Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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Is the activation energy always inversely proportional to the reaction rate?

When I obtained the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation for a 10-minute glowstick (rapid, rigorous reaction), it was almost 4 times that of a 12-hour glowstick (slow, mild reaction). ...
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Cellulose soaked with Ammonia from insulation inside body and water, salt and temperature [closed]

Is it possible for this to create a reaction within and on the skin of the body when water, salt and temperature are perfect. If so, how do you fix it. My baby and I are suffering and he cant talk but ...
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Conversion of hypnone to dypnone

Hypnone is another name of Acetophenone. It is used as a hypnotic and can be converted to dypnone (I am attaching the structure below) on reaction with aluminium tert-butoxide $\ce{Al(OC(CH3)3)3}$. ...
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43 views

Se+P White or red P?

I read this in an old chemistry book. It says: When selenium is dropped into melted phosphorus, it dissolves rapidly, and the compound sinks through the liquid phosphorus in red streaks. My ...
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What is the product when the reagent shown is treated with LiAlH4, as well as NaBH4? [closed]

Below is a picture of the two reactions I am struggling with. Both $\ce{LiAlH4}$ and $\ce{NaBH4}$ are pretty strong reducing agents, though $\ce{LiAlH4}$ is able to reduce esters and carboxylic acids ...
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Chemistry - how to Neutral chlorine in water [closed]

I was wondering how can I Neutral chlorine in water? I heard that I can use vitamin c(ascorbic acid) to do so Could you help me?
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1answer
160 views

Why primary alcohol follows SN1 mechanism?

Example 2: Identify all the products formed in the following reaction and indicate the major product. Solution: Three products will be formed in the given reaction as shown below: In ...
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1answer
35 views

Double dehydration of a geminal diol [closed]

I've recently came across this reaction and I am wondering about the mechanism. Could someone please help me? If you could give me the name of the reaction (if it has one) it should also be enough for ...
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Role of methanol in NaBH4 reduction

In reduction of carbonyls (aldehyde and ketones) to alcohols using NaBH4/Methanol, alkoxides are formed with the Boron which usually gets protonated on addition of water/acid. My question is what is ...
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Ozonolysis: mechanism for reductive workup of ozonide using Zn/Acetic Acid/Water

What is the mechanism for the reductive workup of an ozonide using zinc/acetic acid/water? Many sources online show the mechanism using DMS instead: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-...
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302 views

How to control the Friedel–Crafts alkylation reaction to methylbenzene as the major product?

My question is due to a discrepancy I found in reactivity and organic conversions. In reactivity of organic compounds it has been established that an alkyl group activates the benzene ring, and, hence ...
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Major product for aldol condensation between acetophenone and acetaldehyde

Crossed aldol condensation is done between acetaldehyde and acetophenone by using NaOH as the base. So, here we can get 4 possible products. But which one would be the major? I know that acetaldehyde ...
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Substituted Diene Preparation from Aniline / Novel Cyclic Imine Preparation

I have recently been studying the following mechanism recommended by another user from the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tet.2004.06.026. In this paper, the following mechanism is proposed (...
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435 views

Help understanding this passage on optical activity

Other than mirror images, compounds having opposite configurations do not necessarily cause opposite directions of optical rotation any more than do compounds of the same configuration necessarily ...
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353 views

Oxidation of guanine with singlet oxygen

I'm studying the oxidation of guanine using singlet oxygen and one step of the reaction is not very clear to me. My problem is with the first step: it is a 4+2 Diels–Alder cycloaddition, and Fukui's ...
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17k views

Reduction of carboxylic acids by LiAlH4

I've read that when a carboxylic acid reacts with $\ce{LiAlH4}$ the corresponding alcohol is formed: But when I try to think of the mechanism, I get stuck here: $\ce{LiAlH4}$ produces $\ce{H-}$. ...
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Dative Bonding in organic chemistry [duplicate]

I just learned about Substitution reactions in organic chemistry which involves nucleophiles donating charges to vacant orbitals in carbocation. This made me realise that many organic mechanisms ...
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1answer
39 views

Calculate the mass of iron in the original mixture!

I seemingly can't solve the following problem, I've spend over 30 mins on it, no progress, can any of you geniusses give a step by step solution to me? Thank you so much Problem: A mixture of ...
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How long does it take Freon refrigerant to disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage?

I would like to know please how long does it take Freon refrigerant to completely disappear from a room after an accidental major leakage? Does it stick to surfaces , clothes or walls? Does natural ...
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Plausible Mechanisms for Polyketide Formation from Phloroglucinol

I am working on modifying the reaction below. I am adding the sulfonate (ignore the sulfonic acid groups shown) groups so that polysubstitution of the phloroglucinol does not occur. In terms of the ...
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1answer
31 views

Emulsification and liquid liquid surface reaction [closed]

What will happen if I skip the addition of surfactant? will the reaction happen only at the surface of the parent liquids?
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112 views

How is NaBH4 able to reduce tertiary alkyl halides to alkane but LiAlH4 create an alkene?

When attacking tertiary alkyl halides, aren't both of them just supposed to follow SN2 and substitute the leaving group with Hydride ion? Apparently only NaBH4 does it and LiAlH4 causes an E1 ...
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1answer
41 views

Which free radical is more stable, allyl free radical or benzyl free radical? [duplicate]

Can someone pls tell me which one is it? Benzyl free radical has 4 resonance structures compared to allyl free radical which has only 2. More the resonance structures should mean more stable the ...
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Controlling rate of endothermic reaction

In an experiment, I have two endothermic reactions taking place simultaneously: $$ \begin{align} \ce{A + B &-> C + D}\tag{1}\\ \ce{E + G &-> Z + F}\tag{2} \end{align} $$ $\ce{C}$ and $\...
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Epoxide with solvent vs with water

The answer given is an epoxide. But is an epoxide stable at room temperature? And also epoxides tend to open in presence of water. Even if methyl alcohol is treated as a solvent, then too methyl ...
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Is organic chemistry mechanisms limited to organic chemistry?

I am curious to know the mechanism of each reaction. Organic chemistry is satisfying for me because there is a mechanism behind each reaction which make a sense but when I Google for the mechanism of ...
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Reduction of alkyl halides to alkanes

For all the three parts, only methane has been given as the product in my textbook. In 1) and 2), according to the mechanism I wrote, I get both ethane and methane as products. I think both these ...
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47 views

Reaction mechanism of lithiated benzene and oxygen in acid

According to (1) addition of O2 in acid to lithiated benzene makes phenol. I'm trying to deduce the mechanism, and somehow it doesn't feel right but I'm not sure. (1) Snieckus, V. Directed ortho ...
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When aluminium is ignited in atmosphere, will it form only aluminium oxide or also aluminium nitride?

We know when lithium is burnt in air, it forms lithium nitride and lithium oxide. I am wondering if this applies to aluminium (other metals) also?
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Can ascorbic acid be neutralized and keep it's elastic properties in dough?

Ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) is commonly used in dough to give it strength and elasticity. However, I need this dough to be alkaline, or at the very least neutral. I've used sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) before ...
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192 views

Diazo Coupling reaction with para-substituted phenol?

Usually Diazo coupling occurs at para-position unless the para-position is occupied, in which case coupling occurs at ortho-position. While solving questions I found in both the cases as shown, the ...
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185 views

Why is Diels–Alder adduct exo when we leave it for a while?

Recently we did an experiment of Diels–Alder reaction and we left the adduct overnight. I've read a paper of Woodward that says the adduct of Diels–Alder thought to be endo, whereas in our experiment ...
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What is the rate equation of decomposition of H2O2 with catalysts?

What is the rate equation of this reaction with the presence of catalysts $\ce{MnO2}$, $\ce{PbO2}$ and $\ce{Fe2O3}$? (asking for each of them, separately, not altogether) $$\ce{2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2}$...
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Does a bulky nuclephile react faster by Michael or direct addition?

Between Michael or direct addition on a $\alpha,\beta$-unsaturated ketone, I think that Michael addition is faster than the direct addition as the nucleophile can attack orthrogonally to the $\ce{C=C}$...
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134 views

Cyclisation of acetone on reaction with conc. H2SO4

Mechanism for reaction of acetone with conc. $\ce{H2SO4}$: The product is supposed to be mesitylene and on various sites I found the reason behind it to be aldol condensation And some sites did ...
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Can the relative reactivities of different compounds that undergo the same reaction be compared if the compounds follow different overall kinetics?

I have read that if some different compounds undergo the same reaction and under the same conditions, but follow different overall kinetic orders, then their rate constants or relative reactivities ...
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Does aniline react with FeBr₃?

I have read that aniline does not undergo Friedel–Crafts reaction because it complexes with Lewis acid $\ce{AlCl3}.$ Will it also react with $\ce{FeBr3}$ during bromination (to receive a 3-bromo ...
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1answer
346 views

Hydroxyl group to free amine in polyethylene glycol using CDI?

For converting $\ce{OH}$ of methylated polyethylene glycol. The first step is converting hydroxyl group to imidazole carbamate as an active intermediate. But what about the next step? If I will add ...
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3answers
114 views

How does the equilibrium shift when concentration of reactant and product are increased simulatenously

Before answering my question, take a look at this example $$\ce{2NOCl <=> 2NO + Cl2}$$ Let's suppose I have 2 mol/l $\ce{NOCl}$, 2 mol/l $\ce{NO}$, and 1 mol/l $\ce{Cl2}$ in a closed system. ...
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Reaction of phenol with Zinc dust [duplicate]

I have seen this reaction many times: $\text {Phenol}+\text{Zn}\ce {->}\text{Benzene}+\text{ZnO} $ But what is the mechanism?! Tried a lot but couldn't cook up one... Thanks for any help...
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How to make elemental silicon?

I want to extract elemental silicon from pure silicon dioxide powder. From what I've read, one way to do it is by adding carbon from graphite at very high temperatures, which is difficult. A better ...
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Why are solids and liquids not included in the equilibrium constant? What about in a reaction rate calculation?

Take for instance the reaction $$\ce{H2(g) + I2(s) <=> 2HI(g)}$$ The equilibrium constant would not include the solid $\ce{I2}$, but why is this? I have read that its concentration is a ...
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27 views

Does reaction of alkali and alkaine earth metals' reaction with water an acid-base reaction? [closed]

In my chemistry notes the teacher gave me the note that reaction of alkali, alkaline earh metals' reactivity with water, acids(e.g. H2S) increases down the group and bases(e.g.NH3) decreases down the ...
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123 views

Is Pinacol rearrangement the source for the ring expansion?

I have no idea what's happening as in the product (the answer is (a)) there is a new ring being formed on the left benzene. But as I studied after $\ce{H2O}$ leaves, a carbocation is then formed on ...
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Liquids which may dissolve poly(acrylic acid)?

I want a liquid that may dissolve poly(acrylic acid) and is immiscible with water at the same time! Note: When kept with water, the above solution must not let poly(acrylic acid) go/seep into the ...
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1answer
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Why does protic solvent suggest E1 mechanism rather than E2?

If I understood correctly, having a protic solvent increases chance of E1 mechanism. But I can not rationalize this because carbocation intermediate is a positively charged molecule, and by ...
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2answers
684 views

How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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1answer
36 views

5-methylhexa-1,3-diene reaction with HBr [closed]

What will be the major product of the reaction? I guess that rearrangement will take place and give 5-bromo-5-methylhex-2-ene as a product, but I'm completely not sure
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How does the temperature affect the frequency factor?

I am a high school student and have been trying to learn how the temperature affects the frequency factor. I did not even understand the equation below, which is from this site. Can anyone please ...