carbon product be obtained by alkane isomerization in presence of AlCl3 and HCl?

This question actually deals with the reaction in another question: Isomerisation of alkanes under Lewis acidic conditions. I have a further doubt, regarding this reaction my book says that a ...
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Order of Reactivity of Halogens in Electrophilic Addition

Hello there. Here's a problem that appeared on one of my tests. What is the order of reactivity of halogens in electrophilic addition reaction via formation of cyclohalonium intermediate? I tried ...
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327 views

Major product of this Hoffman elimination?

1-methyl-1-quarternary ammonium cation(with methyl groups) cyclohexane is heated with hydroxyl ion. I want to find the major product. In the solution, it is given that a hydrogen attached to the ...
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242 views

Is OH + CO → CO2 + H an elementary reaction?

Is $$\rm OH + CO \longrightarrow CO_2 + H$$ an elementary reaction? How could I tell? I could break the reaction into $$\rm OH\ (+ M) \longrightarrow O + H\ (+ M)$$ $$\rm CO + O \longrightarrow ...
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828 views

Propose the mechanism of a hypothetical reaction

I was given a hypothetical reaction $\ce{A + 2B + 4C -> 2D + E}$ for which I have to propose the possible mechanism with a requirement, that the third step is rate determining. From the other ...
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230 views

Isomers through Nucleophillic substitution

If a single active optical isomer of 2-chlorobutane were to undergo a nucleophillic substitution reaction with iodide ions, how many optical isomers are present in the product? A mixture? Or just a ...
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725 views

Reaction of 3-Chloropyridine

I've given a question , 3-chloropyridine + NaNH2 gives out A . Compound A on further reaction with furan gives compound B. What I think now , First step is simple elimination addition reaction . So ...
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201 views

Relative reacting tendency of H2/Pd towards double bond and triple bond in straight carbon chain

If both double bond and triple bond is present in a straight carbon chain the which one (double bond or triple bond) will be reduced by $1$ equivalent of $\ce{H2(Pd)}$ ? My guess is that the ...
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933 views

The reaction which forms a pair of diastereomers

The reactions among the following which results in the formation of a pair of diastereomers are: I am aware of the fact that $\ce{HBr}$ gives anti addition product and $\ce{BH3}$ forms syn addition ...
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2k views

Steric factors greater than 1 or less than 0?

From my understanding, the steric factor accounts for the relative orientation required by reactants in order to react in collision theory. This implies that steric factors should probably always be ...
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198 views

Can thionyl chloride convert two equivalents of carboxylic acids to acyl chlorides?

Specifically, I've outlined the arrow pushing heuristic for getting from a carboxylic acid to an acyl chloride in red. Now the mechanism outlined in green is the standard route for what I'm told ...
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513 views

Why does K2ZnO2 + H2SO4 yield K2SO4 + ZnSO4?

$\ce{K2ZnO2 + 2H2SO4->ZnSO4 + K2SO4 + 2H2O}$ How does the ZnO2 ion disassemble here? Does it perform as a basic oxide, since we know that a basic oxide + an acid --> a salt + H2O? I'm not sure, ...
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56 views

How much energy is converted in light when you burn a candle?

When a candle burns the reaction is C25H52 + 38 O2 → 25 CO2 + 26 H2O. So it seems equal at both sides. But isn't there any light and heat (low elektromagnetic waves) produced. So how many Joule is ...
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Reverse of E1cB reaction

As we know that the first step of E1cB step is second of E1 and vice versa. So can we say that by reversing E1cB reaction we will get E1 reaction. In this the main problem which I am getting is in ...

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