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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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211 views

Are there natural conditions that could enable the formation of noble gas compounds?

Noble gases were considered to be inert until compounds that include them, such as xenon trioxide (as an example) were found. My question is, what natural conditions allow the formation of noble gas ...
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1answer
2k views

Reactions in the presence of sunlight

Some reactions in my textbook specify the need for the presence of sunlight, eg-photolytic decomposition of silver bromide and substitution reaction of methane with chlorine. What is going on in ...
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1answer
457 views

Does Wurtz-Fittig-reaction involves Sn1 or Sn2?

Following mechanism is commonly proposed for the Wurtz-Fittig-Reaction: Picture from Wikipedia The red marked reaction steps is a nucleophilic substitution (SN). I suppose that this is a SN1 ...
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2answers
2k views

Why does carbocation stability increase in the order 1°, 2°, 3°?

I'm reading about $\:\mathrm{S_N1}$ and $\:\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction mechanisms. 1° carbocations are unstable to the point of not having been observed in solution, ever. 2° are more stable, and 3° ...
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0answers
2k views

Oxidation of alkyl side chain using KMnO4 [duplicate]

I was reading about side chain oxidation of alkyl side chains of benzene using alkaline $\ce{KMnO4}$ and heat. My book (Solomon's and Frhyle) says that this is only for compounds having a benzylic ...
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1answer
3k views

Halogenation of alcohols in the presence of ZnCl2

I know that $\ce{OH-}$ is usually a bad leaving group, but why does the following reaction occur via SN1 in presence of anhydrous $\ce{ZnCl2}$?
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2answers
197 views

To model early earth chemical reactions which types of reactions should be included?

I'm currently working on building a simulator for the early earth to examine the spontaneous occurrence of food generated autocatalytic sets. No one in my group is a chemist, so the bottle neck for ...
2
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1answer
379 views

Calculating rate constant and order of a multi-step reaction

If I’m given a multi-step reaction, say: $$\ce{2 NO + O2 -> 2 NO2} \label{rxn:R1}\tag{R1}$$ with the following mechanism: $$ \begin{align} \ce{NO + O2 &<=>[$K$] NO3} &\quad &\...
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1answer
87 views

Niobium (V) Fluoride becoming sticky

Today I was making a pastille of Niobium Pentafluoride powder. The procedure includes a 6 ton squeezer, precision wipes, silica gel, filter papers and acetone. The first suspicious part was that on ...
2
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1answer
6k views

Pinacol pinacolone rearrangement

I was reading the topic alcohol in that I saw a reaction Pinacol pinacolone rearrangement . But I am not able to find the sterochemistry of the reaction . Can anyone please tell me the ...
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1answer
115 views

Confusion about the SN1 and SN2 Mechanism

My book says, and I understand, that the $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism is much faster for tertiary alkyl halides than primary. And the opposite for $\mathrm{S_N2}.$ This all makes sense. What I don't get ...
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583 views

Please explain the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction

I did not completely understand the mechanism of Cannizzaro's reaction, especially the rate determining step i.e. the hydride transfer step, and the effect of electron withdrawing substituents on this ...
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1answer
2k views

Why can syn-periplanar E2 elimination happen in molecules like vinyl bromides but seemingly not in other molecules?

E2 eliminations occur when the leaving group and the proton are in the anti-periplanar conformation not syn-periplanar. This is beyond a merely a preference as leads to E2 reactions being ...
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1answer
16k views

Reduction of alkyl halides to alkanes

For all the three parts, only methane has been given as the product in my textbook. In 1) and 2), according to the mechanism I wrote, I get both ethane and methane as products. I think both these ...
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1answer
488 views

Carbocation Rearrangements in SN1 reactions

Would one get 1-(1-chloroethyl)-1-methylcyclobutane? I am not sure if the driving force identification is correct? Is my going from a 2° to a 3° carbocation correct? Does anyone have any tips for ...
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2answers
1k views

t-butylbenzene in highly acidic medium

Why would the following mechanism be valid for the conversion of t-butylbenzene to benzene in highly acidic medium followed by an aqueous workup? The main problem I have with this mechanism is the ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the reason for strong acids/bases dissociating in water?

I have read that the actual definition of a strong acid is one which will fully dissociate in water, so please do not turn the problem on its head when answering. It is also my understanding that ...
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2answers
3k views

Organic chemistry - alkanes step up reaction

Well I was studying organic chemistry, and I came across this reaction for increasing the length of the carbon chain. Upon asking my teacher about the following reaction, she said she was unsure about ...
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1answer
3k views

Is this reaction with H+ and OH− a possible reaction?

I am wondering about the reaction $\ce{H+ + O^2- -> OH-}$. Is it possible? I think this is not a possible reaction, because here a strong acid plus another particle reacts to a strong base. If it ...
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1answer
399 views

Which mechanism do ethers follow when cleaved by hydrogen halides?

Ethers can be cleaved under acidic conditions by treatment with hydrogen halides (HX, where X = Cl/Br/I). Some of these reactions proceed by SN1 mechanisms and some by SN2 mechanisms. How can I tell ...
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1answer
331 views

Can chloride attack the carbonyl bond in formaldehyde in the reaction with hydrochloric acid?

I already know that a cyclic trimer and polymer of formaldehyde is formed at lower temperatures, but would chloromethanol and dichloromethane be possible at higher temperatures?
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127 views

nucleophilic attack in Acid chloride formation

First mechanism is the one taught in lecture, and I wondered why the electrons from carbonyl Oxygen wouldn't react with thionyl chloride. So I tried to draw a second mechanism as much as I could but ...
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1k views

Mechanism for Hydrogen Peroxide decomposition?

Someone asked this question earlier and made no attempt at understanding it on their own so the question was flagged. However, it prompted me to attempt to figure it out. This is what I have come up ...
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74 views

Mechanism in Acid chloride formation

I want to ask about nucleophilic attack by Cl in Step 2. To me there seem 4 electrophilic sites and I marked them as (a)~(d). mechanism I've seen in lecture only deals with site (a). maybe (c) is ...
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1answer
979 views

Li2O + 2KCl =2 LiCl +K2O: Is it a feasible Reaction?

$$\ce{Li2O + 2KCl <=> 2LiCl + K2O}$$ I got this reaction on a test question paper. With three other options, it was asked whether this reaction is feasible or not? I googled it and found the ...
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1answer
227 views

Hydrolysis of 3,4-dihydropyran

In the 3,4-dihydropyran shown below will the oxygen or the pi electrons of the double bond attack the hydrogen cation during hydrolysis and why? This is my attempt towards a solution: The oxygen ...
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2answers
448 views

Why is the halogenation of an alcohol a multistep process?

Refer to the mechanism posted on this site, if you will: http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/courses/351/Carey5th/Ch08/ch8-10-3.html When the alcohol attacks the sulfur center, the pi electrons in the oxygen ...
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1answer
163 views

Why do Grignard reagents form? [closed]

Why does magnesium insert itself between a carbon atom and halogen atom? Can anyone give any vague idea about why this occurs? Also does a Grignard reagent only form when there is carbon atom and ...
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1answer
222 views

Deuteration of enone - mechanism?

What happens when the above compound is mixed with D2O (deuterated water)? As a result of tautomerism, I'd expect the 4H atoms, one alpha to carbonyl carbon, and three at gamma position; to be ...
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0answers
775 views

mechanism in Birch reduction

at first I wondered why 2 H are added to opposite side of benzene like reaction below. because I could imagine 2 H added right next to each other or 1 C away from each other. so, looking for ...
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1answer
1k views

Acids generating nascent gas atoms

When sulfuric acid reacts with copper, then $\ce{H2SO4}$ gives nascent oxygen $\ce{[O]}$. The reaction is: $$\ce{H2SO4 -> H2O + SO2 + [O]}$$ This nascent oxygen reacts with copper to create $\ce{...
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1answer
3k views

Why is sodium acetate a good nucleophile?

As $\ce{CH3COONa}$ is bulky, I thought that $\ce{CH3COONa}$ is a weak nucleophile. But I found out that it's a nucleophile good enough to perform $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction on a secondary carbon. Why ...
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2answers
2k views

Why are more electronegative atoms better leaving groups?

My book says, "halide anions are electronegative and can easily stabilise negative charge, hence are good leaving groups." 1) what exactly does "stabilising negative charge" mean? I have read: " ...
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1answer
5k views

Why does nitration of aromatic amines give meta directed nitro compounds? [duplicate]

Amines are activating groups and donate electrons to the resonance structure using the lone pair of electrons on Nitrogen. But when aromatic amines are nitrated, for example when benzyl amine is ...
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1answer
431 views

How to determine if a reaction proceeds via SN1, SN2, E1 or E2 mechanism?

Give the main product and reaction type: SN1, SN2, E1 , E2. As the 1-bromohexane is primary and the nucleophile a strong unhindered base, the reaction should be a SN2 reaction. However, the solvent $...
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3answers
10k views

Monobromination vs. Dibromination

My professor noted that bromination with light and methylene chloride gives you exclusively the monobromination product. However, bromination without light will give you the multi-brominated product....
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1answer
972 views

Clarification in the mechanism for Molisch's test for glucose

Wikipedia says Molisch's test is a sensitive chemical test, named after Austrian botanist Hans Molisch, for the presence of carbohydrates, based on the dehydration of the carbohydrate by sulfuric ...
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1answer
6k views

What will form in the hydrolysis of urea in urine?

I just wanna know what is the end product of hydrolysis of urea in urine. I know that the hydrolysis of urea will form ammonia and a subsequent rise in pH but will the ammonia react with the water ...
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1answer
413 views

Potassium citrate in water

I take potassium as a supplement in the form of potassium citrate. I dissolve a small amount in tap water and I drink it. Usually, I need to stir a lot, and sometimes I warm the water a little to make ...
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1answer
168 views

Can HI/P reduction be used to reduce nitroalkanes and nitroarenes to alkyl amines and aryl amines?

Can $\ce{HI/P}$ reduction be used to reduce nitroalkanes and nitroarenes to alkyl amines and aryl amines ? I learnt from my textbook that heating the nitroalkanes and nitroarenes with $\ce{H2}/\ce{...
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2answers
702 views

Mechanism of hydroboration oxidation reaction

I know that the hydroboration reaction is used to add $\ce{H2O}$ to the double bond in an anti-Markovnikov fashion. I went to the Wikipedia page and found the following mechanism: But I could not ...
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1answer
288 views

How is energy released when a chemical bond is formed? [closed]

Chemical reactions are classed as endothermic or exothermic. Defn: exothermic (of a reaction or process) accompanied by the release of heat. The heat is released when the chemical bonds in the ...
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1answer
1k views

What would be the correct mechanism for hydration of ethene?

Given above is the mechanism that I drew but my textbook puts it a bit differently. It says that the ethene is dissovled in the concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ to form ethyl hydrogen sulphate $\ce{CH3-...
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1answer
735 views

In the production of vinegar, where does water come from?

In the production of vinegar, where does the water come from? I have heard that vinegar production involves these two reactions.. $$\ce{C2H6O {(ethanol)} + NAD+ -> C2H4O {(acetaldehyde)} + NADH + ...