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Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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10 views

How do you calculate relative atomic masses of 2 isotopes by just knowing only their atomic masses?

How do you calculate relative atomic masses of 2 given isotopes with one having an atomic mass of 63, and the other having 65 (but no abundance is given)?
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0answers
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Carboanion in heterolytic cleavage

My book states the following (Look below figure 12.3): The heterolytic cleavage can also give a species in which carbon gets the shared pair of electrons. For example, when group Z attached to the ...
2
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1answer
111 views

Confusion about the SN1 and SN2 Mechanism

My book says, and I understand, that the $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism is much faster for tertiary alkyl halides than primary. And the opposite for $\mathrm{S_N2}.$ This all makes sense. What I don't get ...
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0answers
20 views

Which is faster- SN1 or SN2?

We were studying about nucleophilic substitution reactions. My professor said that in general SN1 reactions are faster than SN2 reactions. I am unable to understand that how can we generalise the rate ...
8
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2answers
6k views

Can we prepare alkyl Fluoride by Finkelstein reaction?

My book states that: Finkelstein reaction is particularly useful for preparing iodoalkanes. The iodoalkanes are obtained by heating chloro or bromoalkanes with a concentrated solution of sodium ...
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5answers
11k views

Iron chemistry: acetates for ebonizing wood

I have recently been “brewing” what is commonly called “iron acetate” for ebonizing wood, and I'd like to understand the chemistry of the iron/acetic acid reaction, which should be fairly simple, but ...
7
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1answer
233 views
+200

On the mechanism of the nitrogen-removal step of the Wharton olefin synthesis

In today’s reaction seminar, the Wharton transposition made an appearance. In our practice case it started from the epoxide as in scheme 1 below as on Wikipedia; Kürti/Czakó (page 482) begin from the ...
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1answer
17k views

Comparison of rate of dehydration of primary, secondary & tertiary alcohols on cyclohexane

Rate of dehydration when given compounds are treated with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$ is According to me the answer should be $R > Q > S > P$ but my textbook solution gives the answer as R > Q > P > ...
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0answers
25 views

Stabilizing donor-acceptor interaction between orthogonal orbitals in the SN2 transition state?

For the $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction between chloroacetone and iodide, my professor has drawn a donor-acceptor interaction between the iodine lone pair attacking the Cl-substituted carbon and the π ...
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0answers
23 views

Inorganic foreign author books [duplicate]

I want to know the best foreign author books of following topics that cover them in full depth 1.) Chemical bonding (pls list down all books that explains every topic of bonding in great depth if ...
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0answers
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can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments? [on hold]

can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments. Where the voltage and current will determine how much each product will be produced in the end of each ...
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2answers
324 views

Why isn't iron(III) oxide an effective catalyst for decomposing hydrogen peroxide?

I've been working on a project involving the catalyst iron(III) oxide for decomposing hydrogen peroxide. It barely seemed to produce any oxygen. This YouTube video also seems to suggest that iron(...
14
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1answer
447 views

Why does a Diels–Alder reaction not occur here?

I have recently come across this organic chemistry problem. I thought it would undergo simple Diels–Alder reaction But it didn't turn out to be. The product to me looks like a nucleophilic attack ...
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0answers
44 views

Diels-Alder - aromatic compound - mechanism [closed]

I am trying to figure out a mechanism for the following reaction but I am sort of lost and I can't find anything that would help me... All the reactions I found are "pretty easy" to solve... Thanks ...
5
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1answer
54 views

Role of THF in oxymercuration of alkenes

I am trying to self learn solomon's organic chemistry book, but there is no explanation over why we should use THF in oxymercuration. After a quick search I found out that THF help stabilize in ...
7
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2answers
2k views

What is an active centre of a catalyst?

I was studying catalytic poisoning and read that in temporary poisoning, the poisoners are held at active centres by weak forces. What is an 'active centre' in this context?
3
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1answer
102 views

How can batteries reach equilibrium if the reactions are irreversible?

My book says that the batteries we have considered so far (Daniell cells) have a low life span because they reach equilibrium too quickly. In the next paragraph, it states they are also made by ...
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0answers
13 views

Super-absorbent Polymers [closed]

I want to cast a cube out of super-absorbent powder (Fake Snow) for an art piece, and make it become shapeless by gradually exposing it to water over 7 days. I have 2 questions: What is the best type ...
4
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1answer
83 views

Given advancements of computational power an machine learning, how is it still not possible to predict products from chemical reactions? [closed]

Given that it seems every answer to this question is that it is "impossible to predict the outcome of a chemical reaction." Is chemistry just trial and error? Given how fundamental and revolutionary a ...
5
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1answer
737 views

Comparing SN2 reaction rate for phenacyl chloride and methyl chloride

KI in acetone undergoes $\mathrm{S_N2}$ reaction with (1) and (2). Compare the rates of the reactions. Like many kinds of these questions there are many factors involved. One is the steric ...
5
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2answers
4k views

3-step process to make propyl ethanoate from propene

I was asked to make propyl ethanoate from propene in three steps. I have access to the reactions below. Nucleophilic substitution (Both SN1 and SN2) Electrophilic addition Hydrogenation Dehydration ...
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0answers
24 views

Coupling reaction with reagent Na / Dry Ether

The following question was asked on myPAT website: I started with the solution by assuming Wurtz reaction would take place. And hence, I came with the product shown in option A. I knew that ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Not a chemist, needs help with a calculation regarding addition of HCl to sodium formate solution [closed]

As stated I am not a chemist, but I need help on a question I have. Assume I have a Formic acid 75% and I add between 5-10 kg to 1.000 liter of water. If I wanted to add sodium formate and HCl 37% to ...
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4answers
22k views

Why is pyridine used when making tosyl esters from alcohols?

Tosyl chloride is used to make a hydroxyl group into a better leaving group. However, when the reaction of tosyl chloride and an alcohol occurs, a weak base such as pyridine should be used. Why?
3
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1answer
56 views

Fluorination of Carbonyl Compounds using Molybdenum Hexafluoride

What is the mechanism of halogenation of carbonyl compounds using molybdenum hexafluoride? How does it work? Here's a reaction I came across: Can we use it for all carbonyl compounds? Are there ...
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0answers
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Gas reactions/Combustion [duplicate]

I have a project(not a school project, personal) where I am mixing Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen in a pressurized storage container. I am attempting to figure out that if those gases react/combust what ...
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0answers
319 views

Mechanism for reaction between aluminium and iodine [closed]

What should be a suitable mechanism for the reaction between aluminium and iodine, catalysed by water? In my initial approaches, I had first thought of repeated attacks of the lone pairs of oxygen in ...
4
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2answers
109 views

Equilibrium Constant & Rate-Determining Step

My first language is not English, so there might be some parts where it's hard to read. Sorry in advance. I have some questions regarding the derivation of the equilibrium constant and the rate-...
19
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3answers
5k views

Which compound reacts faster in the Cannizzaro Reaction?

Which reacts faster in the Cannizzaro Reaction? a) $\ce{OHC-C6H4-NO2}$ b) $\ce{OHC-C6H4-OCH3}$ Obviously, a better hydride releasing group will react faster. Therefore my answer was b, as $\ce{-...
6
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1answer
113 views

Why does thallium hydroxide increase the yield of product in a Suzuki reaction?

I came across a research paper by Uenishi et al. [1] where relative rates of $\ce{KOH}$ and $\ce{TlOH}$ in Suzuki coupling reactions are compared. Thallium hydroxide increased the yield of products, ...
4
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2answers
9k views

What is the role of CH2Cl2 in the Criegee reaction?

Why is $\ce{CH2Cl2}$ used in ozonolysis of alkenes and alkynes, and what role does it play in the reaction? Is dichloromethane a common solvent for organic reactions, used for its inertness - or is it ...
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2answers
102 views

Can some one please explain alkyl shifts for me

Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. Include all intermediates, resonance structures, charges, and electron pushing arrows to obtain full credit. I’m stuck with this problem. I got ...
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1answer
59 views

Relating collision theory to rate of reaction [closed]

I want to relate the macroscopic advancement of a reaction, the rate of the reaction, with the microscopic collisions of the molecules. This is the type I have developed so far: $$u = A^2 \times \...
3
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1answer
210 views

Is the following rate law possible for the given reaction?

A researcher is investigating the following overall reaction: $$\ce{2C + D -> E}$$ The researcher claims the rate law for the reaction is written as follows: $\text{Rate} = k[\ce{C}][\ce{...
6
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1answer
205 views

Mechanism for Friedel-Crafts Acylation in Synthesis of Sertraline

In the first step of the synthesis of Sertraline, aluminium chloride catalyst was used in a Friedel-Craft's reaction to give the following product. My question is how does the exact mechanism work? 1-...
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0answers
50 views

What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki. Wikipedia states: Hydrazine can be monoprotonated ...
0
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1answer
50 views

Diborane reduction

I am stuck at a step in reduction of alkene using $\ce{B2H6}.$ I assume that step 1 is the addition of borane to alkene. After that a water molecule attacks $\ce{-BH2},$ it being a Lewis acid. ...
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1answer
1k views

Birch reduction of anisole

Hepworth, Waring and Waring (2002) mentions that: In general, electron-withdrawing substituents make the arene more susceptible to reduction, while the opposite applies for electron-donating ...
3
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2answers
13k views

Why is HCl used in hydrolysis of sucrose?

I am aware that $\ce{HCl}$ can be used to help speed up the hydrolysis of sucrose but I haven't really been able to find out why. I've read somewhere that the glycosidic link in sucrose is broken off ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Hydrolysis of Sucrose over Sn1Ac or Sn2Ac

In "March's Advanced Organic Chemistry" I have read about the general mechanism of the acetal hydrolysis. It names the acid-catalyzed SN1 or SN2 as a possible mechanism for a Acetal-hydrolysis. Now I ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water

Bromination of an alkene in presence of water results in its mechanism in a cyclic bromonium ion and "afterwards $\ce{H2O}$ binds to the carbon atom surrounded by more electron donating groups." This ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Which reaction occurs first when 5-hexen-1-ol reacts with sulfuric acid?

I am trying to solve this question: Find the major product of the following reaction: Now we could either do electrophilic addition on the alkene or do dehydration of alcohol. These two ...
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0answers
47 views

Is a maleimide reaction inhibited by ethylene glycol?

Due to a recent switch in systems, we have to add 45% ethylene glycol to a maleimide reaction with Sulfo-MBS (m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide ester) and a reduced oligonucleotide ...
0
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1answer
58 views

Why does the reaction between 2‐methylbut‐3‐en‐2‐ol and hydrogen bromide show allylic shift?

In the following reaction shouldn't the minor product be the major one as the carbocation formed before attachment of bromine is 3°? Also, can someone tell me why the product includes only ...
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2answers
70 views

Acidic cleavage of ether with a 2° alkyl group

I know that an ether with a 3° alkyl group and a 1° alkyl group is cleaved by $\mathrm{S_N1}$ mechanism to give a tertiary alkyl halide and a 1° alcohol. And an ether with a two 1° alkyl groups is ...
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0answers
14 views

How to confirm experimentally that a hemi-acetal compound has formed?

I have read that under mildly acidic or alkaline conditions alcohols can attack aldehydes/ketones to produce hemi-acetals. But the reaction is reversible, so the reactants and the hemia-cetal are in ...
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1answer
107 views

Why primary alcohol follows SN1 mechanism?

Example 2: Identify all the products formed in the following reaction and indicate the major product. Solution: Three products will be formed in the given reaction as shown below: In ...
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1answer
73 views

Reaction of ether with HCl

Most of the reactions undergo ring expansion whenever favourable. But this reaction [1, p. 514] doesn't seems to do so: Practice Problem 11.18 Provide a mechanism for the following reaction. ...
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0answers
8k views

Why do NaNO3 + Al + NaOH yield ammonia?

From Russian test problem 4301: $$\ce{3NaNO3 + 8Al + 5NaOH + 18H2O -> 8Na[Al(OH)4] + 3NH3(g)}$$ How does ammonia evolve here? Is it that we get hydrogen gas evolving in the reaction between Al ...
0
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2answers
599 views

Mercury vapor release from amalgam fillings [closed]

What would cause vapour release from elemental mercury? Would it be pressure, friction... could one stop the vapour release through cooling the mercury?