Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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34 views

What are the reaction products in my dishwasher from a steel colander?

In my dishwasher I noticed that a steel colander and a coffee maker (the Moka Pot) both became discolored after being in the dishwasher. The metal is clearly reacting with something. They aren't made ...
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Are there any silicone like substances that cure far faster?

I was wondering if there are any silicone like substances that cure far faster. Are there any substances that you can mix together to create a fast curing elastic like substance like silicone? Are ...
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Reaction of unsaturated lactone and alcohol

Image source I found this equation to turn this compound into an ketoester but I am unsure of the reaction mechanism. I postulate that the alcohol attacks the carboxyl carbon, the O becomes formally ...
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Reaction of Glucose + NaOH + PVP

I'm trying to synthesize of silver particles by using glucose as reducing agent, PVP as dispersant, and NaOH as pH control. Before adding silver nitrate solution, I've produced a solution which is ...
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Reaction of Methyl Cyanide with nitroethane

I want to know the products of reaction of Methyl Cyanide with nitroethane in presence of (Sodium ethoxide + ethanol) and then hydrolysed in concentrated Acidic medium. According to me ,reaction ...
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2answers
75 views

Can a weak acid react to give a stronger acid? [closed]

I was trying to understand why $\ce{AgCl}$ does not dissolve in $\ce{HNO3}$ and the reaction I could think of was something like this: $$\ce{AgCl + HNO3->AgNO3 + HCl}$$ I could not understand why ...
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Halogenation by Phosphorous tribromide vs using HBr

My textbook introduced PBr3 by stating that it leads to an inversion in stereochemistry since it always goes through an SN2 pathway, unlike using HBr. My question is that since Br- is a reasonably ...
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48 views

Effect of mixing acids on solubility

Please help me clarify the title if you come up with a better way to put it (you certainly will). My question is the following: If you make a mix of equal parts of various acids (Bicarbonate, ...
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What is the mechanism of benzyl ether hydrogenolysis?

The mechanism for the hydrogenation of alkenes or alkynes using Pd/C is fairly well explained to involve the absorption of hydrogen onto a metal's surface followed by the addition of that hydrogen ...
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Reaction of mixed carbonyl compound with ethylene glycol in acidic medium

I Know that there is cyclic ketal or cyclic acetal is formed when carbonyl compound reacts with ethylene glycol. But I am confused here because I am unable to decide what will be the major product ...
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Mechanism of acid-catalyzed Robinson annulation?

My professor posed my organic chemistry class a challenge problem for bonus points and I've been racking my brain over the last three days trying to work it out and I want to know if my solution is ...
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How to draw a reaction coordinate diagram for SN1 mechanism?

How would you draw a reaction coordinate diagram for an SN1 mechanism with the following conditions? each step in the mechanism (there are 2 steps) is favorable the second step of the mechanism is ...
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In what case would water attack the least substituted carbon in an oxymercuration–demercuration reaction? [closed]

I understand that oxymercuration–demercuration is textbook Markovnikov. However, in a case like this, where the $\ce{OH}$ is formed on the least substituted carbon (secondary) rather than the most ...
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26 views

How does the Benedicts Test work? [duplicate]

What exactly is the mechanism by which Benedict’s test works for reducing sugars? As I understand it the free hemiacetal groups on reducing sugars opens up and an aldehyde is formed, this is then ...
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52 views

Why would the following reaction not proceed through SN2 reaction? [closed]

I made a guess that the OH- group cannot do a backside attack on the carbon because the C double bond with O and the 5 carbon ring may act as steric hindrance and prevent it from forming a bond but I'...
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How come the reaction with glycerol and formic acid to form glycerol formates is not as probable as with acetic acid to yield glycerol acetates

I come across various literature when searching for the esterification reaction between glycerol and acetic acid to yield three glycerol acetates as in the image below. Essentially, each OH- group of ...
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1answer
74 views

About spontaneous combustion of methane

I heard that spontaneous reaction happens if $\Delta G=\Delta H-T\Delta S$ is negative. For combustion of methane, according to Chemguide: $\Delta H=\pu{-891.1 kJ K^{-1} mol^{-1}}$ $\Delta S=\pu{-0....
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Resonance involving carbanion

Suppose a carbanion is involved in resonance and thus its electrons conjugate with unhybridised p orbital of the nearby sp2 hybridised carbon and a pi bond is formed. Since carbanions are sp3 ...
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1answer
43 views

Modeling activation energy function

I'm quite new to the field, and actually am a mathematician. I was wondering if there is a way to model (find the equation of) the reaction progress (more specifically, the activation energy functions)...
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Inputting liquid species in chemkin pro

I have been trying to model various species decomposition/combustion in Chemkin Pro. Chemkin only lets you to allow to input gas phase and surface site solid species in your input files, but I have ...
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1answer
62 views

Understanding transition state theory

Let's say we have standard chemical reaction given by $$A-B + C \leftrightharpoons [A\cdot\cdot B\cdot\cdot C]^{\dagger} \rightarrow A +B-C$$ I want to estimate the pre-exponential factor of this ...
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1answer
85 views

Intramolecular Claisen-Condensation [closed]

My task was to do an intramolecular Claisen condensation with this molecule. I already draw the product to the reaction, but I'm not sure, if I did it right. Could anyone help me out or confirm the ...
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2answers
285 views

Why is density of chloroform greater than water?

Hydrocarbons (i.e., molecules containing carbon and hydrogen only) are generally less dense than water. Yet chloroform, which is a halogenated hydrocarbon, is more dense. Why is this? I know water ...
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Mechanism for oxidative workup of ozonide

Oxidative workup of ozonide produces ketone (in case both the substituents of carbon are alkyl groups) or carboxylic acid (in case one of the substituents is hydrogen), depending on the alkene. I have ...
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Major product of Crossed-Cannizzaro Reaction between benzaldehyde and formaldehyde [duplicate]

I came across a question: Predict the major product when conc. $\ce{NaOH}$ is added to a mixture of $\ce{PhCHO}$ and $\ce{HCHO}$. According to me, as $\ce{HCHO}$ is less hindered and $\ce{>C=O}$ ...
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Oxygen depriving gas/compound

A scene from the movie TENET made me think of a question. In the scene a gas is released into a room that is filled with precious artwork. The gas is used to rid of all oxygen in the room so fire ...
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1answer
88 views

Retrosynthesis suggestion [closed]

Am I even close to solve this problem or it is a complete disaster?
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Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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289 views

Real life examples of chemical reactions [closed]

For my upcoming lab report, I want to look at exactly how a simple variable, such as heat or surface area, affects a reaction. But I'm having trouble finding a reaction to test this on, as my results ...
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1answer
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Organic chem mechanism [closed]

I don’t understand how the reaction produces this product. In the starting material, there is an $\ce{-OH}$ group attached to carbon 5 but where did the $\ce{-OH}$ group go in the product?
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82 views

Finding reactants in a azo-coupling reaction whose product is given [closed]

Find the reactants of the following azo-coupling reaction: My solution would look like this: My reason for the above answer The amino Group is more activating than the nitro group and therefore the ...
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226 views

Mechanism of reaction of alcohol with NaBr + H2SO4

My teacher told that the mechanism for reaction of alcohol with $\ce{NaBr + H2SO4}$ follows SN1 when alcohol is 2°/3° and SN2 when it is primary or methanol. He told that the reactivity of alcohol ...
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1answer
134 views

How does Al-Hg react with carbonyl in presence of concentrated HCl?

In Clemmensen reduction, $\ce{Zn-Hg}$/ $\ce{ conc. HCl}$ reduces the carbonyl $\ce{>C=O}$ to $\ce{>CH2}$, by the following mechanism(?): What happens to the carbonyl group if we replace Zinc ...
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1answer
284 views

Mechanism of reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with ethanol to form benzene and acetaldehyde

In my textbook, all that was told was that ethanol is a mild reducing agent and hence reduces BDC while oxidising itself. Is there any mechanism or am I just supposed to remember this like a redox ...
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3answers
295 views

Isomerization reaction involving carboxylic acid derivatives

I have tried searching for what type of organic reaction this is in my textbooks and ended up with nothing. Thus, I could not fully understand and refer to the mechanisms that the solution has ...
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2answers
448 views

Étard Reaction of Ethylbenzene

What is the major product when the following compound undergoes Étard reaction? Is it acetophenone or a terminal aldehyde. The mechanism discussed in Mechanism for an Étard reaction (chromium complex)...
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246 views

The main difference between using AlCl3 and FeCl3 in Friedel-Crafts alkylation

What is the main difference between using $\ce{AlCl3}$ and $\ce{FeCl3}$ in Friedel-Crafts alkylation? Is that $\ce{FeCl3}$ disfavors carbocation rearrangement in Friedel-Crafts alkylation?
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78 views

Meaning of Partial Half-Life for Two Parallel Reactions

Consider two parallel reactions: $$\ce{A -> B }\tag1$$ and $$\ce{A -> C}\tag2$$ What is the meaning of partial half life of the equation $(1)$ and that of equation $(2)$ with respect to ...
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40 views

Aldol Condensation Product selection

It is known that the enol form double bond tends to attack the electrophilic carbon centre in an aldol reaction. But what will be the majour product in this reaction. The latter one may be enol attack ...
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58 views

How to Choose if a reaction will go elimination of substitution? [closed]

I want to know how to choose if a given reaction will prefer going substitution mechanism or elimination mechanism.Both elimination and substitution reactions have types like Sn1 ,Sn2 ,SnNGP,Sni and ...
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105 views

Aromatisation of a ring which includes nitrogen

Question Complete the following reaction sequence: Answer My solution I was able to complete all the steps except for the last one. This is what I ended up with: What I'm not getting is how the $\...
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How is elimination reaction (E1) possible without base and in presence of acid?

When learning about E1 we were taught that three things are important factors to judge if the reaction is E1 or E2 Substrate ( 3,2,1 favours E2 but only 3 favours E1 ) Base ( Stronger Base favours E2 ...
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61 views

Formation of methane using Kolbe's electrolysis reaction

I have read in my book that methane cannot be formed using Kolbe's reaction (mechanism — Organic Chemistry Portal). And honestly, I kinda think I get where they are coming from: that two radicals are ...
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Why can't methyl glycosides mutarotate?

I found this link trying to explain it: Why pyranosides do not mutarotate? however, I don't understand a step of the reasoning. Why is it that acetalisation needs a stronger acid than for hemi-...
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What mechanism is this? [closed]

I was solving problems in Organic Chemistry related to Substitution and Elimination. This was a question asked in JEE 2019 This was the solution for above. At last of solution, It has been mentioned ...
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1answer
77 views

How are diazonium salts prepared without self coupling

While preparing diazonium salts, what prevents the freshly formed diazonium salt from reacting with the still unreacted amines left in the solution and perform diazo coupling? If this happened then ...
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2answers
59 views

Inconsistency in Elementary Bi-Molecular Reaction Rate Expressions

Assume the following bi-molecular reaction is elementary as written with rate constant $k_\mathrm{f}$: $$\ce{A + A -> P}$$ This review, suggests to express the rate in terms of the production of ...
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Comparing nucleophilicity of oxygen and nitrogen in acetylation of 4-aminophenol

Here, the answer has $\ce{N}$ acting as a nucleophile making the answer (C). I thought that $\ce{O}$ would be more nucleophilic, considering the fact that $\ce{O}$ has two lone pairs, one in ...
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29 views

Why can't Grignard reagents react like Organolithium does (with acids)?

I'd read yesterday that Grignard reagents can't give ketones on reaction with carboxylic acids. It is because of the fact that Grignard reagent is a "super-base", and it will deprotonate the ...
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205 views

How to determine rate law for a reaction?

I am having trouble understanding this problem. A proposed mechanism for the decomposition of $\ce{N2O5}$ is as follows \begin{align} \ce{N2O5 &->[$k_1$]NO2 + NO3} &&\text{(...

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