Questions tagged [reaction-mechanism]

The detailed (and as complete as possible) description of plausible or observable pathways leading from reactants to products of a chemical process. This tag should be applied to questions about these processes. It may be applied to hypothetical and/or proposed mechanisms.

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1answer
71 views

Grignard alkene on a carbonyl

I was given the following mechanism to prove today post-lecture: and my attempt is given below. Now, when the negative charge on the alkene attacks the carbonyl, the electrons are pushed onto the ...
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2answers
59 views

DNA-Sequencing (detection of the change of pH-value) after emulsion PCR

I have troubles with understanding the exact order of the steps for DNA-sequencing after the Emulsion PCR (EmPCR). The EmPCR fills each bead with the same DNA strand (copies it $n$ times, till the ...
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21 views

Book Recommendations for Inorganic Chemistry Mechanisms [duplicate]

I am looking for a book which has details or basics to reaction mechanisms for inorganic chemistry for highschool level(preferably) or maybe undergrad level. Basically I am looking for a book which ...
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1answer
55 views

What happens to copper(II) hydroxide when it's heated? what's inside its decomposition?

So just wondering, copper(II) hydroxide undergoes thermal decomposition when it's heated. But isn't it a solid by itself too? Why does it turn into another solid and water all of a sudden? Can ...
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2answers
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What is the major product of the reaction of a geminal dibromide with silver nitrate? [closed]

$\ce{Ag+/H2O}$ is used for peroxide formation, then followed by hydrolysis to yield an alcohol. But in the question it is a geminal dihalide and I don't know if the mechanism follows through a ...
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2answers
102 views

How to dissolve calcium sulfate fast?

I would like to dissolve $\ce{CaSO4}$ in a hardened condition (e.g. gypsum board) as fast as possible. I have seen in posts about $\ce{CaSO3}$ that vinegar and sulfamic acid are able to dissolve it. ...
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29 views

How to rationalise the difference in reactivity between alcoholic and aqueous KOH with alkyl bromides? [duplicate]

Why is it that when we use alcoholic $\ce{KOH}$ with say $\ce{R-Br}$, E2 elimination occurs, whereas with aqueous $\ce{KOH}$, SN reaction takes place, as both have the same nucleophile, ie $\ce{OH^-}$?...
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1answer
65 views

Method for removing CuO in an inert environment

Common oxides (i.e., CuO or Al2O3) are capable of removal via NaOH solution. However, I am interested in removing a copper oxide layer inside an inert (Ar glovebox) environment. Thus, the traditional ...
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2answers
674 views

When 2-pentene reacts with HBr, what will be the major product?

If we consider the first step (formation of carbocation by the attack of the proton). A couple of textbooks I referred say that when the substituents on the $\ce{C=C}$ are different, the direction of ...
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49 views

Rationale behind Barton's rules for catalytic hydrogenation

Organic Chemistry by Morrison and Boyd,Seventh Edition says - When cyclohexanones are used as substrates, the stereoselectivity of the reduction is found to be dependent on the acidity or the ...
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1answer
17 views

Whether a combination reaction goes to completion

There is a sentence in my textbook: When a combination reaction results in a gas that is allowed to be released, a precipitate that drops to the bottom of the container, or a nonionizing ...
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1answer
54 views

Preparation of sulfonyl chlorydes and mechanism of preparation of tosyl chloride

After searching about the preparation of sulfonyl chlorides, I couldn't find much. I found that for preparation of tosyl chloride, chlorosulfonic acid can be used, as in: Can chlorosulfonic acid be ...
2
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1answer
61 views

Mechanism of burning of hydrogen [duplicate]

So I was curious regarding a simple chemical equation : $$\ce{2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O}$$ You add heat to the system (i.e fire) and you get water vapor. I'm curious of understanding the mechanism, ...
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2answers
54 views

Rate law of the reaction of propane with oxygen

In class, I have a demonstration where I light a bubble filled with propane. As I add oxygen, the bubbles combust faster and more quickly. I have already balanced out the chemical reaction like so: $$...
3
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1answer
70 views

Distribution of polymer lengths

Suppose we have a chemical reaction where a linear chain can form (reversibly) from building blocks (e.g. atoms or molecules): $$\ce{X_$i$ + X_$k$ <=>[$k_\mathrm{fwd}$][$k_\mathrm{rev}$] X_$i$...
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1answer
70 views

Role of zinc chloride in reaction of ether

I am trying to do a reaction between acetyl chloride $\ce{CH3COCl}$ with diethyl ether. I know that upon using anhydrous $\ce{ZnCl2}$ and heat, I'll get an ester and an alkyl chloride, but I'm not ...
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47 views

What reaction makes sodium silicate harden in CO2

I have looked all over the web, and I can only find information stating that it does happen. I don't doubt that I just can't figure out what is happening. Some sources state that an acid can cause the ...
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15 views

Where can I find equilibrium constants for a specific reaction? [duplicate]

I'm doing a project on the production of dap fertilizer, but I can not find a database with kinetics constants(reaction rate constant.) It's based on TVA Process for production of granular diammonium ...
4
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1answer
102 views

Mechanism of Fritsch–Buttenberg–Wiechell rearrangement

The following reaction was given, which uses potassium t-butoxide. The solution to this problem was given as follows: Step 1 is the attack of strong base, t-butoxide, on the vinyl proton. Step 2 ...
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1answer
17 views

When will acid-base reactions occur before substitution reaction

For example, given the reaction below: The substrate is secondary, the solvent is aprotic and it is to react with a strong bulky base. From this, I assumed that the reaction would be $\ce{E2}$. ...
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48 views

Why does the following “Battery” experiment work?

I did the following experiment: Experimental setup: Two electrodes (one made out of Iron,the other made out of Copper) are put into a (bluish) Copper(ii) sulfate lotion. Then, one connect a ...
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1answer
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How does hyperconjugation explain stability of partial positive charges?

Recently I was reading this answer to the question Why does boron add to the less substituted carbon in the hydroboration of an alkene?. See the transition state given in the above answer, and the ...
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2answers
62 views

How would this reaction look like in a potential energy diagram? (SN1 Reaction)

My task is to explain, why molecule A reacts in a SN1-reaction faster than molecule B. (I would do this by comparing their potential energy diagrams) My idea is to have a closer look at the reaction ...
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39 views

Does a non-chiral substrate (2-bromo-2-methylpropane) also form two products via an SN1 mechanism?

If I have an alkyl halide, in which its tertiary carbon is non-chiral (for example 2-bromobutane), which reacts via an SN1 mechanism does it also produce 2 products? I am asking because I know that ...
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1answer
107 views

Methyl Orange Indicator-Reason for small amount of NaOH [closed]

I used methyl orange as my indicator to titrate a weak acid: At first, I added 3 drops of methyl orange to a solution of the weak acid, $\ce{CH3COOH}$, and the solution turned red. Then, after ...
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22 views

Why does the reaction with copper and nitric acid change with concentration? [duplicate]

Depending on the concentration of nitric acid, copper undergoes two distinct reactions. For dilute concentrations of nitric acid, the reaction is $$3\text{Cu}+8\text{HNO}_3\rightarrow 3\text{Cu(NO}_3\...
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33 views

Reaction Mechanism with a Rate Determining Step

Just a quick question on how to deal with multiple intermediaries in a proposed reaction mechanism. Here is the overall reaction: $$\ce{I-(aq) + OCl-(aq) -> IO-(aq) + Cl-(aq)}$$ Here is the ...
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34 views

First order reaction

I am little bit confuse about relating the half life time period of a first order reaction something like $$\ce{2A -> B + C}$$ Here the rate of reaction will be half of the rate at which $\ce{A}$ ...
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1answer
102 views

What will be the order of acidity in the following compounds? [closed]

What will be the order of acidity in the following compounds ? From My point of view it should be 3>1>2>4. But the answer given is 3>2>1>4. Can anyone explain how ?
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2answers
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reaction mechanisms of peroxides

Task: Explain the reaction mechanism of 1,4-Dioxane in terms of how you get peroxides. Start here with the autoxidation with one radical X. My explanation: in the first step 1,4 Dioxan reacts with ...
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1answer
51 views

SN1, SN2 and enantiomeric excess

When (R)-2-bromobutane is heated with water, the $\mathrm{S_N1}$ substitution proceeds twice as fast as $\mathrm{S_N2}$. Calculate the appropriate enantiomeric excess and the specific rotation of the ...
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1answer
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How to chelate magnesium oxide and l-lysine [closed]

Given magnesium oxide and l-lysine dissolved in water. What needs to happen so that both form a chelate inside the solution.
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Halogen bonding in organic reactions

Recently, a group of researchers from the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore have investigated the novel $\ce {S_N2X}$ mechanism which involves a "frontside attack" on the substrate, rather ...
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54 views

Why doesn't solvent form the major product in SN1 reactions?

If in a reaction SN1 pathway is followed then after the formation of carbocation the reagent or the solvent molecule can attack to form the product. As the number of solvent molecules are ...
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1answer
34 views

Rate expression for the final product [closed]

Let's say we have: $$ \begin{align} \ce{A &-> B}&\quad&\text{(fast equilibrium)}\label{rxn:1}\tag{1}\\ \ce{2 B + C &-> D}&\quad&\text{(slow)}\label{rxn:2}\tag{2}\\ \...
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1answer
61 views

Observations when mixing potassium Triiodide and Sodium thiosulfate [closed]

I have a reaction equation, it's all balanced but I don't understand what the physical change is. It is as follows: $$\ce{2Na2S2O3 + KI3 \to 2Na2S4O6 + 2NaI + KI}$$ It was used to prove if $\ce{...
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1answer
38 views

Chemical reaction energy barrier width [closed]

Well chemistry before the discovery of quantum world was saying:"In order for a chemical reaction to happen , reactants must have enough energy to be converted into products."I was wondering now that ...
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2answers
39 views

Enzyme Kinetics - Given Km find substrate concentration at a certain velocity

From what I understand about the Michaelis Menten Model Km defines the amount of substrate required to reach half-saturation. 1/2 Vmax corresponds to Km on the x axis Generic formula is v = Kcat [...
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An unconventional decarboxylation to form bullatenone

I recently had an assessment which required me to draw the mechanism of decarboxylation of a $\beta$-ketoacid. However, it is slightly peculiar because there is the presence of $\alpha$, $\beta$-...
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2answers
53 views

Thermodynamics - Series Reaction - Estimating mols of reactants based on Free Energy of Rxn

Question Three reactions occur simulteneously (assume ideal) at $\pu{T = 0^\circ C}$. $$\ce{A<=>B<=>C<=>D}$$ a) With $\Delta_r G^\circ_\text{AB} = \pu{400 J/mol}$, $\...
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3answers
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Shouldn't the “law of conservation of mass” prevent equations from being unbalanced in the first place? [closed]

How is it that a chemical reaction produces an equation, that is essentially an impossibility, according to the law of conservation of mass? If the law is true, shouldn't all chemical reactions ...
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Why are “diene” structures in the C-ring of anthocyanins singled out for their singlet-oxygen quenching ability?

Anthocyanins are a class of water-soluble vacuolar pigments. They are sensitive to pH, and can undergo a series of structural changes according to a pH-dependent equilibrium as illustrated in Figure 1....
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2answers
92 views

α-Halo ketone and strong base: Favorskii vs SN2 [closed]

Let us consider an α-halo ketone, with at least one α-H on the α carbon not containing the halogen. If I add a strong base, what is likely to happen: $\mathrm{S_N2}$ or Favorskii rearrangement? I ...
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0answers
124 views

Mechanism for the addition of chlorine to benzene to form hexachlorocyclohexane

I am familiar with electrophilic substitutions of benzene, with chlorine using a halogen carrier catalyst such as $\ce{AlCl3}$, to produce chlorobenzene, and I am aware of the mechanism. But, ...
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1answer
244 views

Mechanism of the formation of peracetic acid

Wikipedia says that the equilibrium $$\ce{H2O2 + CH3COOH ⇌ CH3COOOH + H2O}$$ occurs. What is its mechanism? The following is my speculation. The first possibility is that $\ce{CH3COOH}$ is ...
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1answer
422 views

What is the mechanism of the reaction of a ketone with sodium nitrite/ hydrogen chloride?

What is the mechanism of reaction of a ketone with $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$? Can $\ce{NaNO2/HCl}$ be considered as freshly prepared $\ce{HONO}$ here? I am confused about how the reaction will proceed.
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203 views

Reaction of ketones with sodium amide

Find the product of the reaction of dimethyl ketone i.e. $\ce{CH3C(O)CH3}$ with $\ce{NaNH2}.$ Should I do nucleophilic addition and form the product in the picture?
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1answer
46 views

2-step reaction mechanism for the decomposition of NO2Br

I need to propose a 2-step reaction mechanism for the following reaction: $$\ce{2NO2Br -> 2NO2 +Br}$$ And prove the mechanism is consistent with: $$v=k[\ce{NO2Br}]^2$$ For the mechanism to be ...
5
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1answer
94 views

Mechanism of oxidative dearomatisation with hypervalent iodine

The following step was taken from the synthesis of Kinamycin C on SynArchive. It employs the use of a peculiar reagent, that is, bis(acetoxy)iodobenzene (BAIB), also known as phenyliodine(III) ...
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1answer
160 views

How do I decide whether ring will expand in this reaction or not?

Attempt: After forming the carbocation adjacent to the cyclopropyl ring I had two options, $\ce{Cl-}$ then and there without any changes Expand ring, form a new carbocation and add $\ce{Cl-}$ ...