Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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5
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1answer
828 views

Comparing SN2 reaction rate for phenacyl chloride and methyl chloride

KI in acetone undergoes $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction with (1) and (2). Compare the rates of the reactions. Like many kinds of these questions there are many factors involved. One is the steric ...
5
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2answers
5k views

3-step process to make propyl ethanoate from propene

I was asked to make propyl ethanoate from propene in three steps. I have access to the reactions below. Nucleophilic substitution (Both SN1 and SN2) Electrophilic addition Hydrogenation Dehydration ...
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0answers
62 views

Coupling reaction with reagent Na / Dry Ether

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by assuming Wurtz reaction would take place. And hence, I came with the product shown in option A. I knew that ...
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1answer
60 views

Not a chemist, needs help with a calculation regarding addition of HCl to sodium formate solution [closed]

As stated I am not a chemist, but I need help on a question I have. Assume I have a Formic acid 75% and I add between 5-10 kg to 1.000 liter of water. If I wanted to add sodium formate and HCl 37% to ...
15
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4answers
23k views

Why is pyridine used when making tosyl esters from alcohols?

Tosyl chloride is used to make a hydroxyl group into a better leaving group. However, when the reaction of tosyl chloride and an alcohol occurs, a weak base such as pyridine should be used. Why?
3
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1answer
60 views

Fluorination of Carbonyl Compounds using Molybdenum Hexafluoride

What is the mechanism of halogenation of carbonyl compounds using molybdenum hexafluoride? How does it work? Here's a reaction I came across: Can we use it for all carbonyl compounds? Are there ...
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0answers
332 views

Mechanism for reaction between aluminium and iodine [closed]

What should be a suitable mechanism for the reaction between aluminium and iodine, catalysed by water? In my initial approaches, I had first thought of repeated attacks of the lone pairs of oxygen in ...
4
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2answers
151 views

Equilibrium Constant & Rate-Determining Step

My first language is not English, so there might be some parts where it's hard to read. Sorry in advance. I have some questions regarding the derivation of the equilibrium constant and the rate-...
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3answers
5k views

Which compound reacts faster in the Cannizzaro Reaction?

Which reacts faster in the Cannizzaro Reaction? a) $\ce{OHC-C6H4-NO2}$ b) $\ce{OHC-C6H4-OCH3}$ Obviously, a better hydride releasing group will react faster. Therefore my answer was b, as $\ce{-...
6
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1answer
136 views

Why does thallium hydroxide increase the yield of product in a Suzuki reaction?

I came across a research paper by Uenishi et al. [1] where relative rates of $\ce{KOH}$ and $\ce{TlOH}$ in Suzuki coupling reactions are compared. Thallium hydroxide increased the yield of products, ...
4
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2answers
10k views

What is the role of CH2Cl2 in the Criegee reaction?

Why is $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ used in ozonolysis of alkenes and alkynes, and what role does it play in the reaction? Is dichloromethane a common solvent for organic reactions, used for its inertness - or is it ...
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2answers
108 views

Can some one please explain alkyl shifts for me

Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. Include all intermediates, resonance structures, charges, and electron pushing arrows to obtain full credit. I’m stuck with this problem. I got ...
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1answer
60 views

Relating collision theory to rate of reaction [closed]

I want to relate the macroscopic advancement of a reaction, the rate of the reaction, with the microscopic collisions of the molecules. This is the type I have developed so far: $$u = A^2 \times \...
3
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1answer
212 views

Is the following rate law possible for the given reaction?

A researcher is investigating the following overall reaction: $$\ce{2C + D -> E}$$ The researcher claims the rate law for the reaction is written as follows: $\text{Rate} = k[\ce{C}][\ce{...
6
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1answer
249 views

Mechanism for Friedel-Crafts Acylation in Synthesis of Sertraline

In the first step of the synthesis of Sertraline, aluminium chloride catalyst was used in a Friedel-Craft's reaction to give the following product. My question is how does the exact mechanism work? 1-...
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0answers
54 views

What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki. Wikipedia states: Hydrazine can be monoprotonated ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Diborane reduction

I am stuck at a step in reduction of alkene using $\ce{B2H6}.$ I assume that step 1 is the addition of borane to alkene. After that a water molecule attacks $\ce{-BH2},$ it being a Lewis acid. ...
11
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1answer
1k views

Birch reduction of anisole

Hepworth, Waring and Waring (2002) mentions that: In general, electron-withdrawing substituents make the arene more susceptible to reduction, while the opposite applies for electron-donating ...
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2answers
14k views

Why is HCl used in hydrolysis of sucrose?

I am aware that $\ce{HCl}$ can be used to help speed up the hydrolysis of sucrose but I haven't really been able to find out why. I've read somewhere that the glycosidic link in sucrose is broken off ...
3
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1answer
2k views

Hydrolysis of Sucrose over Sn1Ac or Sn2Ac

In "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry" I have read about the general mechanism of the acetal hydrolysis. It names the acid-catalyzed SN1 or SN2 as a possible mechanism for a Acetal-hydrolysis. Now I ...
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1answer
48 views

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water results in its mechanism in a cyclic bromonium ion and "afterwards $\ce{H2O}$ binds to the carbon atom surrounded by more electron donating groups." This ...
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1answer
83 views

Which reaction occurs first when 5-hexen-1-ol reacts with sulfuric acid?

I am trying to solve this question: Find the major product of the following reaction: Now we could either do electrophilic addition on the alkene or do dehydration of alcohol. These two ...
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1answer
69 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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2answers
136 views

Acidic cleavage of ether with a 2° alkyl group

I know that an ether with a 3° alkyl group and a 1° alkyl group is cleaved by $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism to give a tertiary alkyl halide and a 1° alcohol. And an ether with a two 1° alkyl groups is ...
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0answers
18 views

How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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1answer
140 views

Why primary alcohol follows SN1 mechanism?

Example 2: Identify all the products formed in the following reaction and indicate the major product. Solution: Three products will be formed in the given reaction as shown below: In ...
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1answer
165 views

Reaction of ether with HCl

Most of the reactions undergo ring expansion whenever favourable. But this reaction [1, p. 514] doesn't seems to do so: Practice Problem 11.18 Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. ...
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0answers
8k views

Why do NaNO3 + Al + NaOH yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al ...
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2answers
604 views

Mercury vapor release from amalgam fillings [closed]

What would cause vapour release from elemental mercury? Would it be pressure, friction... could one stop the vapour release through cooling the mercury?
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1answer
80 views

Required HLB on the Griffin Scale [closed]

What is the required HLB on the Griffin Scale of 94% water and 6% mineral oil for producing a stable micro-emulsion?
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1answer
190 views

Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Pyrrole [duplicate]

I thought that I already know how the Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EArs) for Aromatic rings work but then this reaction was shown to me and I was really sure that my professors didn't bothered ...
2
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0answers
42 views

Where will the oxygen atom be inserted on the Baeyer-Villiger esterification? [duplicate]

On our exam in organic chemistry, there was a question that I failed to answer correctly. The question is about the Baeyer-Villiger esterification of propiophenone or ethyl phenyl ketone: On the exam,...
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1answer
405 views

What is the mechanism of oxidation of phenol to benzoquinone?

I looked up the mechanism in a lot of organic chemistry books, including Clayden, Klein, Solomons, McMurry but I couldn't find the mechanism of oxidation of a phenol. I also looked it up in ...
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3answers
73 views

Was it CO2 or Muriatic Acid?

We had a malfunction with the chlorination system at our pool. There was a reaction between the Calcium Hypochlorite tablets and either $\ce{CO2}$, Carbonic Acid, or Muriatic Acid. There was a ...
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1answer
95 views

Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid - data analysis [closed]

I conducted an experiment in which $\pu{10mL}$ of dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a beaker, and this acid was heated up to room temperature ($\pu{22 ^\circ C}$) using a Bunsen burner. Then, $\pu{...
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0answers
125 views

Mechanism of decarboxylation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid

According to FIITJEE's Sankalp Test-II answer key, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating: Then, I read Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or ...
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1answer
332 views

Hydroxyl group to free amine in polyethylene glycol using CDI?

For converting $\ce{OH}$ of methylated polyethylene glycol. The first step is converting hydroxyl group to imidazole carbamate as an active intermediate. But what about the next step? If I will add ...
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0answers
33 views

Is activation energy directly related to the reaction rate? (keeping the temperature, concentration, catalyst, particle size and pressure constant)

For different chemical reactions, does the activation energy of that reaction directly relate to the reaction rate? In other words, would a reaction always be slower if it had a higher activation ...
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2answers
105 views

How does the equilibrium shift when concentration of reactant and product are increased simulatenously

Before answering my question, take a look at this example $$\ce{2NOCl <=> 2NO + Cl2}$$ Let's suppose I have 2 mol/l $\ce{NOCl}$, 2 mol/l $\ce{NO}$, and 1 mol/l $\ce{Cl2}$ in a closed system. ...
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0answers
41 views

What effect does the dye color have on the kinetics of a commercial lightstick?

According to thoughtco: If fluorescent dyes weren't put in glow sticks, you wouldn't see any light at all. This is because the energy produced is usually invisible ultraviolet light. Fluorescent dyes ...
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1answer
88 views

Role of hcl gas in organic reactions [closed]

I encountered many questions in the competitive exam field of high school organic chemistry where we add some compounds and treat it in excess alcohol solutions in the presence of dry hcl gas, it is ...
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0answers
39 views

Hemiacetal formation mechanism

The question is asking which reagents can be used to carry out this reaction. I get the L (PCC) is used to turn the primary alcohol into an aldehyde. However, I believe that is not the only reagent ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Testing for manganese in water [closed]

Is there a decent way to test for solvable manganese in water without purchasing a 150USD test kit? I have a fair chemistry set available (I use it to teach my kids chemistry), and would rather pay ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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1answer
42 views

Is it possible to predict release of acid fumes in certain acid reactions? [closed]

Upon mixing both acids, the reaction between Formic Acid and Sulfuric Acid, besides producing Carbon Monoxide and Water, releases a certain amount of acid fumes. Does anyone know if the fumes, in ...
63
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4answers
18k views

How does Walter White make pure crystal meth using a non-stereospecific reaction?

In the fantastic TV series Breaking Bad, Walter White, the dying chemistry teacher, takes to making crystal meth (d-methamphetamine) by several routes. Initially, he uses the common small-scale route ...
8
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0answers
387 views

Why are two three-membered rings preferred to a single five-membered ring in the reaction of a dihalide with alcoholic KOH?

The given answer is 1,1-dicyclopropylmethanone: Step 1 is abstraction of acidic H by the strong base. Then, there's surely going to be anchimeric assistance. But there can be two places where the ...
7
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1answer
200 views

Gold Plating on Glass?

I am considering labware options to handle NaOH solutions at ~150°C. One appealing idea would be to coat my current glassware with gold. I've read different sources mentioning the possibility without ...
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0answers
45 views

Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
3
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1answer
309 views

When does a pinacol undergo dehydration or rearrangement?

What happens when the above pinacol is treated with - (a) conc. sulphuric acid (b) dil. sulphuric acid I'm confused between pinacol rearrangement and dehydration (E1 or E2?), as both possibilities ...