Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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11 views

Testing for manganese in water

Is there a decent way to test for solvable manganese in water without purchasing a 150USD test kit? I have a fair chemistry set available (I use it to teach my kids chemistry), and would rather pay ...
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What will cure sodium silicate besides CO2?

I would like to cure water glass or sodium silicate. I tried air drying, but the skin that forms seems to prevent the rest of the compound from curing.
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Removing potash from water using poly-aluminum chloride

I have been conducting an experiment for a school project, (removing metals from water)I added 50 grams of sulphate of potash to 2 litres of water, then allowed it to dissolve for a 24hrs. On two ...
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1answer
34 views

Is it possible to predict release of acid fumes in certain acid reactions? [on hold]

Upon mixing both acids, the reaction between Formic Acid and Sulfuric Acid, besides producing Carbon Monoxide and Water, releases a certain amount of acid fumes. Does anyone know if the fumes, in ...
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Role of methanol in NaBH4 reduction

In reduction of carbonyls (aldehyde and ketones) to alcohols using NaBH4/Methanol, alkoxides are formed with the Boron which usually gets protonated on addition of water/acid. My question is what is ...
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Reaction of amines with diethyl oxalate (Hofmann Separation Method)

Why does only one molecule of secondary amine react with diethyl oxalate and two molecules of primary amine react with diethyl oxalate? I feel secondary amine also should have reacted similar to ...
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4answers
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How does Walter White make pure crystal meth using a non-stereospecific reaction?

In the fantastic TV series Breaking Bad, Walter White, the dying chemistry teacher, takes to making crystal meth (d-methamphetamine) by several routes. Initially, he uses the common small-scale route ...
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Why are two three-membered rings preferred to a single five-membered ring in the reaction of a dihalide with alcoholic KOH?

The given answer is 1,1-dicyclopropylmethanone: Step 1 is abstraction of acidic H by the strong base. Then, there's surely going to be anchimeric assistance. But there can be two places where the ...
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1answer
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Role of THF in oxymercuration of alkenes

I am trying to self learn solomon's organic chemistry book, but there is no explanation over why we should use THF in oxymercuration. After a quick search I found out that THF help stabilize in ...
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2answers
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Acidic Cleavage of ether with a 2° alkyl group

I know that an ether with a 3° alkyl group and a 1° alkyl group is cleaved by Sn1 mechanism to give a tertiary alkyl halide and a 1° alcohol. And an ether with a two 1° alkyl groups is cleaved by Sn2 ...
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What is the total mass of oxides formed in this chemical reaction? [closed]

Sodium chromate reacts in an aqueous environment with metallic iron to form the oxides of chromium(3) and iron(3): 2H2O + 2Na2CrO4 + 2Fe <-> Cr2O3 + Fe2O3 + 4NaOH How can I find the total mass of ...
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Gold Plating on Glass?

I am considering labware options to handle NaOH solutions at ~150°C. One appealing idea would be to coat my current glassware with gold. I've read different sources mentioning the possibility without ...
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Reacting ZnSO4 with KCl

I'm considering the following reaction: $\ce{ZnSO4} + 2 \ce{KCl} \ce{->} \ce{ZnCl2} + \ce{K2SO4}$ The high solubility of $\ce{ZnCl2}$ would favour the $\ce{ZnSO4}$ & $\ce{KCl}$ direction of ...
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Reaction of carbonyls with alcohol

Why dont ketones react with mono alcohols to give acetals unlike aldehyde? They are very similar and almost share all general reactions. However, there was no reaction of ketones with mono alcohol but ...
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1answer
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What will form in the hydrolysis of urea in urine?

I just wanna know what is the end product of hydrolysis of urea in urine. I know that the hydrolysis of urea will form ammonia and a subsequent rise in pH but will the ammonia react with the water ...
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1answer
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Organic chemistry. how to control the Friedel–Crafts alkylation rection to methylbenzene as the major product?

My question is due to a discrepancy I founnd in reactivity and organic conversions. In reactivity of organic compounds it has been established that an alkyl group activates the benzene ring and hence ...
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697 views

Mechanism for Chromyl Chloride Formation

This is the very famous chromyl chloride test, used for detection of chloride ion in solution - $$\ce{K2Cr2O7 + 4NaCl + 6H2SO4 -> 2CrO2Cl2 + 2KHSO4 + 4NaHSO4 +3H2O}$$ When a mixture containing ...
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1answer
240 views

When does a pinacol undergo dehydration or rearrangement?

What happens when the above pinacol is treated with - (a) conc. sulphuric acid (b) dil. sulphuric acid I'm confused between pinacol rearrangement and dehydration (E1 or E2?), as both possibilities ...
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1answer
39 views

Does 1,3-butadiene in bromine/water do addition twice?

Considering 1,3-butadiene (below) added to bromine water (considering it as $\ce{Br2(aq)}$): I've seen online that the products are 1,2-dibromobutene and 1,4 but what I don't understand is why ...
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Parameters by which to distinguish SN1 from E1

I am new to organic chemistry and am struggling with the following very basic question: Given is the following reaction: $$\ce{(CH3)3CCl + NH3(aq) →}$$ I am supposed to analyse the end-product (the ...
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Mechanism of decarboxylation of cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid

According to AIITS exam answer key, it was given that the following compound decarboxylates on heating: Then, I read Why are beta-ketoacids better at decarboxylation than gamma or delta? which is ...
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2answers
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Synthesis of potassium trioxalatocobaltate(III) trihydrate

I've synthesized the compound potassium trioxalatocobaltate(III) trihydrate and for it I have two reaction equations. One of them is: $$\ce{CoCO3 + 3K2C2O4.2H2O -> K2[Co(C2O4)3] + 2CO2}$$ and the ...
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Rate law for breakdown of ozone to oxygen

For the following problem: Example 3: Write the rate law for $\ce{2 O3 -> 3 O2}$ given that the f‌irst step is fast and reversible, and the second step is slow. $$ \begin{align} &\text{...
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Copper catalyzed amination of chlorobenzene

When chlorobenzene reacts with ammonia in presence of copper oxide under certain pressure, aniline is produced. I am interested to know the mechanism for this since I am not sure how to guess a ...
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1answer
43 views

Reductive amination in case of secondary amines

When an aldehyde or a ketone undergoes reductive amination when a primary amine is acting,the mechanism follows a pathway through hemiaminal and imine,what happens when a secondary amine is acting on ...
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What is the reaction between Magnesium chloride and Sodium bicarbonate?

For some reason it has been very difficult to find the right answer for this question as there's so much conflicting information to be found online. Some mention a reaction where carbonic acid is made,...
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Causes of reversible reaction

It is generally said that reactants react so that they can achieve a lower energy state. Then why does a reversible reaction occur in the first place? Since turning reactants into products increases ...
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2answers
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Reaction between sulfur and sodium hydroxide

Sulfur reacts with sodium hydroxide in the following way: $\ce{3S + 6NaOH->2Na_2S + Na_2SO_3 + 3H_2O}$ It is a disproportionation reaction: sulfur's oxidation changes from zero to -2 in sodium ...
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Heat of neutralization [duplicate]

(1) Why heat of neutralization of weak acid by strong base is always less than -57 kJ/mol? (2) How does heat of neutralization depend on the strength of the acids and bases used?
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Oxime to amine mechanism [duplicate]

I'm basically searching a mechanism for turning oxime to amine.My book gives me the reagent, LiAlH4 , but no mechanism, I suppose the first attack will be on the oxime carbon, I don't know what to do ...
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What is the mechanism of this pyrylium synthesis?

In this preparation, http://www.orgsyn.org/Content/pdfs/procedures/CV5P1106.pdf, 2,4,6-trimethylpyrylium perchlorate is prepared from 4 molecules of acetic anhydride and 1 molecule of t-butanol. ...
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Formation of trifluoride anion

I wanted to understand mechanism of the formation of $\ce{F3-}$ anion through the molecular orbital theory. UPDATE - What I really want to know is that when $\ce{F3-}$ is formed from $\ce{F2-}$ and $\...
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How can I determine the electrode potential of ethanoic acid redox reaction?

I'm conducting a research paper on the effect of surface area ratio from anode to cathode and the electrode material on the rate of electrolysis of ethanoic acid by measuring the volume of carbon ...
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63 views

Is this reaction possible? [duplicate]

When mixing HCl with K2CO3, the reaction that is usually given is the following: K2CO3 + 2HCl → 2KCl + CO2 + H2O I am wondering, however, if I could produce KHCO3 from K2CO3, by using half as many ...
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Relationship between auto-ignition temperature with pressure and fuel

Experimentally it appears that increase in pressure, fuel concentration, and chain length causes AIT to decrease until a minimum where even further increase in these parameters increases the AIT. ...
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Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in CHX3 compounds (X = Cl, Br, I)?

Why is there only little difference between molecular dipole moments in $\ce{CHX3}$ compounds ($\ce{X}$ = $\ce{Cl}$, $\ce{Br}$, $\ce{I}$)? As we can see there is a huge difference in dipole moment of ...
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What is the major product obtained on acidification of substituted epoxide?

The problem Source : MS Couhan (problems in organic chemistry . Chapter: Alcohols , phenols and ethers). My Thoughts If I proceed along $\ce{path 1}$ , $\ce1a$ is formed . It is unstable due to ...
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Does energy come from fuel or oxygen? (surprise?)

Question: Is it oxygen or fuel that releases energy during burning? The answer from this article: Why Combustions Are Always Exothermic, Yielding About 418 kJ per Mole of O2 (Journal of Chemical ...
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Is it possible to produce sodium bicarbonate from potassium bicarbonate?

I balanced the chemical reaction which is as follows: NaCl + KHCO3 = NaHCO3 + KCl I've also gathered solubility values which are the following: KHCO3 22.4 g/100 mL (20 °C) NaCl 35,9 g/100 mL (20°) ...
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What causes the duration of the amber periods of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction to first increase and then decrease as the reaction oscillates?

I was collecting experimental data on the Briggs Rauscher reaction and realized that the period of the amber oscillations initially decreased and then started to increase. While I understand the ...
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1answer
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Can glucose and insulin exist in the same container without reacting?

Someone asked if glucose and insulin could be mixed in the same container and used as an injection to provide a quick energy boost. I'm not interested about the medical part of this question, but just ...
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What's the mechanism behind mineral oil loosening cyanoacrylate bonds?

Per industry literature I found that mineral oil is used to loosen out "super glue" and aid in removal from skin. I am exploring the chemistry of this loosening and I am intrigued. Please help me find ...
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160 views

Intramolecular lactonisation in an unsaturated carboxylic acid

I am having some trouble figuring out how this reaction proceeds: Attempt 1: The most obvious thing to do is deprotonate the acid group. I tried using the carboxylate group to attack the alkene, ...
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103 views

Markovnikov Rule of Alkenes

$$\ce{CH3CH(CH3)CHCHCH2CH3 + HBr ->}$$ According to Markovnikov Rule, "the rich get richer". But, as we can see the 2 carbons have the same amount of $\ce{H}$. So, what's probably the answer?
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How to make 1,1-diphenyl-1-butene from benzophenone and 1-bromopropane?

I would like to know the method of syntheses of making 1,1-diphenyl-1-butene $(\ce{C16H16})$ from benzophenone $(\ce{(C6H5)2CO},$ generally abbreviated $\ce{Ph2CO})$ and 1-bromopropane $(\ce{...
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2answers
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I can't find reaction enthalpy ∆H for water formation reaction

$$\ce{1/2 O2(g) + H2(g) → H2O (l)}$$ The tabulated value is $\Delta H = \pu{−285.8 kJ/mol}$ I'm using the bond energies values for each molecule and for some reason, I am getting a different result, ...
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2answers
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What is the major product of the reaction of a geminal dibromide with silver nitrate? [closed]

$\ce{Ag+/H2O}$ is used for peroxide formation, then followed by hydrolysis to yield an alcohol. But in the question it is a geminal dihalide and I don't know if the mechanism follows through a ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the major product of the reaction between 4-chlorobut-1-ene?

When acetic acid looses hydrogen, an acetate ion is formed which attacks 4-chlorobut-1-ene, forming methyl butenoate. How does the cyclic structure form? Does the lone pair of oxygen attack the butene ...
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55 views

What happens to copper(II) hydroxide when it's heated? what's inside its decomposition?

So just wondering, copper(II) hydroxide undergoes thermal decomposition when it's heated. But isn't it a solid by itself too? Why does it turn into another solid and water all of a sudden? Can ...