Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Writing a reaction with the given molecules [closed]

Methanoic acid (HCOOH) is produced by the reaction of methanal (HCHO) with potassium permanganate KMnO4 in acidic medium. a) - Write the equation of this reaction. I just wanna know how to answer ...
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How is this Cope Reaction forming Ethene as major product?

I have been asked to find the major product of the reaction: As this a case of pyrolysis of $3^{\circ}$ Amine Oxide (or, in other words, Cope Reaction), I figured there are two possible products ...
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Help to name the compound [closed]

Please help me to name the compound. Is it : 6-aldi-2-amayed-3-hydroxo hepta-4-oic Acid ?
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Inversion is primarily observed in SN1 or SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction mechanisms? [closed]

I feel that the SN2 mechanism will result in inversion as it is a rear attack mechanism and hence the product might be inverted, but am not sure. The reason this doubt popped up was that my teacher ...
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1answer
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Determine reaction order and reaction rate

In a solution of $\ce{Fe^3+}$ the concentration was measured to be: $$\begin{array}{c|c} t/\pu{min} & \ce{[Fe^3+]}/\pu{\mu M} \\ \hline 10\ & 238\\ 20 & 227\\ 40\ & 206\\ 60\ & ...
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What the the relationship in thermodynamics ,chemical kinetics and electrochemistry by any theory or reaction? [closed]

What is the relationship between thermodynamics and chemical kinetics and electrochemistry related with any theory or reaction ??
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+50

Stabilization of multiple bonds through inductive effects

In the conversion of m-chloroanisole to m-anisidine using $\ce{NaNH2}$ and liquid $\ce{NH3}$, apparently the reason the $\ce{NH2-}$ goes for the meta- position instead of the para position is that, in ...
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How can i remove rust from tinplate without damaging further the paint?

Some of my steelbooks, made of tinplate, as far i know, is starting to rust, how can i remove that rust without damaging the surronding paint? In case there is any option, should I apply only to the ...
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Where do I find data on 'molecular membership' sequences?

Techniques such as isotopic labeling allow for radioactive tracing of an element through a sequence of molecules. Using analytical instruments (such as LC-MS) we can then find out where labelled atoms ...
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1answer
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How is the hydrazone formed in the Wolff-Kishner reduction?

In the Wolff-Kishner reduction the first step is to react a carbonyl with hydrazine to form a hydrazone. The later steps of the reaction requires a strong base to cause loss of nitrogen. However, the ...
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Mechanism of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides

The following mechanism for acyl chloride hydrolysis was given by my professor : However I do not understand why in the second step, oxygen has a partially negative charge, should it not gain a ...
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Requirements to put carbon particles and hydrogen into reaction [closed]

I am going to 40s already, and I want to understand chemical reactions. Its about 20 years I was away from chemistry, so I need some guidance. Let's say, I put into a mixer coal to have coal powder. I ...
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Reaction of Copper and concentrated sulphuric acid

We know that dilute $\ce{ H2SO4}$ doesn't react with copper because copper has higher reduction potential ($0.33$) as compared to hydrogen ($0.00$). However, it reacts with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ and ...
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Hydration in Chloral [duplicate]

Chloral consists of two OH bonds on the same carbon, which is usually unstable, and leads to the evolution of a water molecule, and converts into an aldehyde. However, this is not observed in chloral, ...
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Hydrogen peroxide on damp clothes left out in the sun [duplicate]

Somebody told me that sunlight is a good bleach for clothes because leaving damp clothes outside in the sunlight will turn some of the water into hydrogen peroxide. Is this true. If yes, then why can'...
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Using the steady state approximation in the decomposition of nitramide to determine rate law

$\ce{O2NNH2 (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_1] O2NNH- (aq) + H+ (aq)}$ $\ce{O2NNH- (aq) + H+ (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_{-1}] O2NNH2 (aq)}$ $\ce{O2NNH- (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_2] N2O(g) + OH- (aq)}$ $\ce{H+ (aq) + OH-...
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What is the relationship between nonpolar molecules and water? [closed]

What is the relationship between nonpolar molecules and water? help me understand this please
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Reaction of but-2-ene with Cl2/CCl4

I have often studied the reaction of Br2/CCl4 with But-2-ene which results in formation of But I wondered what would be formed if Cl2/CCl4 reacts with But-2-ene. Does it lead to the formation of ...
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Does a geminal or vicinal diiodide form upon addition of excess HI to but-2-yne?

Reaction: $\ce{CH3-C#C-CH3 + HI (excess) -> ?}$ Product : I thought of different carbons by the reasoning from this post earlier I posted. But it is given that both iodine atoms exist on the same ...
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1answer
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Is there a way to convert aniline to phenol without diazotizing it?

I am a high school student and while reading about reactions on amines, I was trying to figure out a way to convert aniline $(\ce{C6H5NH2})$ to phenol $(\ce{C6H5OH})$ without diazotizing it with ...
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How to avoid explosion when there is a leakage of LPG gas and coal gas/town gas?

How to avoid explosion when there is a leakage of LPG gas and coal gas/town gas? What are the conditions of that happening? The related underlying chemical reactions are hydrogen and butane combustion ...
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Reliance of migratory aptitude on steric hindrance and its effect on rate of reaction

I've learnt that the migratory aptitude of phenyl is greater than that for methyl, for example. But how do I find the order of the same for any given 2 groups, like $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{PhCH2CH2CH3-}$, ...
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1answer
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Can sodium borohydride reduce hemiacetals?

In the synthesis of Panacene by Canesi et al. [1], a step involves the installation of an $\ce{-OH}$ group on a double bond, using the oxymercuration-demercuration procedure. However, the product ...
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Mechanism for Ce(IV) Oxidation of Naphthalene

S. Cotton's Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry reports that naphthalene can be oxidized to naphthalene-1,4-dione using cerric ammonium sulfate (CAS), $\ce{MeCN, H2SO4},$ and $\ce{H2O}$.1 No mechanism ...
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1answer
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Second-step activation energy in SN1 reactions

In SN1 reactions, it's known that there are generally two steps, with the first being the R.D.S step involving carbocation formation and the next having a lower activation energy. Why does the second ...
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Can secondary alkyl halides be used in the Corey–House synthesis?

I've been told by my teacher that the Corey–House synthesis cannot proceed with secondary alkyl halides; they will prefer to undergo elimination over $\mathrm{S_N2}$ substitution. [used as the pseudo ...
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What intermediates are formed when WSe2 reacts with SeCl4 in a sealed evacuated (10^-5atm) ampoule kept at a range from 960°C to 1000°C?

I'm trying to synthesize $\ce{WSe2}$ bulk crystals via chemical vapor transport. I'm not able to understand what intermediates take place in it though. The literature says that $\ce{Cl2}$ gas reacts ...
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Why is it a product of ions in water? [duplicate]

What is the significance of finding the product of Hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions? What meaning is behind the product of these two that have been multiplied.
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Why is the molozonide adduct thermally unstable?

In the mechanism of alkene-ozonolysis, the intermediate molozonide adduct, which is a cyclical but symmetric molecule (shouldn't symmetry about the C-C single bond bring stability?), decomposes ...
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Confusion regarding dehydration of 1° alcohols

My lecturer told me that 2° and 3° alcohols prefer to dehydrate through E-1 mechanism. On the other hand, 1° alcohols tend to prefer the E-2 mechanism, which does not involve the formation of a ...
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Michaelis–Menten kinetics applied to a solution with two enzymes

Two enzymes are added to a solution containing a tow concentration of a substrate that they can both use. Which statement is correct? A. Both enzymes will use equal amounts of the substrate. B. ...
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Why does Birch reduction of naphthalene with isoamyl alcohol form tetralin instead of 1,4-dihydrodialin (as formed with C2H5OH)?

I recently came across this question, which required me to know the difference between performing a Birch reduction on naphthalene using ethanol and using isopentanol. Why does using isopentanol lead ...
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Does β-hydride elimination in main group metals occur?

As a side reaction of Grignard reagents, the following reaction is introduced on the Internet. I think this is β-hydride elimination reaction, but magnesium is a main group metal, not a transition ...
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1answer
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Why Inorganic chemistry reaction mechanisms are hard to find?

My textbook Chemistry Part 1,as in the attached photo states that[after the KClO3 reaction] “This reaction which apparently seems to be of the tenth order is actually a second order reaction. This ...
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Intermediates in aqueous bromination of phenol

A question in my book asks: In the reaction: The intermediate(s) is/are? The correct answers are given as However, as per my knowledge, compound (b) does not appear in the reaction mechanism. Is ...
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Does the anti-rust properties of bluing carbon steel disappear at a certain temperature?

Yesterday I blued my new carbon steel wok over a very high (200K BTU) burner which is capable of getting the wok to 1000+ degrees with ease. I understand that bluing adds a rust-resistant layer which ...
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1answer
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How does NaOH modify pyranodioxins?

I am given the molecule in black which is treated with $\ce{NaOH}$. The product is in blue. Could someone explain the mechanism? All I have so far is that the $\ce{-OH}$ group on the bottom right ...
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How does the oxymercuration reaction take place? [duplicate]

In several organic chemistry’s textbooks, the mechanism of forming a mercuronium ion is not described. How does the reaction of forming it take place?
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How exactly does copper react with hydrogen peroxide, salt and citric acid?

Context I have no knowledge in chemistry. I am looking for information about etching circuit boards with citric acid instead of hydrochloric acid because it seems it could be a safer, easier way as ...
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2answers
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How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions? [closed]

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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Alkyl halides that do not undergo Wurtz reaction [duplicate]

I am aware that there are many limitations to the Wurtz reaction, notably the inability of 3° Halides to undergo SN² substitution. Instead, they undergo elimination. I came across a compound, 4-...
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Why transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition reactions allowed?

As you know, cycloaddition reactions which (4n)π electrons are involved in such as [2+2]cycloaddition are forbidden in normal organic reactions, but transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition ...
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2answers
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Why does this acid-base reaction occur?

My teacher told me about the reaction of sodium peroxide with water: $$\text{Na}_2\text{O}_2 + 2\text{H}_2\text{O} \ce{->} \text{H}_2\text{O}_2 + 2\text{NaOH}$$ Now, the concentration of products ...
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Possible mechanism by which a methyl glycinate hydrochloride salt in toluene (insoluble) reacts with an acid chloride through the nitrogen atom?

I'm trying to work out a possible mechanism for the reaction of a methyl glycinate hydrochloride salt in toluene (it is insoluble) with an acid chloride, reacting through the N-terminus. As the amine ...
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1answer
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p-Nitroaniline reaction with sulfuric acid

An alternative version of the well-known demonstration carbon snake (the dehydration reaction of sugar by concentrated sulfuric acid forming a column of graphite) consists in mixing paranitroaniline ...
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Hydrogen peroxide and potassium iodide reactions

What is the explanation for the two possible reactions of $\ce{H2O2}$ with $\ce{KI}$ in acid media (iodide-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or iodide oxidation by hydrogen peroxide) and ...
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Molecularity of Saponification Reaction

I had a doubt while reading about the saponification reaction of esters in basic medium. What is the molecularity of the reaction and why? P.S - I think its bimolecular and heres why - The RDS of ...
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E1 or E2 Elimination? Which Elimination occurs first?

In this reaction scheme, two dehydrobrominations occur. A bulky base is used but both hydrogens are sterically hindered. How is it possible to determine, which one is removed first? Or is this an $E_1$...
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2answers
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How does the treatment of resin R-SO3H with sodium chloride lead to formation of RNa?

I am studying the methods of removal of permanent hardness of water, and came across the "synthetic resins method". From my textbook, Cation exchange resins contain large organic molecules ...
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What happens if you do not allow time for an exothermic reaction to cool down?

I realise I did not give some time for the chemicals (which are releasing heat during an exothermic reaction) to cool down first and instead, I added another chemical substance to the reaction mixture ...

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