Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Reactivity of phenol and hydroquinone in electrophilic aromatic substitution

So I had a argument with my teacher about which is more reactive, phenol or hydroquinone. So he first taught us the formation of $\pi$-complex (where the $\pi$-electrons are donated to the ...
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What happens to concrete if you add lye to the mix?

What happens if you’re mixing concrete and you add some lye to it? Does it make it weaker, stronger or does nothing at all? I’m guessing concrete is basic so adding lye to it might expedite the ...
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Where does sulfination occur on phenyl benzoate? [closed]

What would be the major product formed in the following reaction? I’m unsure to which carbon does the $\ce{SO3H}$ end up on. I am aware that this is a sulfonation reaction.
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Why organic reaction mechanisms so popular [closed]

Why are organic reaction mechanisms so much more popular than inorganic mechanisms? When I come to think of it, what is a reaction mechanism? How can we use an arrow? Is it a rough approximation of ...
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The major product of reaction is: [closed]

I am unable to solve this question please help with the detailed mecahnism
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72 views

How to precipitate Chloroplatinic acid? [closed]

For the precipitation reaction, I have to react $\ce{H2PtCl6}$ with $\ce{(NH4)2CO3}$ while maintaining the $\ce{pH}$ in the range of 7-8 at 60 °C. But the problem is Chloroplatinic acid is not ...
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44 views

Reaction of alc. KOH with alkyl halide

The following question was given in FIITJEE study material: At first, I thought it should be elimination. But, soon I realized that there is no heating, plus a primary alkyl halide is used. So, "...
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1answer
49 views

Why does methyl not shift in the mechanism of isoborneol to camphene?

After the formation of carbocation, I was confused why would the reaction not go in favor of forming bornylene. I am still not sure why but I think that $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridized carbon will cause a ...
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Is the activation energy always inversely proportional to the reaction rate?

When I obtained the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation for a 10-minute glowstick (rapid, rigorous reaction), it was almost 4 times that of a 12-hour glowstick (slow, mild reaction). ...
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Conversion of hypnone to dypnone

Hypnone is another name of Acetophenone. It is used as a hypnotic and can be converted to dypnone (I am attaching the structure below) on reaction with aluminium tert-butoxide $\ce{Al(OC(CH3)3)3}$. ...
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49 views

Se+P White or red P?

I read this in an old chemistry book. It says: When selenium is dropped into melted phosphorus, it dissolves rapidly, and the compound sinks through the liquid phosphorus in red streaks. My ...
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Double dehydration of a geminal diol [closed]

I've recently came across this reaction and I am wondering about the mechanism. Could someone please help me? If you could give me the name of the reaction (if it has one) it should also be enough for ...
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Ozonolysis: mechanism for reductive workup of ozonide using Zn/Acetic Acid/Water

What is the mechanism for the reductive workup of an ozonide using zinc/acetic acid/water? Many sources online show the mechanism using DMS instead: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-...
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Substituted Diene Preparation from Aniline / Novel Cyclic Imine Preparation

I have recently been studying the following mechanism recommended by another user from the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2004.06.026. In this paper, the following mechanism is proposed (...
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Dative Bonding in organic chemistry [duplicate]

I just learned about Substitution reactions in organic chemistry which involves nucleophiles donating charges to vacant orbitals in carbocation. This made me realise that many organic mechanisms ...
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1answer
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Calculate the mass of iron in the original mixture!

I seemingly can't solve the following problem, I've spend over 30 mins on it, no progress, can any of you geniusses give a step by step solution to me? Thank you so much Problem: A mixture of ...
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How long does it take Freon refrigerant to disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage?

I would like to know please how long does it take Freon refrigerant to completely disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage? Does it stick to surfaces , clothes or walls? Does natural ...
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Plausible Mechanisms for Polyketide Formation from Phloroglucinol

I am working on modifying the reaction below. I am adding the sulfonate (ignore the sulfonic acid groups shown) groups so that polysubstitution of the phloroglucinol does not occur. In terms of the ...
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1answer
32 views

Emulsification and liquid liquid surface reaction [closed]

What will happen if I skip the addition of surfactant? will the reaction happen only at the surface of the parent liquids?
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141 views

How is NaBH4 able to reduce tertiary alkyl halides to alkane but LiAlH4 create an alkene?

When attacking tertiary alkyl halides, aren't both of them just supposed to follow SN2 and substitute the leaving group with Hydride ion? Apparently only NaBH4 does it and LiAlH4 causes an E1 ...
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1answer
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Which free radical is more stable, allyl free radical or benzyl free radical? [duplicate]

Can someone pls tell me which one is it? Benzyl free radical has 4 resonance structures compared to allyl free radical which has only 2. More the resonance structures should mean more stable the ...
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Epoxide with solvent vs with water

The answer given is an epoxide. But is an epoxide stable at room temperature? And also epoxides tend to open in presence of water. Even if methyl alcohol is treated as a solvent, then too methyl ...
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Is organic chemistry mechanisms limited to organic chemistry?

I am curious to know the mechanism of each reaction. Organic chemistry is satisfying for me because there is a mechanism behind each reaction which make a sense but when I Google for the mechanism of ...
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73 views

Controlling rate of endothermic reaction

In an experiment, I have two endothermic reactions taking place simultaneously: $$ \begin{align} \ce{A + B &-> C + D}\tag{1}\\ \ce{E + G &-> Z + F}\tag{2} \end{align} $$ $\ce{C}$ and $\...
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Reaction mechanism of lithiated benzene and oxygen in acid

According to (1) addition of O2 in acid to lithiated benzene makes phenol. I'm trying to deduce the mechanism, and somehow it doesn't feel right but I'm not sure. (1) Snieckus, V. Directed ortho ...
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When aluminium is ignited in atmosphere, will it form only aluminium oxide or also aluminium nitride?

We know when lithium is burnt in air, it forms lithium nitride and lithium oxide. I am wondering if this applies to aluminium (other metals) also?
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Can ascorbic acid be neutralized and keep it's elastic properties in dough?

Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is commonly used in dough to give it strength and elasticity. However, I need this dough to be alkaline, or at the very least neutral. I've used sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) before ...
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What is the rate equation of decomposition of H2O2 with catalysts?

What is the rate equation of this reaction with the presence of catalysts $\ce{MnO2}$, $\ce{PbO2}$ and $\ce{Fe2O3}$? (asking for each of them, separately, not altogether) $$\ce{2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2}$...
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1answer
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Does a bulky nuclephile react faster by Michael or direct addition?

Between Michael or direct addition on a $\alpha,\beta$-unsaturated ketone, I think that Michael addition is faster than the direct addition as the nucleophile can attack orthrogonally to the $\ce{C=C}$...
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Can the relative reactivities of different compounds that undergo the same reaction be compared if the compounds follow different overall kinetics?

I have read that if some different compounds undergo the same reaction and under the same conditions, but follow different overall kinetic orders, then their rate constants or relative reactivities ...
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2answers
169 views

Cyclisation of acetone on reaction with conc. H2SO4

Mechanism for reaction of acetone with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$: The product is supposed to be mesitylene and on various sites I found the reason behind it to be aldol condensation And some sites did ...
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3answers
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How to make elemental silicon?

I want to extract elemental silicon from pure silicon dioxide powder. From what I've read, one way to do it is by adding carbon from graphite at very high temperatures, which is difficult. A better ...
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1answer
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Does reaction of alkali and alkaine earth metals' reaction with water an acid-base reaction? [closed]

In my chemistry notes the teacher gave me the note that reaction of alkali, alkaline earh metals' reactivity with water, acids(e.g. H2S) increases down the group and bases(e.g.NH3) decreases down the ...
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71 views

Why does protic solvent suggest E1 mechanism rather than E2?

If I understood correctly, having a protic solvent increases chance of E1 mechanism. But I can not rationalize this because carbocation intermediate is a positively charged molecule, and by ...
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...
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1answer
36 views

5-methylhexa-1,3-diene reaction with HBr [closed]

What will be the major product of the reaction? I guess that rearrangement will take place and give 5-bromo-5-methylhex-2-ene as a product, but I'm completely not sure
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1answer
38 views

Mechanism involved in bromine water test

$$\ce{CH3CH=CH2 ->[Br2] CH3-CHBr-CH2Br}$$ In the reaction mechanism, why does the nucleophile attack at the 2nd carbon atom? Shouldn't it attack at the 1st one, so that in the transition state, ...
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1answer
62 views

Are the reaction rates of these equations equal? [closed]

$$\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br + OH- -> CH3CH2CH2OH + Br-}$$ $$\mathrm{rate} = k[\ce{CH3CH2CH2Br}][\ce{OH-}]$$ If I change the $\ce{Br}$ with any element from halogens (without changing concentration, volume, ...
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Acid-catalysed isomerisation of phenyl epoxide to aldehyde

How does $\ce{H3O+}$ cause the formation of an aldehyde from the following epoxide? I thought that the epoxide would undergo opening to form a 1,2-diol, as illustrated below. Am I wrong?
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Does aniline react with FeBr₃?

I have read that aniline does not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction because it complexes with Lewis acid $\ce{AlCl3}.$ Will it also react with $\ce{FeBr3}$ during bromination (to receive a 3-bromo ...
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Chemical Structure of PLA soaked in Ethyl acetate

I am trying to find a way to separate my PLA samples and ABS samples. Both of these are 3D printing plastics (Polylactic acid and Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) Last night I've observed: When ...
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1answer
126 views

Is Pinacol rearrangement the source for the ring expansion?

I have no idea what's happening as in the product (the answer is (a)) there is a new ring being formed on the left benzene. But as I studied after $\ce{H2O}$ leaves, a carbocation is then formed on ...
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What happens when these 3 chemicals are mixed in air? [closed]

What happens when these 3 chemicals are mixed in air? Pentanone/Di-isopropyl Ketone (2,4-Dimethyl-3-Pentanone) Iodine, reagent grade Sodium Iodide, reagent grade. The 3 parts make up a liquid in ...
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1answer
38 views

The product of the reaction of chloroiodoalkane and cyanide ion in acetone

What would be the product of the following reaction $\ce{Cl-CH2-CH2-CH2-I + KCN} $ ($\pu{1mol}$ each) in acetone? I think the reaction should follow the second order nucleophilic substitution ...
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1answer
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Why does the O atom of N-phenylnitrosamine donate its lone pair towards H+ when O is more electronegative than N?

Nitrogen has lone pair as well which it can donate towards the proton but instead we see the oxygen being protonated despite being more electronegative. Also, this is not like the next part where $\ce{...
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Is it feasible to measure the pH of solution consisting of hydrofluoric acid, methanol and water using redox potential method?

Is it feasible to measure the pH of $\ce{HF}:\ce{H3COH}:\ce{H2O}$ solution using redox potential method? Can I use this method to calculate the $\ce{H+}$ ions in this solution and specifically, can I ...
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1answer
32 views

Remove stain from synthetic leather

I have a valuable soccer ball. It is not real leather, but a synthetic leather. I used this cleaning agent to remove a few marks: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Motsenbockers-Lift-Off-Graffiti-Remover-...
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50 views

Reaction of alkyl halides with potassium cyanide

Its given in my book that alkyl halides react with alcoholic potassium cyanide to give alkyl cyanide through $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism. But why do we need to use alcoholic $\ce{KCN}$ (potassium ...
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What factors affect the chemiluminesnence of a glow stick reaction?

I know that temperature affects the reaction rate of a glowstick, but are there any other factors? I was thinking the different color dye molecules would have an effect on the reaction rate, since ...
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1answer
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How do Lewis acids interact with 1,4-diketones and amines to form an alkaloid?

The following double cyclization was used to generate the ring system of the lycoanitine alkaloids in 2005. Demonstrate your understanding of this C−C bond-forming process by providing a mechanistic ...