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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Why nitration of aniline carried out after acetylation give ortho and para major products?

I was reading about the meta directing nature of anilinium cations and the answer mentioned that these reactions are usually carried out with 90-98% sulphuric acid. At these concentrations I would ...
mechanist's user avatar
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1 answer
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A curly arrow can only have its tail starting from a double bond or lone pair?

According to this video, a curly arrow representing a reaction mechanism can only have its tail starting from a double bond or a lone pair. I am wondering if the tail of a curly arrow could also start ...
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How can i find protocol for Bocylation of Amino-PEG4-Acid and its deprotection?

I intend to make mesoporous silica nanoparticles(MSNP) with a peptide attached to it. Between my target peptide and MSNP, i use Amino-PEG4-Acid as a linker molecule. Due to the order of assembling ...
Thalaa's user avatar
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4 votes
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Mechanism of Cu Catalyzed reaction between Benzoic acid with DMF

I'm looking for the mechanism of this reaction that I have stumbled upon. It is believed to be a radical reaction and I can kinda see that but I'm not convinced that I can understand all of the steps, ...
GabrielAlx's user avatar
-1 votes
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Acetylation of salicylic acid

How is acetylation of salicylic acid a type of nucleophilic substitution reaction? Isn't only H being substituted by the acetyl group? and hydrogen isn't a nucleophile right?
user145228's user avatar
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Reaction SMARTS for Secondary Amine and Carboxylic Acid

I'm working on replicating methods from Klarich et al. [1] and the authors do not provide the reaction SMARTS used for synthesizing secondary amine + carboxylic acid building blocks. Does anyone have ...
Karl's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Calculation of Reaction Extent as a Function of Pressure and Temperature: Issue with Activity-Based Approach

I'm working on modeling reactions involving combinations of hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and strontium (Sr) elements. I've obtained the temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy of formation, enthalpy, ...
David's user avatar
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Is the Trans Influence Truly Thermodynamic or part kinetic? If the starting complex is raised by a strong σ donor, won't the products be raised too?

I am a little confused about the trans influence and trans effect, but mainly the trans influence. I think I understand the trans effect as certain ligands being able to better stabilise the ...
KKH's user avatar
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Unknown oily substance forming during reaction of concentrated vinegar and calcium carbonate

I was attempting to produce calcium acetate by mixing concentrated vinegar (bought online) and calcium carbonate (sourced from wood ash) and ran a small scale test in a beaker before I reacted the ...
Metal Master's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
96 views

1-Bromo-4-tert-butylbenzene reaction with NaNH2 [closed]

I'm struggling to grasp how the reaction would turn out. Could you help? My idea was that the bromide atom will get replaced by the amino group of $\ce{NaNH2}$, but when I google, I read that $\ce{...
wengen's user avatar
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3 answers
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Why are we permitted to add things to balance redox equations?

Consider balancing redox half equations. As a general rule, we can add electrons, water, hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions to balance the redox half equation. However, it is not entirely clear why we ...
11221's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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Does the acetic acid in vinegar oxidize significantly?

I apologize in advance for this question. I did very well in O Chem, but that was 50 years ago and I had to study very hard. I don't remember much of it now except what's common in basic biological ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Oxidation of 1,2 dicarbonyls by tollens reagent

According to the wiki page on Tollen's reagent https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tollens%27_reagent#Qualitative_organic_analysis It also gives a positive test with hydrazines, hydrazones, α-hydroxy ...
mark's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Need help with synthesis of iron (II,III) oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles

I am attempting to synthesize iron (II,III) oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4). I have some iron acetate and have seen some literature where people have synthesized Cu nanoparticles using a polyol process. ...
assasinchop7's user avatar
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1 answer
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Questions on protonation / substituent effects on the energies of HOMO and LUMO

I am trying to understand mechanisms through HOMO/LUMO and am struggling to understand 3 points from a lecture slide I found on the internet: Focusing on sigma*(C-F), sigma*(C-O) and sigma*(C-C), I ...
Question's user avatar
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Question about regioselectivity depending on the base used [closed]

In one of my organic chemistry lessons, it is possible to produce 2-methylbut-2-ene and 2-methylbut-1-ene from 2-bromo-2-methylbutane using a base, using the mechanism E2. The percentage of the two ...
AT N's user avatar
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What is the difference in reactivity between the various borates (trimethyl, triethyl, triisopropyl borate) to form boronic acids?

For the transformation of 1,3-dibromobenzene to bromobenzene boronic acid, different groups use different boration reagents namely trimethylborate, triethyborate and triisopropylborate). The reaction ...
The Red Man Jolan Bonelli's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
49 views

Will a reaction happen slower if it has a higher enthalpy change than its counterparts?

Suppose both reactions are conducted in identical conditions and they have the same activation energy, and B has 0 enthalpy. Which one will happen faster? My experiment said reaction A happen slower ...
Chris Nalusaku's user avatar
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0 answers
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What are a some of the best crosslinkers for uv curing of benzyl methacrylate?

I'm hoping someone can suggest some crosslinkers for uv curing benzyl methacrylate that are low in viscosity, relatively high in refractive index and most importantly that will impart hardness and ...
Don Volk's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
39 views

Why is some racemisation possible in Sn2 reaction?

Partial racemisation is known to occur in Sn1 reactions, but why does Sn2 reaction also show little racemisation?
user144595's user avatar
1 vote
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Why does solution turn yellow at higher temperatures in potassium iodate-sodium metabisulfite variation?

When I did the potassium iodide-sodium thiosulfate experiment, the reaction mixture did not turn yellow at higher temperatures. For example, it was blue-black at 50 degrees celsius, however, for ...
Cin's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the full mechanism for the controlled reduction of an alkyne using LiAlH₄?

Was going through my notes and realised I didn't completely fill them in. The first few steps I think are quite self-explanatory but I'm really confused about the last step where I go from the five-...
ajk's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Silver Nitrate Solution + Flame = Mirror?

I purchased an interesting product recently, which says it contains: "Isopropyl alocohol, silver nitrate, Water-based lacquer". You apply it to a smooth surface, then use a blowtorch on it ...
Jon's user avatar
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The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene

Problem: The mechanism for the addition of HCl to propylene is described below. Complete the mechanism in step 1 with one curved arrow showing the electron movement that occurs when the double bond ...
Nora's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Potassium Ethoxide Synthesis: Does the Reaction Involve Radical Processes?

Can Potassium Ethoxide be obtained by reacting the alcohol with metallic potassium? Considering that potassium, as a group one metal, has only one valence electron, would this reaction therfore ...
Re7's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction?

Problem: Which of these monomers can polymerize by chain addition reaction? Solution: The monomers with red crosses underneath them can polymerize by chain addition reaction. Question: So, how I am ...
Nora's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
111 views

Why NaOH(s,l) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(s)? Why not NaOH(g) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(g)?

Why doesn't $\ce{NaOH(g)}$ react with $\ce{CO2(g)}$ to produce gaseous sodium carbonate $\ce{(Na2CO3(g))}$: $$ \ce{2 NaOH(g) + CO2(g) → Na2CO3(g) + H2O(g)} \tag{3} $$ Why don't we see any gaseous $\ce{...
Farzad's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
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Why can't the diene in a diels-alder also be a dienophile [closed]

why can't the diene react with itself like this
OZWizard X's user avatar
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Mechanism of oxidation reaction with periodate

What is the mechanism of reaction of periodate with β-hydroxy amine? I tried the to write the mechanism similar to that of reaction with 1,2-diol but I am not able to obtain 2 carbonyl compound and ...
WIZARD GAMER's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
180 views

Reaction Mechanism for tert-butyl alcohol and an aldehyde

Consider the reaction between tert-butyl alcohol and acetadelhyde in the presence of $\ce{HBr}$ in aqueous solution: $$\ce {(CH_3)_3COH(aq) + (CH_3)CHO(aq)} \longrightarrow ?$$ Here is my assumed ...
user1117233's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
77 views

Mechanism for elimination in 3-Chloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene

So, I came across this reaction as an example of E2 elimination. Our teacher told us that this is what we call E2' reaction, as in, the $\ce{OH^-}$ takes the terminal $\ce{H^+}$, followed by ...
Laxmi Narayan Bhandari's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
82 views

HCN reactor design

For my diploma work, I should design a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) producing reactor. I found that for the BMA process, overall $$\ce{CH4 + NH3 -> HCN + 3 H2 \quad{} \Delta{}H_r = \pu{251 kJ / mol} }$$ ...
Laman Alipashayeva's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
459 views

Reaction of cyclohexene with HCO3H

Reaction of cyclohexene with a peroxy acid like mCPBA gives an epoxy acid according to Prilezhaev Reaction. I think it should work with any per acid according to the Mechanism here. But HCO3H gives ...
Joy8144's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Confusion in Free Radical Reactions with alkenes

I was reading the free radical reactions, therein I saw two almost same(atleast that's what i think) but forming different products. First, we have cyclohexene reacting with Br2 in presence of ...
PinkAura's user avatar
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-4 votes
1 answer
57 views

What shold be the answer to the given reaction? [closed]

Q.75 The final product A, formed in the following reaction sequence is: $$\ce{ Ph-CH=CH2 ->[(i) BH3 (ii) H2O2,OH- (iii) HBr][(iv) Mg, ether, then HCHO/H3O+] A }$$ Options $\ce{Ph-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH}$ $...
Rock's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
74 views

Does the E1cb elimination mechanism have a first-order or a pseudo-first order rate law?

Elimination reactions turning a single C-C bond into a double bond are classified as E1, E2, or E1cb, depending on the mechanism (concerted or with intermediate), the stereochemical outcome and their ...
Karsten's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
147 views

Why O-H bond and not C-O bond breaks in Acid Catalyzed Hydration of Alkene?

Recently, while studying Hydrocarbons I came across this reaction (Acid catalyzed hydration of an alkene) What I don't get here is that the breaking of O-H bond (in Step 3) and not the C-O bond, even ...
PinkAura's user avatar
  • 107
1 vote
1 answer
95 views

How to get 1-ethyl-3-isopropylbenzene fron benzene [closed]

I have to synthesize the compound shown above in a multi-step synthesis. My biggest issue is that I have no idea how to obtain one of the alkyl group in the meta-position. Getting the first alkyl ...
pez's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
59 views

What is the enthalpy change for elimination reactions of alkyl halide - exothermic or endothermic?

There are a few questions in thermodynamics (with unverified data) that the addition reaction of ethene to give ethyl chloride has a +ve enthalpy change, thereby elimination to give alkene must be ...
Che Mistry's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
90 views

Why is my Briggs-Rauscher reaction not oscillating?

I have been trying to run the Briggs-Rauscher reaction following this guide, which is pretty similar to other guides out there, yet the reaction is failing to not only oscillate, but display any color ...
user16791137's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
61 views

How does Tollen’s reagent reacts with hydroxylamine?

How does the Tollens' reagent react with hydroxyl amines? For example, let's consider phenylhydroxylamine $\ce{Ph-NH-OH}$ reaction with Tollens' reagent. First it yields $\ce{Ph-N=O}$ and on further ...
Aditya's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
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Model EC50/Kd values using ordinary differential equations

It is my first attempt at using ordinary differential equations to model Kd for antibody binding and help will be much appreciated. To provide some context, I possess binding curve data for the EC50 ...
hypermiler3's user avatar
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0 answers
43 views

Why is the reaction between the two free radicals below not observed?

All the below reactions are observed: Why is this one not happening?
Shaktyai's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Rules for (hydro)chlorination of double and triple carbon bonds

If $\ce{HCl}$ is added in a compound with both double and triple bond the double bond breaks and gets chlorinated. If $\ce{Cu2Cl2}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$ are also present then which bond will get ...
Aaditya Maurya's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
551 views

What part of ascorbic acid is oxidized when it reacts with iodine?

When vitamin C reacts with iodine, it will lose two of its electrons (oxidation) which iodine will accept (reduction). What I do not understand is what part of the vitamin C exactly is losing the ...
user138990's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
67 views

Rearrangment during dehydration of 2,2,5-trimethylcyclopentanol

Here I thought doing the following mechanisms I thought the product option through the first pathway (left) would be the major product because the intermediate cation is more stabilised due to more ...
Sudarshan Kulkarni's user avatar
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0 answers
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How does the Eschweiler Clarke reaction occur with sodium cyanoborohydride as a reducing agent?

I am specifically confused with 2 concepts. How sodium cyanoborohydride acts as a reducing agent. I read that it acts as a source of hydride but I am not sure how this works. If anything, I assumed ...
glowabit's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
126 views

Reasonable mechanism for conversion of 2-methylbut-3-en-2-ol to 1-Bromo-3-methylbut-2-ene

In the book "Designing Organic Syntheses - A programmed approach to the Synthon Approach" pg 23, the author proposes that one route to 1-bromo-3-methylbut-2-ene would be by reacting 2-...
gregmagdits's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
62 views

what would be the mechanism for these reactions?

I believe the first one would have an intramolecular attack by the sulfur inverting the stereochem followed by an attack by OH- but I can’t get the second one.
david's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
209 views

Should I remove inhibitor from methyl acrylate?

I need to run multiple aza-Michael additions of methyl acrylate with various amines (dimethylamine, benzylamine, phenylethylamine, aniline, etc.) in order to get the bis-ester. I was wondering if the ...
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