Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Diels Alder stereoselectivity

I'm familiar with the endo rule as well as the regioselectivity of the reaction. However, what I fail to understand is the stereoselectivity of the product in relation to the diene. For example, in ...
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130 views

What is a probable mechanism for acid catalysed decarboxylation of alpha-hydroxy acid?

The following question was on one of the tests we had recently Now i worked out the intermediates and the product as follows: The first step is an intramolecular Cannizzaro reaction in which the ...
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Organic Chemistry - Reduction

Can anybody help me with the product? Seems like Birch reduction, but Birch reduction is used for conjugated systems and alkynes.
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126 views

What is the purpose of tetrazole in oligonucleotide synthesis?

The ATDBio book on nucleic acids describes tetrazole as an activator required to couple nucleotides. The diisopropylamino group of the nucleoside phosphoramidite is protonated by the activator, ...
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31 views

Reaction of phoshorus pentasulfide with ethers

Why does phosphorous pentasulfide on reaction with ethers give dialkyl sulfides? I searched for this reaction in my organic chemistry reference books and the internet but couldn't find it. What is ...
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46 views

How does Boudouard reaction influence the temperature?

I've a question that is giving me a lot of troubles: I'm depositing and gasifying Carbon by varying a flow rate of $\ce{CO}$ and $\ce{CO2}$ and by using the Boudouard reaction ($\ce{2CO -> C + CO}$)...
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806 views

HOCl + ethyne reaction-hypochlorous acid with acetylene

What is the product of acetylene ($\ce{C2H2}$) and hypochlorous acid ($\ce{HOCl}$) reaction? I gathered that $\ce{Cl}$ acts as electrophile and so $\ce{HOCH=CHCl}$ is formed. Now two things can ...
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275 views

Why add NaBH4 slowly to 4-t-butylcyclohexanone in ether solution? [Lab Procedure]

$\ce{NaBH4}$ is to be added slowly to 4-t-butylcyclcohexanone in ether solution according to laboratory procedures, but I am curious as to why that is? 4-t-butylcyclohexanone undergoes reduction with $...
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62 views

What coefficients can I use in a Reaction-Diffusion Equation?

I am qualitatively analyzing an abstract chemical reaction $A + B \rightarrow 2A$ where $A$ and $B$ are some liquid substances that undergo Reaction-Diffusion with a second order reaction (actually ...
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322 views

What is the product formed when 4-chlorobut-1-ene is treated with acetic acid?

My teacher did like this forming a really unstable cyclopropyl group but this is the correct answer instead. My question is why the product will be even formed? In the mechanism that my teacher had ...
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155 views

Mechanism of heterocyclic ring formation

I saw a question here about the mechanism for a heterocyclic ring formation: What is a reasonable mechanism for the following reaction?. I tried solving the mechanism but I am missing something. Let ...
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94 views

Why is SN1 mechanism followed in diazo aromatic compounds' nucleophilic substitution?

There is considerable evidence that SN1 mechanism is followed in diazo aromatic compounds' nucleophilic substitution. I would like to know the reason for this and why is it preferred to SNAr mechanism ...
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276 views

Why do stable enols give positive ferric chloride test?

It is known that phenol and all its derivatives give violet colour with neutral alkaline ferric chloride solution. However I also found out that stable enols, like 2,4 di-oxo pentane, also give this ...
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135 views

Siloxane condensation mechanism

I want to formulate the condensation reaction mechanism for the formation of siloxane links. I don't see how to express it as an addition-elimination reaction, because even though the silicone atom ...
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64 views

Is chemical equilibrium possible at any temperature and pressure?

Consider the chemical reaction ${\rm Na+Cl\to NaCl}$ by mixing ${\rm Na}$ with ${\rm Cl}$ (or by mixing ${\rm NaOH}$ with some acid). This process is exothermic while the reverse ${\rm NaCl\to Na+Cl}$ ...
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35 views

Why does the sodium become transparent after burning?

I know that if we throw a piece of sodium into water then it will melt first then it will explode. But under different conditions, the above situation will not happen. If we keep a piece of sodium on ...
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229 views

What's the reaction mechanism for the oxidation of primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol) to carboxylic acids using acidified KMnO4?

I've seen mechanisms for $\ce{MnO4-}$ in base reacting with primary and secondary alcohols to oxidise them, but what about $\ce{MnO4-}$ in acid? All the ones I've found have either been referring to ...
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676 views

Why do disproportionation reactions take place?

I want to know what are the conditions when disproportionation reaction is feasible. Is it just because of stability factors or it has other dimensions to it. As an example: $$\ce{3HNO2 -> HNO3 + ...
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184 views

Can I use a primary amine to substitute (deprotect) a tosylate at high yields?

I am trying to use tosyl chloride to allow for a easy substitution of the primary alcohol on glucose then use a BOC-diamine to substitute the tosylate to form a primary amine with a short alkyl chain. ...
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82 views

Does Acetate Cause Major E2 On Tertiary Haloalkanes?

This question really confuses me. I've narrowed it down to E2 being favored in step one (giving 2-methylpropene), but I don't see how a relatively weak base like acetate could cause E2 to be the major ...
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330 views

Briggs-Rauscher Reaction Temperature vs Oscillation Period

I am investigating the effect of temperature on oscillation period in the Briggs-Rauscher Reaction. By period I mean the average of the time the reaction to take one cycle (orange --> blue). I have ...
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211 views

Special case of Cannizaro reaction of formaldehyde with 100% NaOH/KOH follows 4th order kinetics

It is given that when we use $50{-}\pu{60\%}\ \ce{KOH}$ in a Cannizaro reaction of formaldehyde, the reaction follows third order kinetics, but under special cases of Cannizaro reactions it was given ...
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51 views

Mechanism of hydrogen evolution on metal-oxide electrodes

I am looking into the mechanism of different electrocatalytic reaction in acidic media on metal-oxide electrodes. Reduction of on such electrodes generally happens with the help of electrons from ...
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374 views

How can an SN1 reaction give non-racemic products?

I'm in organic 1 right now and we assume that SN1 reaction will always have racemic products for the sake of simplicity. But then our professor have a question for us that these solvolysis reactions ...
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119 views

Stereo chemistry of Hoffman elimination reaction?

Does Hoffman elimination go through syn or anti elimination? I referred Solomons and Fryhle,Paula bruice,L G Wade but none mentioned about the stereo chemistry of the reaction. Does it vary as per ...
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66 views

How to identify where a bond will break and where a bond will form (acetals)

In the following reaction: The $\ce{H}$ from $\ce{ROH}$ joins the $\ce{O}$ in the carbonyl. So the Alcohol breaks at the bond between the $\ce{R'O}$ and the $\ce{H}$. How do I know this occurs, ...
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11 views

Comparing photocatalytic kinetic and reaction rate of PPCPs removal in water treatment

Can anyone explain to me what is the meaning the kinetic term in the question and how does it relate to reaction rate constant, k ? I have been reading a lot of articles but was unable to get an ...
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25 views

Regarding rate dependence on redox potential

I am stuck with an equation wherein chloroauric acid reacts with oxalic acid to form Au(s). Even though one of both are enough for the reaction: How does the rate change with increased oxalic acid? ...
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59 views

Is it possible to retain the stereo-information when using enantiopure compounds?

In a reaction, there is always a probability that the product will be a racemic mixture of the product's enantiomers. Is it possible to use only certain enantiomers in order to achieve just one ...
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71 views

Liquid to gas phase exothermic hydrolysis reaction examples

I am working as a petroleum engineer and most of our crude oils are heavy oils (very dense). In reservoir, I want to start an exothermic liquid to gas phase hydrolysis reaction. I am planning to ...
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132 views

Pressure increase due to the reaction of CaO and HNO3

Currently I'm facing difficulties in determining the pressure increase due to the reaction between $\ce{CaO}$ and $\ce{HNO3}$. To be more specific, we first fill a vessel with $\ce{H2O}$ and $\ce{CaO}$...
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111 views

Mechanism - Dialkyne boron complex + Iodine?

Exam tomorrow and I was flicking through one of our handouts to find this reaction (D). I'm certain we don't need to know the mechanism but I was quite inquisitive as to how the iodination works. The ...
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67 views

What is the outcome of the following reaction?

The first step is clear to me, making an immine. However how does the immine react again? Perhaps it can be reacting with the carbonyl or alkene (to carbonyl over conjugation) I can't get to the ...
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68 views

influence of neucleophiles in substituition reactions

in the image the substitution reaction of 1-bromobutane and 2-bromobutane is shown. In presence of NaCN 1-bromobutane reacts fast and with the other it becomes slow, which is understandable since CN- ...
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5k views

How to make a primary alcohol from an alkane?

Alcohols can be made from alkyl halides, which can be made from alkanes. However $3° > 2° > 1° > 0°$ for alkyl halides synthesis from alkanes. What approach could make an alkane with primary ...
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101 views

What is the mechanism that dihydrolipoic acid undergoes to be oxidized by FAD?

The mechanism for dihydrolipoic acid oxidation in the pyruvate hydrogenase complex is not clearly demonstrated in any Lehninger textbook, other than the fact that FAD becomes FADH2. I am wondering ...
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133 views

synthesis of bicyclic diol from cyclohexanone

I am trying to come up with a synthetic route for the following reaction, my ideas below it. I think it is a bit of a long shot making this alkene as it would probably be quite strained-any other ...
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163 views

How does one understand the product of a Diels Alder reaction?

am having trouble making sense of products of diels alder reaction. Like I understand the stereochemistry and everything but what I am confused about is how come textbooks don’t give a variety of ...
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247 views

How can hypochlorous acid produce the hydroxide ion?

Hypochlorous acid ($\ce{HOCl})$ is an acid so it should produce $\ce{H+}$. However in reactions with alkenes, it produces the hydroxide ion like bases do. How is this possible? What is the mechanism?
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148 views

Why is E2 reactivity rate of 1-iodo-1-methylcyclohexane faster than (1R,2S)-1-iodo-2-methylcyclohexane even though the transition state is same?

Why is E2 reactivity rate of the second compound said to be faster than the first compound even though the transition state is same? My teacher said that in E2 more hindrance implies faster reaction. ...
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129 views

How to sketch reaction coordinate plot from mechanisms?

I am interested in learning about strategies for drawing reaction coordinate plots from the reaction mechanism. The sketches I am after don't need to be highly accurate or precise, but should reflect ...
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821 views

Why is potassium permanganate(VII) such a strong oxidising agent, why does its behaviour depend on pH of the solution it is present in?

Why is potassium permanganate such a strong oxidizing agent? Let is say we have a $\ce{KMnO4}$ aqueous solution which is acidified by adding sulfuric acid. What is going on in the solution which makes ...
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60 views

Synthesis of 5-chloro-2-ethenyl-1,3-diiodobenzene

The question is basically to figure about the steps for the following transformation. Since ethene is a electron donating group and weakly ortho para directing so it makes electrophilic substitution ...
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95 views

How fast do electron's quantum spin flip?

In a recent lecture it was taught that carbenes with their electrons in a triplet configuration do not undergo concerted reactions as one of the electrons must first undergo a spin flip; on what ...
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288 views

Regarding allylic free radicals and anti-Markovnikov product

I was searching a question "What is the primary product when cyclohexene reacts with bromine in the presence of UV light?" and in a website they said: 3-Bromocyclohexene will be the product ...
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45 views

Why are there so many reactions for the discharge of LiCoO2?

I've just managed to understand a bit the meaning of having the notation of 0.5 in a molecular formula, when I found a set of multiple notations for the same discharge process that started to confuse ...
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43 views

Saline removing rust from counter?

Background (pointform for readability): I prepack oral medication for a hospital. Our work area consists of a long stainless steel countertop. We use plastic bins to transport the medication around ...
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239 views

Diastereoselective epoxidation of acyclic alkenes with VO(acac)2

I've been reading about diastereoselective epoxidation of acyclic alkenes with VO(acac)2. This is taken from Carey, Sundberg Advanced Organic Chemistry Part B: The OH and epoxide are syn. Then, while ...
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149 views

Is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with cyclopropenyl chloride feasible?

Is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with cyclopropenyl chloride according to the following scheme feasible? Would the attack of the benzene towards the cycopropylium take place? I am ...
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476 views

Why is Fmoc base-labile and Moz acid-labile?

I'm learning about the Zuckermann approach to combinatorial chemistry in my MedChem lecture. My textbook claims that the Fmoc protecting group is base-labile while the Moz protecting groups is acid-...