Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Using the steady state approximation in the decomposition of nitramide to determine rate law

$\ce{O2NNH2 (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_1] O2NNH- (aq) + H+ (aq)}$ $\ce{O2NNH- (aq) + H+ (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_{-1}] O2NNH2 (aq)}$ $\ce{O2NNH- (aq) ->[\mathit{k}_2] N2O(g) + OH- (aq)}$ $\ce{H+ (aq) + OH-...
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What is the relationship between nonpolar molecules and water?

What is the relationship between nonpolar molecules and water? help me understand this please
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What is the name of a reaction that produces 3 compounds? [closed]

I was wondering if anyone knows what kind of reaction the following is: $$\ce{Na2SiO3 + 6HF -> SiF4 + 2NaF + 3H2O}$$
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Reaction of but-2-ene with Cl2/CCl4

I have often studied the reaction of Br2/CCl4 with But-2-ene which results in formation of But I wondered what would be formed if Cl2/CCl4 reacts with But-2-ene. Does it lead to the formation of ...
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Does a geminal or vicinal diiodide form upon addition of excess HI to but-2-yne?

Reaction: $\ce{CH3-C#C-CH3 + HI (excess) -> ?}$ Product : I thought of different carbons by the reasoning from this post earlier I posted. But it is given that both iodine atoms exist on the same ...
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Why are more electronegative atoms better leaving groups?

My book says, "halide anions are electronegative and can easily stabilise negative charge, hence are good leaving groups." What exactly does "stabilising negative charge" mean? I ...
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Reaction of haloalkane with hydroxide ions

My teacher gave me the following question: What are the possible products of these reactions? Then, what is the mechanism of those reaction (elimination (E1 or E2) or subtitution (SN1 or SN2)? ...
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Is there a way to convert aniline to phenol without diazotizing it?

I am a high school student and while reading about reactions on amines, I was trying to figure out a way to convert aniline $(\ce{C6H5NH2})$ to phenol $(\ce{C6H5OH})$ without diazotizing it with ...
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35 views

How to avoid explosion when there is a leakage of LPG gas and coal gas/town gas?

How to avoid explosion when there is a leakage of LPG gas and coal gas/town gas? What are the conditions of that happening? The related underlying chemical reactions are hydrogen and butane combustion ...
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What is the equation for the reaction between ferrous sulphate crystals and bromine water? [closed]

What is the reaction between $\ce{FeSO4.7H2O}$ and $\ce{Br2}$? What happens to the water? I know that $\ce{Fe^2+}$ should be oxidized to $\ce{Fe^3+}$ but any more clarity as to the final products are ...
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Reliance of migratory aptitude on steric hindrance and its effect on rate of reaction

I've learnt that the migratory aptitude of phenyl is greater than that for methyl, for example. But how do I find the order of the same for any given 2 groups, like $\ce{Cl-}$ and $\ce{PhCH2CH2CH3-}$, ...
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Reasons for negative iodoform test

Why does 2',6'-dimethylacetophenone not give iodoform test?
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Mechanism for Ce(IV) Oxidation of Naphthalene

S. Cotton's Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry reports that naphthalene can be oxidized to naphthalene-1,4-dione using cerric ammonium sulfate (CAS), $\ce{MeCN, H2SO4},$ and $\ce{H2O}$.1 No mechanism ...
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Bromination of alkenes

In regard to the mechanism of halogen addition, consider the situation when we add a halogen (say, bromine) to an unsymmetrical alkene about the double bond (say, propene) in the presence of $\ce{CCl4}...
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Ionic Mechanism for Wurtz Reaction

Instead of going for the normal free radical mechanism for Wurtz reaction, What reasons prevent us from believing in the following ionic mechanism? \begin{align} \ce{R-X + 2Na &-> R^--Na+ + ...
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What intermediates are formed when WSe2 reacts with SeCl4 in a sealed evacuated (10^-5atm) ampoule kept at a range from 960°C to 1000°C?

I'm trying to synthesize $\ce{WSe2}$ bulk crystals via chemical vapor transport. I'm not able to understand what intermediates take place in it though. The literature says that $\ce{Cl2}$ gas reacts ...
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Addition of cyclohexene with itself?

So I was practicing for exams, and this is the specific question. I get that structure 2 is possible through polymerization and 3 doesn't fit to be the polymer of cyclohexene. I'm kinda consfused ...
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Second-step activation energy in SN1 reactions

In SN1 reactions, it's known that there are generally two steps, with the first being the R.D.S step involving carbocation formation and the next having a lower activation energy. Why does the second ...
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Can secondary alkyl halides be used in the Corey–House synthesis?

I've been told by my teacher that the Corey–House synthesis cannot proceed with secondary alkyl halides; they will prefer to undergo elimination over $\mathrm{S_N2}$ substitution. [used as the pseudo ...
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Why is the molozonide adduct thermally unstable?

In the mechanism of alkene-ozonolysis, the intermediate molozonide adduct, which is a cyclical but symmetric molecule (shouldn't symmetry about the C-C single bond bring stability?), decomposes ...
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Why is it a product of ions in water? [duplicate]

What is the significance of finding the product of Hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions? What meaning is behind the product of these two that have been multiplied.
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Confusion regarding dehydration of 1° alcohols

My lecturer told me that 2° and 3° alcohols prefer to dehydrate through E-1 mechanism. On the other hand, 1° alcohols tend to prefer the E-2 mechanism, which does not involve the formation of a ...
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Reaction of SeCl4 with alkene and possible consecutive reaction?

There is a reaction that confused me a bit: According to my research on $\ce{SeCl4}$, it can be used as a dichlorinating agent for alkenes. However, I am totally confused about the mechanism. I've ...
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Kinetic Isotopic Effect in EAS

It is observed that rate of reaction of two isotopologues of benzene, $\ce{C6D6}$ and $\ce{C6H6}$, is the same for electrophilic aromatic reactions, as the deprotonation is not the rate limiting step. ...
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Does Finkelstein's reaction proceed through an SN2 mechanism?

I was dealing with a question whose answer was justified only when it was assumed that the Finkelstein reaction proceeds through an $\mathrm{S_N2}$ mechanism. So, does it really follow an $\mathrm{...
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From SMILES to SMARTS to SMIRKS [closed]

I am trying to find a tool somewhere, possibly with RDKit, CDK or the like, that would determine reaction SMARTS from educt and product SMILES, then also something from reaction SMARTS to SMIRKS (...
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Why does Birch reduction of naphthalene with isoamyl alcohol form tetralin instead of 1,4-dihydrodialin (as formed with C2H5OH)?

I recently came across this question, which required me to know the difference between performing a Birch reduction on naphthalene using ethanol and using isopentanol. Why does using isopentanol lead ...
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Michaelis–Menten kinetics applied to a solution with two enzymes

Two enzymes are added to a solution containing a tow concentration of a substrate that they can both use. Which statement is correct? A. Both enzymes will use equal amounts of the substrate. B. ...
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Why transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition reactions allowed?

As you know, cycloaddition reactions which (4n)π electrons are involved in such as [2+2]cycloaddition are forbidden in normal organic reactions, but transition metal catalyzed [2+2]cycloaddition ...
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Does β-hydride elimination in main group metals occur?

As a side reaction of Grignard reagents, the following reaction is introduced on the Internet. I think this is β-hydride elimination reaction, but magnesium is a main group metal, not a transition ...
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Why Inorganic chemistry reaction mechanisms are hard to find?

My textbook Chemistry Part 1,as in the attached photo states that[after the KClO3 reaction] “This reaction which apparently seems to be of the tenth order is actually a second order reaction. This ...
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Intermediates in aqueous bromination of phenol

A question in my book asks: In the reaction: The intermediate(s) is/are? The correct answers are given as However, as per my knowledge, compound (b) does not appear in the reaction mechanism. Is ...
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Does the anti-rust properties of bluing carbon steel disappear at a certain temperature?

Yesterday I blued my new carbon steel wok over a very high (200K BTU) burner which is capable of getting the wok to 1000+ degrees with ease. I understand that bluing adds a rust-resistant layer which ...
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How does NaOH modify pyranodioxins?

I am given the molecule in black which is treated with $\ce{NaOH}$. The product is in blue. Could someone explain the mechanism? All I have so far is that the $\ce{-OH}$ group on the bottom right ...
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How to know if a reaction forms H3O+ ions or OH- ions?

How would you know when an acid or base is paired with $\ce{H2O}$ that it will form an $\ce{OH-}$ ion or a $\ce{H3O+}$ ion? I just started the acid and base equilibrium unit, and I'm just confused on ...
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How does the oxymercuration reaction take place? [duplicate]

In several organic chemistry’s textbooks, the mechanism of forming a mercuronium ion is not described. How does the reaction of forming it take place?
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What reactions involving hydrazine, dinitrogen tetroxide and possibly a contaminant can produce a salt?

Hydrazine $\ce{N2H4}$ and dinitrogen tetroxide $\ce{N2O4}$ form a hypergolic fuel and oxidizer pair widely used in spacecraft including Akatsuki (あかつき, 暁, "Dawn") also known as the Venus ...
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How exactly does copper react with hydrogen peroxide, salt and citric acid?

Context I have no knowledge in chemistry. I am looking for information about etching circuit boards with citric acid instead of hydrochloric acid because it seems it could be a safer, easier way as ...
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Alkyl halides that do not undergo Wurtz reaction [duplicate]

I am aware that there are many limitations to the Wurtz reaction, notably the inability of 3° Halides to undergo SN² substitution. Instead, they undergo elimination. I came across a compound, 4-...
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How is NaBH4 able to reduce tertiary alkyl halides to alkane but LiAlH4 create an alkene?

When attacking tertiary alkyl halides, aren't both of them just supposed to follow $\mathrm{S_N2}$ and substitute the leaving group with Hydride ion? Apparently only $\ce{NaBH4}$ does it and $\ce{...
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How to predict the outcome of a crossed Cannizzaro reaction?

My question is, how do we predict the products of a cross-Cannizzaro disproportionation in presence of a concentrated base? i.e, How to judge which of the aldehydes (both don't have any alpha hydrogen)...
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Why does this acid-base reaction occur?

My teacher told me about the reaction of sodium peroxide with water: $$\text{Na}_2\text{O}_2 + 2\text{H}_2\text{O} \ce{->} \text{H}_2\text{O}_2 + 2\text{NaOH}$$ Now, the concentration of products ...
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Possible mechanism by which a methyl glycinate hydrochloride salt in toluene (insoluble) reacts with an acid chloride through the nitrogen atom?

I'm trying to work out a possible mechanism for the reaction of a methyl glycinate hydrochloride salt in toluene (it is insoluble) with an acid chloride, reacting through the N-terminus. As the amine ...
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p-Nitroaniline reaction with sulfuric acid

An alternative version of the well-known demonstration carbon snake (the dehydration reaction of sugar by concentrated sulfuric acid forming a column of graphite) consists in mixing paranitroaniline ...
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Hydrogen peroxide and potassium iodide reactions

What is the explanation for the two possible reactions of $\ce{H2O2}$ with $\ce{KI}$ in acid media (iodide-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or iodide oxidation by hydrogen peroxide) and ...
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Molecularity of Saponification Reaction

I had a doubt while reading about the saponification reaction of esters in basic medium. What is the molecularity of the reaction and why? P.S - I think its bimolecular and heres why - The RDS of ...
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How does dust induce the explosive decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

My textbook says: Hydrogen peroxide is kept away from dust because dust can induce explosive decomposition of the compound. The decomposition reaction in question is: $$2\text{H}_2\text{O}_2 \...
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Examples for oscillatory behaviour in the human body [closed]

I'm looking for examples in the human body which show periodicity, more precisely, I'm looking for examples of oscillating reactions that occur in the human body which can be modelled using the ...
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E1 or E2 Elimination? Which Elimination occurs first?

In this reaction scheme, two dehydrobrominations occur. A bulky base is used but both hydrogens are sterically hindered. How is it possible to determine, which one is removed first? Or is this an $E_1$...
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effect of Increasing volume on bubbles

In the laboratory, when ran the experiment of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate, we were asked to find the connection between the volume of citric acid and how long bubbles last. I think it revolves ...

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