Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Why does Lithium Diisopropylamide not attack the carbonyl carbon in Claisen condensation?

The mechanism for Claisen condensation shows that base molecule (in my notes, Lithium Diisopropylamide) removes an $\alpha$ proton. However, why does the nitrogen not directly attack the carbonyl ...
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924 views

Why does Birch reduction of naphthalene with isoamyl alcohol form tetralin instead of 1,4-dihydrodialin (as formed with C2H5OH)?

I recently came across this question, which required me to know the difference between performing a Birch reduction on naphthalene using ethanol and using isopentanol. Why does using isopentanol lead ...
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Can alkylboron amines undergo Suzuki reaction with bromobenzene?

$$\ce{NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-B(OR)2}$$ I don't know what the name of this compound is, but can the Suzuki reaction proceed under basic conditions with an aryl halide and a general palladium catalyst in the ...
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Why do active methylene compounds give Sn2 reactions?

I dont understand why they are strong nucleophiles when the negative charge is resonance stabilised. Also it is bulky, is there any chance of elimination?
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Modeling chemical reaction [closed]

Can someone please tell me how do model chemical reactions, by this I mean prepare input of chemicals on LHS and RHS of the equation. I can see how input CO2 can be prepared and for H+, I think for ...
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1answer
35 views

Reactivity of Alkenes with HBr [closed]

I am new in the Organic Chemistry (World of Reactions). I had got one question in my test. But, when I had seen it, I got no proper logic to tick the correct answer, and then when I saw solution, then ...
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How baking soda help in indigestion of stomach? [closed]

We have learnt that baking soda can be used for neutralizing excessive acid in stomach formed during indigestion. And after some time we get a burp(CO2) after drinking baking soda solution. So why we ...
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247 views

Condensation reaction between catechol and acetone

I was thinking of ways to synthesize 2,2-bis(dihydroxyphenyl) propane and I thought it could be made by a condensation reaction between dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and acetone in strongly acidic ...
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ortho-bromoanisole + NaNH2 + Liquid NH3 =?

when we add ortho-bromoanisole in NaNH2 + NH3 we form products using the benzyne mechanism. here, we form the products considering only -I effect of -OCH3, if we consider its +M effect we would form, ...
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Regarding the mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration of alkenes

I'm trying to write the reaction mechanism of oxymercuration-demercuration of alkenes. The one my textbook gave is this : Alkene react with mercuric acetate in a mixture of water and THF to produce ...
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Reaction of CO2 with NaOH and H2O [duplicate]

Sir, I want to know the conditions in which the following reactions takes place. CO2 + NaOH ---> H2CO3 ---> Na2CO3 (salt of Oxo-acid) CO2 + H2O ---> H2CO3 (oxo-acid) So, Both the ...
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How does deprotonation works?

I've been studying organic chemistry and came across this example : CH3-CH2-CH(+)-CH3 ---> CH3-CH=CH-CH3, the explanation the textbook gave was related to deprotonation. I've tried drawing lewis ...
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How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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When does reaction of alcohol with alumina give an ether and when an alkene?

What is the main product when an excess of ethyl alcohol vapour is passed over heated alumina at 250 °C? I read that this reaction gives an ether (here, diethyl ether) at relatively lower temperature ...
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why Tin/Zinc alloys can be used to solder aluminum and Tin alone does not "wet" the aluminum?

It is impossible to solder aluminum with only tin, tin does not "wet" aluminum surface because of the instantaneous reaction aluminum/oxygen on the surface of the base metal (aluminum). I ...
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Relationship between thermodynamics and steric hindrance in reaction outcomes?

I am investigating reactions with alkyl-substituted amines ($\ce{R} = \ce{Me}, \ce{Et}, \ce{^iPr}, \ce{^tBu}$) and a second reagent, in which product Z is formed. $\Delta G$ for all of these ...
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Carbonyl oxygen as nucleophile

Aldehydes and ketones have electrophilic centres at their carbonyl C, since the carbonyl O polarises the bond and attracts electron density towards itself on account of its high electronegativity. But ...
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Racemization of hydrocarbon in presence of AlCl3

Our textbook mentioned that the compound in the diagram racemizes in presence of $\ce{AlCl3}$, but it didn't explain anything. Any help regarding the mechanism of the reaction would be appreciated.
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What is the effect of temperature on the enthalpy of reaction?

In the study of reaction mechanisms, enthalpy of formation for intermediate compounds at various temperatures is studied. I understand the reason to do that. How much (and what) effect can temperature ...
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1answer
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Why do radical inhibitors inhibit a reaction by creating a "more stable" radical, but for monohalogenation, we WANT to form the most stable radical?

According to my notes, radical inhibitors tend to turn a more reactive radical into a less reactive radical by making it more stable. For instance, the hydroquinone reacts with a radical species, ...
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HDPE production free radicals

I know that LDPE is produced by addition polymerization, where the free radical is peroxide or some other radical oxygen species. This isn't part of the product we want but also isn't a catalyst, ...
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1answer
35 views

Reaction of primary amine with mixed acid anhydride

Is this reaction $\ce{S_N2}$ (because attack of nucleophile and removal of leaving group are not taking place in a single step)? Which part of anhydride should form the substituted amide? If it is an ...
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Why are alpha hydroxy acids stable? [closed]

We were told by our teacher that 4 hydroxyl groups on same carbon atom results in formation of carbon dioxide by removal of 2 water molecules and he also told that 3 hydroxyl groups on the same Carbon ...
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1answer
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How to make a steady supply of water from a supply of H2 and O2

writing a survival novel where a guy needs to survive and needs to make water to do so. It is on another planet and he access to sci-fi type manufacturing machines that can make most tings. He has a ...
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Why we can use ΔH to determine reaction rate in free radical bromination reaction steps?

I am trying to understand why we can use ΔH to determine reaction rate in this a free radical halogenation reaction. Given: (CH3)2CH2 + Br• → (CH3)2CH• + HBr = 397 - 368 = +29 kJ/mol = ΔH (CH3)2CH• + ...
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How is MgSO4 a neutral salt? [duplicate]

So the reaction for forming MgSO4 involves two reactants: H2SO4 and Mg(OH)2, However, the salt formed is netural. Even though H2SO4 is a strong acid and Mg(OH)2 is not a strong base. Shouldn't the ...
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Why does the reaction of sodium nitrate, aluminium, and sodium hydroxide yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al ...
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1answer
105 views

How can one determine if all reagents will react in the reaction? [closed]

Is it correct that all the reagents above the arrow will participate to form an intermediate product, to which the reagents below the arrow are then added, and they react to form the final product? ...
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How do ketone react with a peroxy acid to yield an ester? [duplicate]

This may be a really dumb question but I can't find any mechanism plot or reasoning how ketone reacts with carboxylic acid and form an ester. I thought R-OH react with RC(O)OOH to form ester.. I tried ...
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2answers
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addition of HBr to a conjugated alkene

here we shift double bond and change the carbocation from 3 degree to 2 degree, by doing so we are saying that hindrance matters more than carbocation stability, is this always the case in such ...
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What causes the amber/colourless/blue colours in the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction?

I am using this commonly cited but simplified reaction mechanism of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction. Reaction 1 & 2 occur simultaneously. For reaction 1, when the iodide concentration is low, the ...
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Fluorine detection in organic compounds

Many of you will know why I am asking this question. There is a lot of attention recently to the dangers of the so called Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). In essence organic ...
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1answer
873 views

Mechanism and type of polymerization of chloroethene

Ethene reacts with hydrogen chloride to form a monomer used in the production of a polymer. This monomer is chloroethene. How is the polymer formed from the monomer? Is this an addition or a ...
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Role of hcl gas in organic reactions [closed]

I encountered many questions in the competitive exam field of high school organic chemistry where we add some compounds and treat it in excess alcohol solutions in the presence of dry hcl gas, it is ...
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The Mechanism of Termolecular Reactions

How does a termolecular elementary reaction happen under the law of mass action? My physical chemistry textbook only says details about bimolecular and unimolecular reactions with collision theory. I ...
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1answer
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Reaction of Grignard reagents with phosphoric acid derivatives

The use of Grignard reagents that people are most familiar with is the production of tertiary alcohols by reaction with a suitable carbonyl compound, whether it be an ester, ketone, or aldehyde. As I ...
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Understanding electrolysis w/ oxalic acid electrolyte, iron electrodes

I've been experimenting with electrolysis for rust removal, electroplating, de-plating, etc. Right now I have a rust removal setup with carbon steel electrodes and a solution of oxalic acid in ...
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Preference for most acidic hydrogen

I understand that deprotonation from the carbon circled in red is feasible because deprotonation results in a resonance-stabilised structure. But according to it, deprotonation is also feasible in ...
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Regioselectivity in the opening of 3-membered heterocycles

(a) Consider the following reactions : For these two reactions, the nucleophile attacks the less substituted carbon as it is less sterically hindered. (b) Now consider the following reactions : For ...
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Formation of α,β-unsaturated ketone from tertiary propargyl halide

My attempt: I went ahead with an $\mathrm{S_N1}$ type reaction followed by the attack of $\ce{OH-}$ on the 3 degree carbocation formed. This does not match with the answer given (see image below), in ...
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Decalcifying metal tubes using organic acids

I have a water that is saturated with Calcium Magnesium Carbonate $\ce{CaMg(CO3)_2}$ (Dolomite). This precipitates in particularly metal pipes and whenever the water is heated. Instead of ion exchange ...
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What would the mechanism be for intermediate B to Supinidine, and what would by product C be? [closed]

I have managed to do the mechanism for the first step, but have no clue how 4 equivalents of MeLi are used for the second step of the reaction.
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1answer
128 views

Relationship between molecularity and the reaction order

Should the molecularity be equal or less than the reaction order? Consider the reaction: $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(g) → 2 HI(g)}$$ If we consider the mechanism of this multi-step reaction, the molecularity is ...
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1answer
59 views

Synthetic Autunite reaction with HCl

The mineral autunite, $\ce{Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2}$, is usually present in a hydrated form (i.e., $\ce{Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 * {10}-{12} H2O}$). I'm interested in understanding the reaction with hydrochloric acid. I ...
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120 views

Efficacy of Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction on =o, c=o bonds of ring structures?

Updated Q: Inquiring to understand the efficacy of intramolecular Friedel-Craft like reaction on stability on the ring structures with =o, c=o bonds. Keen to know if ring structures are challenged ...
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2answers
114 views

How do I obtain a 3D MOLFILE for the lactose synthase structure, especially the catalytic center?

So for example there is a paper by Ramakrishnan and Qasba which presents a model in a 3d stereo picture it has UDP-Gal, Glc, Mn++, a piece of the lactalbumin protein (?) and a piece of the lactose ...
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1answer
54k views

What is the mechanism for oxidation of ketones by the Popoff's rule?

Ketones are relatively much harder to oxidise, but they do undergo oxidation reactions at extreme temperatures. Our teacher also told us about Popoff's rule which states that, on oxidation of ...
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Are there any pathways that can change a solution to all colors of the rainbow?

The challenge's like this. Suppose you have a beaker containing a liquid of transparent or any color. You add some drops of another liquid and the beaker turns into, say, red after some swishing. You ...
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1answer
114 views

Does the Oxy or Alkoxy Claisen Rearrangement Exist?

@Waylander's cogent Comment to the query of @Random Guy inspired me to post a problem in synthesis to test a question I have pondered for some time. The activation energy (AE) for the Cope ...
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1answer
114 views

Photochemical cycloaddition of ethene

I've got a question regarding the (2pi+2pi)-photocycloaddition of ethene to form cyclobutane. If I understood correctly, the reaction doesn't take place under normal conditions, even if we increase ...

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