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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

371 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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Why do fluoride ions “win” over thiocyanate ions in a solution with iron ions?

When you mix aqueous iron(III) nitrate and potassium thiocyanate together you get a red solution. Then if you add sodium fluoride, the red colour disappears. This is basically because the $\ce{Fe(...
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87 views

rate constant via flux-flux correlation function for linear potential energy surface

How does one calculate fully quantum mechanical rate ($\kappa$) in the golden-rule approximation for two linear potential energy surfaces? Attempt: Miller (83) proposes $\kappa=\int{Tr[\exp{(-\beta\...
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51 views

Calculate optimal surroundings for given reaction mechanism to lower activation energy?

Let's take a reaction that's fairly well understood, which in this case means that the reaction mechanism is known, maybe something like this from here: If we know the reaction mechanism, we also ...
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244 views

Reaction with Urushibara Catalyst

I'm not a chemist, nor an organic chemistry student, but I do a lot of research. I have a question about the end of this synthesis. Dissolve 5g pure phenylnitropropene in 50ml Ethanol and add to Ni ...
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254 views

How many different alkyl chlorides result from C4H10 and chlorine?

Let's say there's a reaction $\ce{C4H10 + Cl2}$ taking place under UV light. How many different alkyl chlorides do we obtain? I'm not sure if the resulting molecule would be monochlorinated or ...
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387 views

Magnesium powder + sodium carbonate solution: what happens?

I put magnesium powder into a sodium carbonate solution and it fizzed very slowly. The gas produced put out a lit splint immediately, which implies that carbon dioxide was released, but I cannot work ...
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180 views

Product of the following reaction

Thia is the question and my approach. I just want to confirm if it is the correct product. I have not gone for elimination as it will give anti-aromatic product.
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439 views

What drives intercalation?

From Wikipedia: intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into compounds with layered structures. What is the "driving force" / mechanism that's responsible ...
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357 views

Reaction mechanism for ozonolysis

I have been trying to understand the reaction mechanism for ozonolysis but I am not able to understand what happens after the intermediate trioxolane is formed. I have searched online but didn't ...
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223 views

Electrophilic substitution in phenyl alkyl ether

Phenylalkyl ethers undergo usual halogenation in the benzene ring, e.g., anisole undergoes bromination with bromine in ethanoic acid even in the absence of iron (III) bromide catalyst. Why do we use ...
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87 views

What determines whether iodination or reduction will occur?

Alkyl Iodides are formed by reaction of alcohols with iodine and red phosphorus. I already am well aware that this forms $\ce{PI3}$ in situ, which acts similarly to $\ce{PBr3}$ and allows alkyl ...
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270 views

Differences in specific free radical reactions enthalpies

Iodination of alkanes using iodine $(\ce{I2})$ is usually an unfavorable reaction. Tetraiodomethane $(\ce{CI4})$ can be used as the iodine source for iodination, in the presence of a free-radical ...
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89 views

What is the mechanism for the oxidation of Cu(I) by ammonium nitrate?

I can't seem to find any resource online that describes the arrow pushing mechanism behind the oxidation of Cu(I) by ammonium nitrate in acid. Does a radical oxygen form? Or does it require both ...
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63 views

Is there wavefunction interference between alternate reaction pathways?

I'll give a specific example to clarify my question. If we look at the approach of chloromethylenecarbene's electron pair to cis-2-butene in the reaction of creating 1-chloro-2,3-dimethylcyclopropane, ...
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237 views

Simmons-Smith Cyclopropanation and Sterics

I know this is a Simmons-Smith reaction. Wikipedia tells me this: The Simmons–Smith reaction is generally subject to steric effects, and thus cyclopropanation usually takes place on the less ...
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31 views

Are there any suitable catalysts for ferric oxide and aluminum reaction?

As an exercise, I am trying to figure out how to catalyze the reaction of ferric oxide and aluminum Fe2O3 + 2Al -> 2Fe + Al2O3 I've been trying to find a substance A such that the reaction could be ...
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364 views

How to explain the different regioselectivity of ketones/imines reacting with LDA?

When 1 equivalent of LDA is reacted with, for example, 2-pentanone, you get the thermodynamic (more substituted) product. But when you react butan-2-imine with 1.0 LDA, you receive the kinetic (less ...
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329 views

Mechanism of an epoxide ring opening with trimethylaluminium

Am I right that there is a rearrangement reaction here? After coordinating the lewis acid to the oxygen, how do I come up with the correct rearrangement step?
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176 views

Why do we need sulfuric acid in reducing nitric acid?

From Wikipedia: Why do we need sulfuric acid in the left part of the formula? Wouldn't FeSO4 reduce nitric acid without the sulfuric acid taking part? P.S. I was answered that a milder form ...
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285 views

Mechanism: explanation of final step in synthesis of the thyroid hormones (T4, T3)

In the following mechanism for the synthesis of T3 (triiodothyronine) on thyroglobulin, what are the factors causing the last step to occur? Does it have something to do with the electron density of ...
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872 views

What is the reaction between diethyl malonate and hydrazine?

For the reaction of diethyl malonate with $\ce{NH2NH2}$ in aqueous medium in presence of $\ce{CH3CH2OH}$, I found two types of product with SciFinder: In presence of $\ce{H2SO4}$, the reaction ...
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3k views

Allylic bromination with NBS

I know that NBS is a selective brominating agent especially on the allylic position. And its reaction mechanism is of free radical. But I can't figure out the reason for the change in position of the ...
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972 views

Mechanism for synthesis of 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline

I am trying to figure out the mechanism to create 4-nitrophenylhydrazine from the diazonium salt of 4-nitroaniline. I've found a couple of explanations for what reactants are used, but I don't ...
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243 views

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable?

Why are trifluoromethyl diazirines so stable? Trifluoromethyl diazirines stability is well documented, however I am yet to find an explanation of why... Can it be homoaromatic or even aromatic? 2 pie ...
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60 views

Do carbon monoxide and graphene oxide react?

I want to know what happens if $\ce{CO}$ and graphene oxide (GO) react. Through the internet the reaction of GO with $\ce{H2O}$ is available but I did not find anything about carbon monoxide.
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Why is C=C launching electrophilic attack on Bromine instead of the other way round?

So during my lecture on reaction of Alkenes with Halogens, my lecturer used the example of $\ce{Br2}$ gas reacting with $\ce{CH2CH2}$. He mentioned that the $\ce{C=C}$ launches an electrophilic attack ...
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33 views

Computing initial reaction speed given reaction constant

Problem: $\ce{N2O}$ falls apart in oxygen gas and nitrogen gas according to a first order reaction rate. If you know that the rate constant is $0.38\ \mathrm{s^{-1}}$ at $760\ \mathrm{^\circ C}$, ...
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583 views

Please explain the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction

I did not completely understand the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction, especially the rate determining step i.e. the hydride transfer step, and the effect of electron withdrawing substituents on this ...
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Entropy of activation

In Price & Dwek, I find a small section discussing entropy of activation for three examples $$ 1: \ce{Ce^{4+}} + \ce{EDTA}^{4-} \rightarrow (\ce{CeEDTA})\\ 2, \text{S}_N\text{1 reaction}: \ce{AB} ...
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352 views

Mechanism of Diels-Alder reaction

I have a question about the mechanism of the Diels-Alder reaction. Is this a two-electron or one-electron process as described by Fig (a) or (b) respectively or does not matter? How do we know that?
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Can a system be designed which equates reaction rates of endothermic reactions using a single power source?

My goal is to use a single source of heat in an experiment with 2 separate endothermic reactions. My hypothesis is that by conducting this experiment under water, the reaction time of both of the ...
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25 views

Stabilizing donor-acceptor interaction between orthogonal orbitals in the SN2 transition state?

For the $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction between chloroacetone and iodide, my professor has drawn a donor-acceptor interaction between the iodine lone pair attacking the Cl-substituted carbon and the π ...
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52 views

What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki. Wikipedia states: Hydrazine can be monoprotonated ...
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29 views

Is activation energy directly related to the reaction rate? (keeping the temperature, concentration, catalyst, particle size and pressure constant)

For different chemical reactions, does the activation energy of that reaction directly relate to the reaction rate? In other words, would a reaction always be slower if it had a higher activation ...
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37 views

Hemiacetal formation mechanism

The question is asking which reagents can be used to carry out this reaction. I get the L (PCC) is used to turn the primary alcohol into an aldehyde. However, I believe that is not the only reagent ...
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109 views

Mechanism of decarboxylation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid

According to FIITJEE's Sankalp Test-II answer key, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating: Then, I read Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or ...
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50 views

Product of Diels-Alder reaction + Consecutive Reaction with base and heat

there is a problem regarding a Diels-Alder reaction that I do not understand (see image). The Diels-Alder reaction of the diene and the dienophile should lead to the product A. I hope I did it ...
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348 views

Polar Protic and Aprotic Solvents

I know $\mathrm{S_N2}$ is favored polar aprotic solvents, which means that they may have hydrogens on them somewhere, but they lack $\ce{O-H}$ or $\ce{N-H}$ bonds, and therefore cannot hydrogen bond ...
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33 views

Aldol Reaction on an intermediate

I was given the following reaction to prove a mechanism for: and I managed to prove the first step with ease. The second step, forming the "base-catalysed aldol" is the part that's rather confusing ...
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50 views

Reaction Mechanism with a Rate Determining Step

Just a quick question on how to deal with multiple intermediaries in a proposed reaction mechanism. Here is the overall reaction: $$\ce{I-(aq) + OCl-(aq) -> IO-(aq) + Cl-(aq)}$$ Here is the ...
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36 views

Kinetics for E1cb reactions

We were taught that the kinetics of a reaction is determined by the reactions ‘rate determining step’ which is also the slowest step of the reaction. For E1 as well as E2 reactions the slowest steps ...
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How is a ring formed when a carbon atom in an aliphatic chain attached to benzene ring has a positive charge?

This is my approach towards this problem. First off, a positive charge would appear in the C atom at the end of the chain, and then that carbocation would rearrange into a tertiary carbocation. But I ...
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49 views

How to recreate bioluminescence in fireflies in a lab?

I have several mg/mL of D-luciferin, luciferase (firefly), ATP solution (25 mmol) and MgSO4 (for the mg2+ ions). The experiment has to be done in cuvettes of 2,5 mL (if I get any results, it will be ...
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37 views

Deuteration of following enone - mechanism?

What happens when the above compound is subjected to DCl in MeOD? As a result of tautomerism, I'd expect at least 7H atoms, two alpha to carbonyl carbon (right side), and five at gamma position (two ...
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112 views

Predicting the products obtained after addition of bromine and then elimination using alcoholic KOH

If we have an alkene reacting with bromine, then I know that the the reaction happens by a cyclic intermediate. But if we add alcoholic KOH to the products formed, then what will be the major products ...
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Is the iodide and persulfate reaction bimolecular?

Given the following reaction in an aqueous state: $$ \mathrm{2I^- + S_2O_8^{-2}\rightarrow I_2 + 2SO_4^{2-}}$$ Is it bimolecular o trimolecular? Because two molecules of iodide react with one ...
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131 views

Kolbe's electrolysis of acetylenedicarboxylic acid

I have been wondering what this reaction would lead to? The ethyne diradical can't dimerize because triple bonded cyclic structures don't form until 8 carbons. And even if it polymerizes I find no way ...
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27 views

why do I get chlorine gas production during electroetching?

I was electroetching stainless steel plates with table salt as electrolyte and the power supply was providing 5V, 6A when I placed the anode and cathode about .25 inches apart. I started smelling a ...
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52 views

Disiamylborane on alkyl halides

I am having problem predicting the last product in the following reaction: $$\ce{CH#CH ->[Na/NH3 (l)][(Excess)] (P) ->[DCl] (Q) ->[(i)Sia2BH][(ii)CH3COOH] (R)}$$ I am getting an alkyl ...
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869 views

Major product for aldol condensation between acetophenone and acetaldehyde

Crossed aldol condensation is done between acetaldehyde and acetophenone by using NaOH as the base. So, here we can get 4 possible products. But which one would be the major? I know that acetaldehyde ...